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The Death of Sherlock Holmes: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle employed retroactive continuity to explain Sherlock Holmes's return after his death in an earlier story fighting his enemy, Professor Moriarty.[1]
The Death of Sherlock Holmes: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle employed retroactive continuity to explain Sherlock Holmes's return after his death in an earlier story fighting his enemy, Professor Moriarty.[1]

Retroactive continuity, or retcon for short,[2][3] is a literary device in which facts in the world of a fictional work which have been established through the narrative itself are adjusted, ignored, supplemented, or contradicted by a subsequently published work which recontextualizes or breaks continuity with the former.[4]

There are various motivations for applying retroactive continuity, including:

Retcons are used by authors to increase their creative freedom, on the assumption that the changes are unimportant to the audience compared to the new story which can be told. Retcons can be diegetic or nondiegetic. For instance, by using time travel or parallel universes, an author may diegetically reintroduce a popular character they had previously killed off. More subtle and nondiegetic methods would be ignoring or expunging minor plot points to remove narrative elements the author doesn't have interest in writing.

Retcons are common in pulp fiction, and especially in comic books published by long-established publishers such as DC and Marvel.[6] The long history of popular titles and the number of writers who contribute stories can often create situations that demand clarification or revision. Retcons also often appear in manga, soap operas, serial dramas, movie sequels, cartoons, professional wrestling angles, video games, radio series, and other forms of serial fiction.


The first published use of the phrase "retroactive continuity" is found in theologian E. Frank Tupper's 1973 book The Theology of Wolfhart Pannenberg: "Pannenberg's conception of retroactive continuity ultimately means that history flows fundamentally from the future into the past, that the future is not basically a product of the past."[7]

The first known printed use of "retroactive continuity" referring to the altering of history in a fictional work is in All-Star Squadron #18 (February 1983) from DC Comics. The series was set on DC's Earth-Two, an alternate universe in which Golden Age comic characters age in real time. All-Star Squadron was set during World War II on Earth-Two; as it was in the past of an alternate universe, all its events had repercussions on the contemporary continuity of the DC multiverse. Each issue changed the history of the fictional world in which it was set. In the letters column, a reader remarked that the comic "must make you [the creators] feel at times as if you're painting yourself into a corner", and, "Your matching of Golden Age comics history with new plotlines has been an artistic (and I hope financial!) success." Writer Roy Thomas responded, "we like to think that an enthusiastic ALL-STAR booster at one of Adam Malin's Creation Conventions in San Diego came up with the best name for it a few months back: 'Retroactive Continuity'. Has kind of a ring to it, don't you think?"[8] The term then became widely accepted by fans of American superhero comics.

At some point, "retroactive continuity" was shortened to "retcon", reportedly by Damian Cugley in 1988 on Usenet. Hard evidence of Cugley's abbreviation has yet to surface, though in a Usenet posting on August 18, 1990, Cugley posted a reply in which he identified himself as "the originator of the word retcon".[9] Cugley used the neologism to describe a development in the comic book Saga of the Swamp Thing, which reinterprets the events of the title character's origin by revealing facts that previously were not part of the narrative and were not intended by earlier writers.



Retcons sometimes add information that seemingly contradicts previous information. This frequently takes the form of a character who was shown to have died but is later revealed to have somehow survived. This is a common practice in horror films, which may end with the death of a monster that goes on to appear in one or more sequels. The technique is so common in superhero comics[4] that the term "comic book death" has been coined for it. An early example of this type of retcon is the return of Sherlock Holmes, whom writer Arthur Conan Doyle apparently killed off in "The Final Problem" in 1893,[1][10][page needed] only to bring him back, in large part because of readers' responses, with "The Empty House" in 1903.

In many of his detective novels, Rex Stout implies that his character Nero Wolfe was born in Montenegro, giving some details of his early life in the Balkans around World War I. But in 1939's Over My Dead Body, Wolfe tells an FBI agent that he was born in the United States. Stout revealed the reason for the change in a letter obtained by his authorized biographer, John McAleer: "In the original draft of Over My Dead Body Nero was a Montenegrin by birth, and it all fitted previous hints as to his background; but violent protests from The American Magazine, supported by Farrar & Rinehart, caused his cradle to be transported five thousand miles."[11]

In the 1940s and 1950s, Isaac Asimov placed the planet Trantor, capital of the Galactic Empire, at the "center of the galaxy", but later astronomical research indicated that the actual Galactic Center might be occupied by a supermassive black hole, making human life there impossible; in later works, Asimov adjusted his galaxy and Trantor's location in it.

