Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)
The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory.
General properties
Accelerator typesynchrotron
Beam typepolarized p to U ion
Target typecollider
Beam properties
Maximum energy255 GeV per beam (p), 100 GeV/nucleon per beam (Au ions)
Maximum luminosity2.45×1032/(cm2⋅s) (p+p), 1.55×1028/(cm2⋅s) (Au+Au)
Physical properties
Circumference3834 m
LocationUpton, New York
Coordinates40°53′2″N 72°52′33″W / 40.88389°N 72.87583°W / 40.88389; -72.87583
InstitutionBrookhaven National Laboratory
Dates of operation2000 - present

The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC /ˈrɪk/) is the first and one of only two operating heavy-ion colliders, and the only spin-polarized proton collider ever built. Located at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in Upton, New York, and used by an international team of researchers, it is the only operating particle collider in the US.[1][2][3] By using RHIC to collide ions traveling at relativistic speeds, physicists study the primordial form of matter that existed in the universe shortly after the Big Bang.[4][5] By colliding spin-polarized protons, the spin structure of the proton is explored.

RHIC is as of 2019 the second-highest-energy heavy-ion collider in the world, with nucleon energies for collisions reaching 100 GeV for gold ions and 250 GeV for protons.[6] As of November 7, 2010, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has collided heavy ions of lead at higher energies than RHIC.[7] The LHC operating time for ions (lead–lead and lead–proton collisions) is limited to about one month per year.

In 2010, RHIC physicists published results of temperature measurements from earlier experiments which concluded that temperatures in excess of 345 MeV (4 terakelvin or 7 trillion degrees Fahrenheit) had been achieved in gold ion collisions, and that these collision temperatures resulted in the breakdown of "normal matter" and the creation of a liquid-like quark–gluon plasma.[8]

In January 2020, the US Department of Energy Office of Science selected the eRHIC design for the future Electron–Ion collider (EIC), building on the existing RHIC facility at BNL.

The accelerator

RHIC is an intersecting storage ring particle accelerator. Two independent rings (arbitrarily denoted as "Blue" and "Yellow") circulate heavy ions and/or polarized protons in opposite directions and allow a virtually free choice of colliding positively charged particles (the eRHIC upgrade will allow collisions between positively and negatively charged particles). The RHIC double storage ring is hexagonally shaped and has a circumference of 3834 m, with curved edges in which stored particles are deflected and focused by 1,740 superconducting magnets using niobium-titanium conductors. The dipole magnets operate at 3.45 T.[9] The six interaction points (between the particles circulating in the two rings) are in the middle of the six relatively straight sections, where the two rings cross, allowing the particles to collide. The interaction points are enumerated by clock positions, with the injection near 6 o'clock. Two large experiments, STAR and PHENIX, are located at 6 and 8 o'clock respectively. The PHENIX experiment is presently undergoing a major upgrade to become sPHENIX.[10]

A particle passes through several stages of boosters before it reaches the RHIC storage ring. The first stage for ions is the electron beam ion source (EBIS), while for protons, the 200 MeV linear accelerator (Linac) is used. As an example, gold nuclei leaving the EBIS have a kinetic energy of 2 MeV per nucleon and have an electric charge Q = +32 (32 of 79 electrons stripped from the gold atom). The particles are then accelerated by the Booster synchrotron to 100 MeV per nucleon, which injects the projectile now with Q = +77 into the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), before they finally reach 8.86 GeV per nucleon and are injected in a Q = +79 state (no electrons left) into the RHIC storage ring over the AGS-to-RHIC Transfer Line (AtR).

To date the types of particle combinations explored at RHIC are p + p, p + Al, p + Au, d + Au, h + Au, Cu + Cu, Cu + Au, Zr + Zr, Ru + Ru, Au + Au and U + U. The projectiles typically travel at a speed of 99.995% of the speed of light. For Au + Au collisions, the center-of-mass energy is typically 200 GeV per nucleon-pair, and was as low as 7.7 GeV per nucleon-pair. An average luminosity of 2×1026 cm−2⋅s−1 was targeted during the planning. The current average Au + Au luminosity of the collider has reached 87×1026 cm−2⋅s−1, 44 times the design value.[11] The heavy ion luminosity is substantially increased through stochastic cooling.[12]

