A protein supplement may be a dietary supplement or a bodybuilding supplement, and may take the form of a protein bar or protein powder.



In untrained individuals, changes in lean body mass and muscle strength during the initial weeks of strength training are not influenced by the protein supplementation.[1] However whey-protein supplementation in overweight individuals may reduce the body weight, total fat mass and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.[2]

Protein supplementation also promotes greater gains in lean body mass and muscle strength for trained individuals as the intensity, frequency, and duration of strength training increases.[1] It increases the muscles' strength and size, during prolonged strength training in healthy adults.[3] However, ageing reduces this effect, whereas increased training experiences attempt to balance the ageing's negative effect.[3] Besides, intakes of protein supplements higher than around 1.6 g/kg/day, do not further improve the gains in fat free mass.[3] Finally, there is no evidence supporting specific timing for protein-supplement intakes, despite the widely held belief that pre- or post-workout protein supplementation would be more effective.[4]

Chronic kidney disease

Nutritional status can be altered in people living with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is moderate-certainty evidence that regular consumption of oral protein-based nutritional supplements may increase serum albumin, a protein that can be lower in people with CKD, due to increased loss in urine and malnutrition. Improvements in albumin following protein supplementation may be greater in those who require hemodialysis or who are malnourished.[5] Pre-albumin levels and mid-arm circumference measurements may also be increased following supplementation, though the certainty of evidence is low.[5] Although these indicate possible improvements in nutritional status, it is unclear whether protein supplements affect quality of life, life expectancy, inflammation or body composition.[5]

See also


  1. ^ a b Pasiakos SM, McLellan TM, Lieberman HR (January 2015). "The effects of protein supplements on muscle mass, strength, and aerobic and anaerobic power in healthy adults: a systematic review". Sports Medicine. 45 (1): 111–131. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0242-2. PMID 25169440. S2CID 23197226.
  2. ^ Wirunsawanya K, Upala S, Jaruvongvanich V, Sanguankeo A (January 2018). "Whey Protein Supplementation Improves Body Composition and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 37 (1): 60–70. doi:10.1080/07315724.2017.1344591. PMID 29087242. S2CID 1333511.
  3. ^ a b c Morton RW, Murphy KT, McKellar SR, Schoenfeld BJ, Henselmans M, Helms E, et al. (March 2018). "A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of the effect of protein supplementation on resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength in healthy adults". British Journal of Sports Medicine. 52 (6): 376–384. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2017-097608. PMC 5867436. PMID 28698222.
  4. ^ Schoenfeld BJ, Aragon AA, Krieger JW (December 2013). "The effect of protein timing on muscle strength and hypertrophy: a meta-analysis". Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 10 (1): 53. doi:10.1186/1550-2783-10-53. PMC 3879660. PMID 24299050.
  5. ^ a b c Mah, Jia Yee; Choy, Suet Wan; Roberts, Matthew A; Desai, Anne Marie; Corken, Melissa; Gwini, Stella M; McMahon, Lawrence P (2020-05-11). Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Group (ed.). "Oral protein-based supplements versus placebo or no treatment for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5 (5): CD012616. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012616.pub2. PMC 7212094. PMID 32390133.