When E.E. "Doc" Smith wrote the original The Skylark of Space, space flight was a completely theoretical proposition. However, the last book of the series, Skylark DuQuesne, was written in 1963, when the United States and the Soviet Union were involved in the space race. Smith adjusted the past of his series accordingly, mentioning an American base and a Soviet one being established on the Moon prior to the protagonist Seaton discovering faster-than-light flight.

Alan Moore's retcons often involve false memories. He has used this technique in the Marvelman series, Swamp Thing and Batman: The Killing Joke.

Retconning can bring back characters who were initially killed off. An example of this occurs on the CBS comedy Two and a Half Men. The character Charlie Harper (Charlie Sheen) was killed in a train accident and briefly returns as a ghost (played by Kathy Bates) in the ninth season. Despite numerous instances that confirm his demise, including the fact that a mutilated body was in his coffin, in the season twelve series finale "Of Course He's Dead" it is revealed that Charlie survived the ordeal and has been held captive against his will for over four years. It is mentioned that there was no body, only random body parts. Bringing back dead characters is also common in soap operas. On The Bold and the Beautiful, Taylor Forrester (Hunter Tylo) was shown to flatline and have a funeral. When Tylo reprised the character in 2005, a retcon explained that Taylor had actually gone into a coma.

The TV series Dallas annulled its entire Season 9 as just the dream of another character, Pam Ewing. Writers did this to offer a supposedly plausible reason for the major character of Bobby Ewing, who had died onscreen at the end of Season 8, to be still alive when actor Patrick Duffy wanted to return to the series. This season is sometimes referred to as the "Dream Season" and was referred to humorously in later TV series such as Family Guy. Other series such as St. Elsewhere, Newhart, and Roseanne would notably employ the same technique.[12][13]

In Beverly Hills, 90210, Kelly Taylor starts out in the first season initially not knowing Dylan McKay. Later when Brenda Walsh is sent to Paris with Donna Martin, Kelly Taylor has suddenly known him since kindergarten. This apparent retooling of the storyline contradicted years of prior character development and was apparently done to prepare viewers for Shannen Doherty's exit from the series.

In 2003, in the title of DC Comics' Teen Titans, Geoff Johns changed the entire genetic code of Kon-El (the modern version of Superboy) from a genetically altered human clone that was designed to be as Kryptonian as possible into a hybrid clone of both Superman and Lex Luthor. This change contradicted years of continuity and various facts that proved that Kon-El was human and in the process mostly ignored his unique ability of tactile telekinesis that made his powers very different from those of Superman.

In Boy Meets World, both Shawn Hunter and Topanga Lawrence have siblings in the first season but later in the series are retconned to be only children (though Shawn's half-brother Jack is introduced in later seasons). The ages of the characters of Boy Meets World are altered notably where Cory is age 11 in 6th grade during season 1 to age 13 and 7th grade in season 2. This happens again in high school skipping another grade. The age gap between Cory and Eric also narrows from 4 years apart in age to 2 years apart in age. Another prominent retcon during that series was that of the character of Morgan Matthews, who was portrayed by two actresses during the show's run; in the series finale of the sequel series Girl Meets World, the continuity suggests that they were two separate people who both appeared together for the only time during that episode.

In the Metal Gear series, the "CQC" system was introduced in Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater and was explained to be taught to Naked Snake (the playable protagonist of this game) by The Boss and was used very prominently in the game. When the feature then returned in 2008's Metal Gear Solid 4: Guns of the Patriots as (an aging) Solid Snake's primary hand-to-hand combat style, it also marks as the first time Snake using CQC in terms of gameplay (as it was never shown him doing it in his appearances in Metal Gear Solid and Sons of Liberty, both games were released before Snake Eater) but also depicts his mastery in it. This will cause confusion to the fans about his sudden mastery, It was then explained by Snake that he was taught by Naked Snake (now called as Big Boss) about CQC but never used it up until the events of the game as it never felt right for him to do CQC that came from "a man who betrayed his unit".