One unique characteristic of RHIC is its capability to collide polarized protons. RHIC holds the record of highest energy polarized proton beams. Polarized protons are injected into RHIC and preserve this state throughout the energy ramp. This is a difficult task that is accomplished with the aid of corkscrew magnetics called 'Siberian snakes' (in RHIC a chain 4 helical dipole magnets). The corkscrew induces the magnetic field to spiral along the direction of the beam [13] Run-9 achieved center-of-mass energy of 500 GeV on 12 February 2009.[14] In Run-13 the average p + p luminosity of the collider reached 160×1030 cm−2⋅s−1, with a time and intensity averaged polarization of 52%.[11]

AC dipoles have been used in non-linear machine diagnostics for the first time in RHIC.[15]

The experiments

A view of gold ions collisions as captured by the STAR detector.

There are two detectors currently operating at RHIC: STAR (6 o'clock, and near the AGS-to-RHIC Transfer Line) and sPHENIX (8 o'clock), the successor to PHENIX. PHOBOS (10 o'clock) completed its operation in 2005, and BRAHMS (2 o'clock) in 2006.

Among the two larger detectors, STAR is aimed at the detection of hadrons with its system of time projection chambers covering a large solid angle and in a conventionally generated solenoidal magnetic field, while PHENIX is further specialized in detecting rare and electromagnetic particles, using a partial coverage detector system in a superconductively generated axial magnetic field. The smaller detectors have larger pseudorapidity coverage, PHOBOS has the largest pseudorapidity coverage of all detectors, and tailored for bulk particle multiplicity measurement, while BRAHMS is designed for momentum spectroscopy, in order to study the so-called "small-x" and saturation physics. There is an additional experiment, PP2PP (now part of STAR), investigating spin dependence in p + p scattering.[19]

The spokespersons for each of the experiments are:

Current results

For a complementary discussion, see quark–gluon plasma.

For the experimental objective of creating and studying the quark–gluon plasma, RHIC has the unique ability to provide baseline measurements for itself. This consists of both the lower energy and also lower mass number projectile combinations that do not result in the density of 200 GeV Au + Au collisions, like the p + p and d + Au collisions of the earlier runs, and also Cu + Cu collisions in Run-5.

Using this approach, important results of the measurement of the hot QCD matter created at RHIC are:[20]

While in the first years, theorists were eager to claim that RHIC has discovered the quark–gluon plasma (e.g. Gyulassy & McLarren[25]), the experimental groups were more careful not to jump to conclusions, citing various variables still in need of further measurement.[26] The present results shows that the matter created is a fluid with a viscosity near the quantum limit, but is unlike a weakly interacting plasma (a widespread yet not quantitatively unfounded belief on how quark–gluon plasma looks).

A recent overview of the physics result is provided by the RHIC Experimental Evaluations 2004 Archived 2017-02-02 at the Wayback Machine, a community-wide effort of RHIC experiments to evaluate the current data in the context of implication for formation of a new state of matter.[27][28][29][30] These results are from the first three years of data collection at RHIC.

New results were published in Physical Review Letters on February 16, 2010, stating the discovery of the first hints of symmetry transformations, and that the observations may suggest that bubbles formed in the aftermath of the collisions created in the RHIC may break parity symmetry, which normally characterizes interactions between quarks and gluons.[31][32]

The RHIC physicists announced new temperature measurements for these experiments of up to 4 trillion kelvins, the highest temperature ever achieved in a laboratory.[33] It is described as a recreation of the conditions that existed during the birth of the Universe.[34]

Possible closure under flat nuclear science budget scenarios

In late 2012, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) was asked to advise the Department of Energy's Office of Science and the National Science Foundation how to implement the nuclear science long range plan written in 2007, if future nuclear science budgets continue to provide no growth over the next four years. In a narrowly decided vote, the NSAC committee showed a slight preference, based on non-science related considerations,[35] for shutting down RHIC rather than canceling the construction of the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB).[36]

By October 2015, the budget situation had improved, and RHIC can continue operations into the next decade.[37]

The future

RHIC began operation in 2000 and until November 2010 was the highest-energy heavy-ion collider in the world. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN, while used mainly for colliding protons, operates with heavy ions for about one month per year. The LHC has operated with 25 times higher energies per nucleon. As of 2018, RHIC and the LHC are the only operating hadron colliders in the world.

