The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty, also known as the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, or the Madrid Protocol, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. It provides for comprehensive protection of the Antarctic environment and dependent and associated ecosystems.

The dumping of waste at Bellingshausen, a Russian Base on King George Island, demonstrated the need for environmental regulation in Antarctica
The dumping of waste at Bellingshausen, a Russian Base on King George Island, demonstrated the need for environmental regulation in Antarctica

It was concluded in Madrid and opened for signature on October 4, 1991, and entered into force on January 14, 1998. The treaty will be open for review in 2048.

Key provisions of the Treaty

State parties

As of May 2013, the protocol has been ratified by 34 parties — Argentina, Australia, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, the People's Republic of China, Czech Republic, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.[1]

A further 11 states — Austria, Colombia, Cuba, Denmark, Guatemala, Hungary, North Korea, Papua New Guinea, Slovakia, Switzerland, and Turkey — have signed but not yet ratified it.

Campaign

The treaty followed a lengthy campaign by Greenpeace, including the construction of an Antarctic base from 1987 to 1991.[2][3] Greenpeace claims the protocol as a victory.[4]

Honours

Madrid Dome in Aristotle Mountains, Antarctica is named in connection with the Protocol.[5]

References

Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook document: "2003 edition".

  1. ^ "Adopted by SATCM XI-4 (Madrid, 1991)". Archived from the original on 2015-09-23. Retrieved 2020-05-12.
  2. ^ Donald, Rothwell. "The Antarctic Treaty System: Resource Development, Environmental Protection or Disintegration?" (PDF). 1990. The Arctic Journal. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  3. ^ Fogg, Gordon (24 September 1992). A history of Antarctic science. Studies in Polar Research 1992. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521361132. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  4. ^ "1991 - International Treaty saves the Antarctic from deadly threat". 2011. Greenpeace International. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
  5. ^ Madrid Dome. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica