Raymond L. Garthoff
United States Ambassador to Bulgaria
In office
July 29, 1977 – October 9, 1979
PresidentJimmy Carter
Preceded byMartin F. Herz
Succeeded byJack Richard Perry
Personal details
Born1929 (age 94–95)
ProfessionDiplomat, Career Ambassador

Raymond Leonard "Ray" Garthoff (born March 26, 1929) is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution, a specialist on arms control, intelligence, the Cold War, NATO, and the former Soviet Union. He is a former U.S. Ambassador to Bulgaria, and has advised the U.S. State Department on treaties.


In 1948, he received his B.A. from Princeton University. In 1949, he received his M.A. from Yale. From 1950 to 1957, he was a Soviet analyst for RAND Corporation. In 1951, he received his PhD from Yale. From 1957 to 1961, he was a CIA Office of National Estimates (ONE) analyst. In the early 1960s, he was a special assistant in the State Department. Beginning in 1969, he was involved in the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, as executive secretary of the U.S. delegation.[1] In September 1970, he became a deputy director of the State Department's Bureau of Political-Military Affairs.[2] As he later described it, he was "the regular Department representative on the verification panel working group, as it was called, the main working group for the SALT [I] preparations."[3] In the 1970s, he was a senior Foreign Service inspector. From 1980 to 1994, he was a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution.[4][5] He is the author of numerous scholarly papers, books, and has been featured in PBS documentaries.

He is well known for his disagreement with Team B's and Richard Pipes's 1976 characterization of Soviet nuclear doctrine.[6]





  1. ^ https://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/Garthoff,%20Raymond%20L.toc.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  2. ^ https://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/Garthoff,%20Raymond%20L.toc.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  3. ^ https://www.adst.org/OH%20TOCs/Garthoff,%20Raymond%20L.toc.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  4. ^ "Garthoff Bio". Brookings Institution. Archived from the original on 5 August 2011.
  5. ^ thinktank bio PBS bio Accessed Dec 15, 2007
  6. ^ Misinterpreting the Cold War: The Hardliners Were Right, Richard Pipes, Foreign Affairs, January/February 1995. Pipes' attempt to rebut Garthoff's book. Accessed Aug. 19, 2017

External sources

Diplomatic posts Preceded byMartin F. Herz United States Ambassador to Bulgaria 1977–1979 Succeeded byJack Richard Perry