Due to the longer operating time per year, a greater number of colliding ion species and collision energies can be studied at RHIC. In addition and unlike the LHC, RHIC is also able to accelerate spin polarized protons, which would leave RHIC as the world's highest energy accelerator for studying spin-polarized proton structure.

A major upgrade is the Electron–Ion Collider (EIC), the addition of a 18 GeV high intensity electron beam facility, allowing electron–ion collisions. At least one new detector will have to be built to study the collisions. A review was published by Abhay Deshpande et al. in 2005.[38] A more recent description is at:[39]

On January 9, 2020, It was announced by Paul Dabbar, undersecretary of the US Department of Energy Office of Science, that the BNL eRHIC design has been selected for the future electron–ion collider (EIC) in the United States. In addition to the site selection, it was announced that the BNL EIC had acquired CD-0 (mission need) from the Department of Energy.[40]

Critics of high-energy experiments

See also: Safety of particle collisions at the Large Hadron Collider

Before RHIC started operation, critics postulated that the extremely high energy could produce catastrophic scenarios,[41] such as creating a black hole, a transition into a different quantum mechanical vacuum (see false vacuum), or the creation of strange matter that is more stable than ordinary matter. These hypotheses are complex, but many predict that the Earth would be destroyed in a time frame from seconds to millennia, depending on the theory considered. However, the fact that objects of the Solar System (e.g., the Moon) have been bombarded with cosmic particles of significantly higher energies than that of RHIC and other man-made colliders for billions of years, without any harm to the Solar System, were among the most striking arguments that these hypotheses were unfounded.[42]

The other main controversial issue was a demand by critics [citation needed] for physicists to reasonably exclude the probability for such a catastrophic scenario. Physicists are unable to demonstrate experimental and astrophysical constraints of zero probability of catastrophic events, nor that tomorrow Earth will be struck with a "doomsday" cosmic ray (they can only calculate an upper limit for the likelihood). The result would be the same destructive scenarios described above, although obviously not caused by humans. According to this argument of upper limits, RHIC would still modify the chance for the Earth's survival by an infinitesimal amount.

Concerns were raised in connection with the RHIC particle accelerator, both in the media[43][44] and in the popular science media.[45] The risk of a doomsday scenario was indicated by Martin Rees, with respect to the RHIC, as being at least a 1 in 50,000,000 chance.[46] With regards to the production of strangelets, Frank Close, professor of physics at the University of Oxford, indicates that "the chance of this happening is like you winning the major prize on the lottery 3 weeks in succession; the problem is that people believe it is possible to win the lottery 3 weeks in succession."[44] After detailed studies, scientists reached such conclusions as "beyond reasonable doubt, heavy-ion experiments at RHIC will not endanger our planet"[47] and that there is "powerful empirical evidence against the possibility of dangerous strangelet production".[42]

The debate started in 1999 with an exchange of letters in Scientific American between Walter L. Wagner and F. Wilczek,[48] in response to a previous article by M. Mukerjee.[49] The media attention unfolded with an article in UK Sunday Times of July 18, 1999, by J. Leake,[50] closely followed by articles in the U.S. media.[51] The controversy mostly ended with the report of a committee convened by the director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, J. H. Marburger, ostensibly ruling out the catastrophic scenarios depicted.[42] However, the report left open the possibility that relativistic cosmic ray impact products might behave differently while transiting earth compared to "at rest" RHIC products; and the possibility that the qualitative difference between high-E proton collisions with earth or the moon might be different than gold on gold collisions at the RHIC. Wagner tried subsequently to stop full-energy collision at RHIC by filing Federal lawsuits in San Francisco and New York, but without success.[52] The New York suit was dismissed on the technicality that the San Francisco suit was the preferred forum. The San Francisco suit was dismissed, but with leave to refile if additional information was developed and presented to the court.[53]

On March 17, 2005, the BBC published an article implying that researcher Horaţiu Năstase believes black holes have been created at RHIC.[54] However, the original papers of H. Năstase[55] and the New Scientist article[56] cited by the BBC state that the correspondence of the hot dense QCD matter created in RHIC to a black hole is only in the sense of a correspondence of QCD scattering in Minkowski space and scattering in the AdS5 × X5 space in AdS/CFT; in other words, it is similar mathematically. Therefore, RHIC collisions might be described by mathematics relevant to theories of quantum gravity within AdS/CFT, but the described physical phenomena are not the same.

Financial information

The RHIC project was sponsored by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear physics. It had a line-item budget of 616.6 million U.S. dollars.[1]

For fiscal year 2006 the operational budget was reduced by 16.1 million U.S. dollars from the previous year, to 115.5 million U.S. dollars. Though operation under the fiscal year 2006 federal budget cut[57][58] was uncertain, a key portion of the operational cost (13 million U.S. dollars) was contributed privately by a group close to Renaissance Technologies of East Setauket, New York.[59][60]

In fiction

See also


  1. ^ a b M. Harrison; T. Ludlam; S. Ozaki (2003). "RHIC Project Overview". Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A. 499 (2–3): 235. Bibcode:2003NIMPA.499..235H. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(02)01937-X.
  2. ^ M. Harrison; S. Peggs; T. Roser (2002). "The RHIC Accelerator". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 52: 425. Bibcode:2002ARNPS..52..425H. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.52.050102.090650.
  3. ^ E. D. Courant (2003). "Accelerators, Colliders, and Snakes". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 53: 1. Bibcode:2003ARNPS..53....1C. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.53.041002.110450.
  4. ^ M. Riordan; W. A. Zajc (2006). "The First Few Microseconds". Scientific American. 294 (5): 34A, 35–41. Bibcode:2006SciAm.294e..34R. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0506-34A. PMID 16708486.
  5. ^ S. Mirsky; W. A. Zajc; J. Chaplin (26 April 2006). "Early Universe, Benjamin Franklin Science, Evolution Education". Science Talk. Scientific American. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  6. ^ "NP Relativistic Heavy Ion Collid... | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)". 2022-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-16.
  7. ^ "CERN Completes Transition to Lead-Ion Running at the LHC" (Press release). CERN. 8 November 2010. Retrieved 2016-11-23.
  8. ^ A. Trafton (9 February 2010). "Explained: Quark gluon plasma". MITnews. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  9. ^ P. Wanderer (22 February 2008). "RHIC Project". Brookhaven National Laboratory, Superconducting Magnet Division. Retrieved 2021-03-21.
  10. ^ "RHIC Accelerators". Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  11. ^ a b "RHIC Run Overview". Brookhaven National Laboratory.
  12. ^ M. Blaskiewicz; J. M. Brennan; K. Mernick (2010). "Three-Dimensional Stochastic Cooling in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider". Physical Review Letters. 105 (9): 094801. Bibcode:2010PhRvL.105i4801B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.094801. PMID 20868165.
  13. ^ "Snake charming induces spin-flip". CERN Courier. 42 (3): 2. 22 March 2002. Archived from the original on 5 December 2008. Retrieved 13 September 2006.
  14. ^ "RHIC Run-9". Brookhaven National Laboratory/Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  15. ^ R. Tomás; et al. (2005). "Measurement of global and local resonance terms". Physical Review Special Topics: Accelerators and Beams. 8 (2): 024001. Bibcode:2005PhRvS...8b4001T. doi:10.1103/PhysRevSTAB.8.024001.
  16. ^ "Cryogenic Systems Group, Photo Gallery". Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  17. ^ "RHIC Project". Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  18. ^ Kapustinsky, Jon S (17 November 2010). "Sensors/FPHX Readout Chip WBS 1.4.1/1.4.2" (PDF). Retrieved 7 August 2017. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ K. Yip (23 August 2012). "The pp2pp Experiment". RHiC. Archived from the original on 2013-05-24. Retrieved 2013-09-18.
  20. ^ T. Ludlam; L. McLerran (2003). "What Have We Learned from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider?". Physics Today. 56 (10): 48. Bibcode:2003PhT....56j..48L. doi:10.1063/1.1629004.
  21. ^ L. N. Lipatov (1976). "Reggeization of the vector meson and the vacuum singularity in nonabelian gauge theories". Soviet Journal of Nuclear Physics. 23: 338.
  22. ^ D. Kharzeev; E. Levin; L. McLerran (2003). "Parton saturation and Npart scaling of semi-hard processes in QCD". Physics Letters B. 561 (1–2): 93–101. arXiv:hep-ph/0210332. Bibcode:2003PhLB..561...93K. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(03)00420-9. S2CID 17978566.
  23. ^ E. Iancu; R. Venugopalan (2003). "The Color Glass Condensate and High Energy Scattering in QCQ". In R. C. Hwa; X.-N. Wang (eds.). Quark–Gluon Plasma 3. World Scientific. p. 249. arXiv:hep-ph/0303204. doi:10.1142/9789812795533_0005. ISBN 978-981-238-077-7. S2CID 117826241.
  24. ^ F. Karsch (2002). "Lattice QCD at High Temperature and Density". In W. Plessas; L. Mathelitsch (eds.). Lectures on Quark Matter. Lectures Notes in Physics. Vol. 583. pp. 209–249. arXiv:hep-lat/0106019. Bibcode:2002LNP...583..209K. doi:10.1007/3-540-45792-5_6. ISBN 978-3-540-43234-0. S2CID 42124100.
  25. ^ M. Gyulassy; L. McLerran (2005). "New Forms of QCD Matter Discovered at RHIC". Nuclear Physics A. 750: 30–63. arXiv:nucl-th/0405013. Bibcode:2005NuPhA.750...30G. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2004.10.034. S2CID 14175774.
  26. ^ K. McNulty Walsh (2004). "Latest RHIC Results Make News Headlines at Quark Matter 2004". Discover Brookhaven. pp. 14–17. Archived from the original on 2014-10-11.
  27. ^ I. Arsene; et al. (BRAHMS collaboration) (2005). "Quark Gluon Plasma an Color Glass Condensate at RHIC? The perspective from the BRAHMS experiment". Nuclear Physics A. 757 (1–2): 1–27. arXiv:nucl-ex/0410020. Bibcode:2005NuPhA.757....1A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.02.130. S2CID 204924453.
  28. ^ K. Adcox; et al. (PHENIX Collaboration) (2005). "Formation of dense partonic matter in relativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions at RHIC: Experimental evaluation by the PHENIX collaboration". Nuclear Physics A. 757 (1–2): 184–283. arXiv:nucl-ex/0410003. Bibcode:2005NuPhA.757..184A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.086. S2CID 119511423.
  29. ^ B. B. Back; et al. (PHOBOS Collaboration) (2005). "The PHOBOS Perspective on Discoveries at RHIC". Nuclear Physics A. 757 (1–2): 28–101. arXiv:nucl-ex/0410022. Bibcode:2005NuPhA.757...28B. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.084.
  30. ^ J. Adams; et al. (STAR Collaboration) (2005). "Experimental and Theoretical Challenges in the Search for the Quark Gluon Plasma: The STAR Collaboration's Critical Assessment of the Evidence from RHIC Collisions". Nuclear Physics A. 757 (1–2): 102–183. arXiv:nucl-ex/0501009. Bibcode:2005NuPhA.757..102A. doi:10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2005.03.085. S2CID 119062864.
  31. ^ K. Melville (16 February 2010). "Mirror Symmetry Broken at 7 Trillion Degrees". Science a Go Go. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  32. ^ D. Overbye (15 February 2010). "In Brookhaven Collider, Scientists Briefly Break a Law of Nature". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  33. ^ "Perfect Liquid Hot Enough to be Quark Soup". Brookhaven National Laboratory. 15 February 2010. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  34. ^ D. Vergano (16 February 2010). "Scientists Re-create High Temperatures from Big Bang". USA Today. Retrieved 2010-02-16.
  35. ^ "NSAC Charges / Reports". Nuclear Science Advisory Committee.
  36. ^ J. Matson (31 January 2013). "Decelerating American Physics: Panel Advises Shutdown of Last U.S. Collider". Scientific American. Retrieved 2013-02-02.
  37. ^ D. Castelvecchi (2015). "Neutrino study made key priority for US nuclear physics". Nature. 526 (7574): 485. Bibcode:2015Natur.526..485C. doi:10.1038/526485a. PMID 26490595.
  38. ^ A. Deshpande; R. Milner; R. Venugopalan; W. Vogelsang (2005). "Study of the Fundamental Structure of Matter with an Electron–Ion Collider". Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. 55 (1): 165–228. arXiv:hep-ph/0506148. Bibcode:2005ARNPS..55..165D. doi:10.1146/annurev.nucl.54.070103.181218.
  39. ^ E. C. Aschenauer et al., "eRHIC Design Study: An Electron–Ion Collider at BNL", 2014.
  40. ^ "U.S. Department of Energy Selects Brookhaven National Laboratory to Host Major New Nuclear Physics Facility" Archived 2020-01-14 at the Wayback Machine 2020.
  41. ^ T. D. Gutierrez (2000). "Doomsday Fears at RHIC". Skeptical Inquirer. Vol. 24. p. 29.
  42. ^ a b c R. L. Jaffe; W. Busza; J. Sandweiss; F. Wilczek (2000). "Review of Speculative "Disaster Scenarios" at RHIC". Reviews of Modern Physics. 72 (4): 1125–1140. arXiv:hep-ph/9910333. Bibcode:2000RvMP...72.1125J. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.72.1125. S2CID 444580.
  43. ^ R. Matthews (28 August 1999). "A Black Hole Ate My Planet". New Scientist. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  44. ^ a b "End Day". Horizon. 2005. BBC.
  45. ^ W. Wagner (July 1999). "Black holes at Brookhaven?". Scientific American. (And reply by F. Wilczek.)
  46. ^ Cf. Brookhaven Report mentioned by Rees, Martin (Lord), Our Final Century: Will the Human Race Survive the Twenty-first Century?, U.K., 2003, ISBN 0-465-06862-6; note that the mentioned "1 in 50 million" chance is disputed as being a misleading and played down probability of the serious risks (Aspden, U.K., 2006)
  47. ^ A. Dar; A. De Rújula; U. Heinz (1999). "Will relativistic heavy-ion colliders destroy our planet?". Physics Letters B. 470 (1–4): 142–148. arXiv:hep-ph/9910471. Bibcode:1999PhLB..470..142D. doi:10.1016/S0370-2693(99)01307-6. S2CID 17837332.
  48. ^ W. L. Wagner; F. Wilczek (July 1999). Scientific American. Vol. 281. p. 8. ((cite magazine)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  49. ^ M. Mukerjee (March 1999). Scientific American. Vol. 280. p. 60. ((cite magazine)): Missing or empty |title= (help)
  50. ^ a b J. Leake (18 July 1999). "Big Bang machine could destroy Earth". Sunday Times.
  51. ^ F. Moody (5 October 2003). "The Big Bang, Part 2". ABC News. Archived from the original on 2003-10-05.
  52. ^ A. Boyle (14 June 2000). "Big Bang machine gets down to work". MSNBC. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  53. ^ United States District Court, Eastern District of New York, Case No. 00CV1672, Walter L. Wagner vs. Brookhaven Science Associates, L.L.C. (2000); United States District Court, Northern District of California, Case No. C99-2226, Walter L. Wagner vs. U.S. Department of Energy, et al. (1999)
  54. ^ "Lab fireball 'may be black hole'". BBC News. 17 March 2005. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  55. ^ H. Nastase (2005). "The RHIC fireball as a dual black hole". arXiv:hep-th/0501068.
  56. ^ E. S. Reich (16 March 2005). "Black hole-like phenomenon created by collider". New Scientist. Vol. 185, no. 2491. p. 16.
  57. ^ "Senators Express Concern Over Layoffs and Run Times at RHIC and Jefferson Lab". FYI. American Institute of Physics. 22 November 2005. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02.
  58. ^ N. Canavor (27 November 2005). "Research Labs Experiencing Budget Woes". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  59. ^ "JLab, Brookhaven Hope for Turnaround After Severe Budget Cuts Last Year". APS News. Vol. 15, no. 3. March 2006.
  60. ^ "Brookhaven Receives Outside Funding for RHIC". American Institute of Physics. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 2017-01-24.
  61. ^ A. Cohen (1998). "New Sci-Fi Novel Makes RHIC Central to the Universe" (PDF). Brookhaven Bulletin. Vol. 52, no. 8. p. 2.

Further reading