In the original version of The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien, the protagonist Bilbo Baggins is promised a magic ring by Gollum as a prize for winning a riddle game. Having already found the ring (where Gollum had accidentally dropped it) Bilbo keeps it on the strength of this promise. This is contradicted in the sequel The Lord of the Rings in which Gollum had never intended to give away the ring and considered that it had been stolen from him. This inconsistency is explained by making the original version a "fiction" told by Bilbo to justify his possession of the ring. More recent editions of The Hobbit have an edited version of Chapter 5, giving the "correct" story.


Unpopular stories are sometimes later ignored by publishers, and effectively erased from a series' continuity. Later stories may contradict the previous ones or explicitly establish that they never happened.

A notable example of subtractive retconning is the X-Men film series. The film X-Men: Days of Future Past features the character Wolverine traveling in time to 1973 to prevent an assassination that, if carried out, would lead to planetary extinction.[14] The time traveling events of this film retconned the events of two previous films in the series. X-Men: The Last Stand featured the unceremonious deaths of several key characters in a loose adaptation of the Dark Phoenix saga. Days of Future Past erased these deaths, showing the characters surviving into the future. The Dark Phoenix saga would later be adapted again in Dark Phoenix. X-Men Origins: Wolverine featured a portrayal of the character Deadpool that was poorly received by fans. The events of Days of Future Past expunged this version from continuity and allowed a more faithful version of the character to be adapted in Deadpool and its 2018 sequel.

An unpopular retcon may itself be retconned away, as happened with John Byrne's Spider-Man: Chapter One.[citation needed]

Retcons done to eliminate plotholes

See also: Palpatine family

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Some retcons may be done to eliminate what is considered a plothole within a franchise. An infamous example of this are the poorly received retcons of the Star Wars canon in the Star Wars sequel trilogy film, Star Wars: The Last Jedi established Rey as the daughter of “no ones”. However, the sequel The Rise of Skywalker revealed that the scavenger turned Jedi, Rey as the granddaughter of Darth Sidious of the Palpatine family, the character was also resurrected despite being dead for 30 years since Return of the Jedi, and secretly built a new Empire with the help of Sith cultists. Though the means of Palpatine's return to life were negatively criticized for never being revealed in the movie itself, only in tie-in books is described as having transferred his essence into an imperfect clone of himself, leading to a negative reception towards the retcon due to not being explained in the film itself.[15] The characters of Boba Fett and Darth Maul were also revived though those were better received than Palpatine's return.[16][17] The Rogue One retcon of the Death Star weakness as deliberate sabotage from its creator was well received.[18]

Related concepts

Retroactive continuity is similar to, but not the same as, plot inconsistencies introduced accidentally or through lack of concern for continuity; retconning, by comparison, is done deliberately. For example, the ongoing continuity contradictions on episodic TV series such as The Simpsons (in which the timeline of the family's history must be continually shifted forward to explain why they are not getting any older)[19] reflects intentionally lost continuity, not genuine retcons. However, in series with generally tight continuity, retcons are sometimes created after the fact to explain continuity errors. Such was the case in The Flintstones, where Wilma Flintstone was mistakenly given two separate maiden names, "Pebble" and "Slaghoople", over the course of the series.[20]

Retconning is also generally distinct from replacing the actor who plays a part in an ongoing series, which is more commonly an example of loose continuity rather than retroactively changing past continuity. The different appearance of the character is either ignored (as was done with the characters of Darrin Stephens and Gladys Kravitz on the television series Bewitched) or explained within the series, such as with "regeneration" in Doctor Who, or the Oracle in The Matrix Revolutions. Sometimes, there are referential, inside jokes on actor changes in the show, such as with My Wife & Kids and Roseanne, where there was a change of actresses playing a role (characters Claire Kyle and Becky Conner, respectively). In the latter, another character observes that children can change as they reach adulthood, remarking that when Becky came back from college (played by a new actress), they could not even recognize her. When the actor playing Rory was replaced in Mrs Brown's Boys, the new actor first appeared on set bandaged up, supposedly following cosmetic surgery on his face. When the bandages were removed, the other characters claimed not to notice any difference. A similar set up gag was used with the character of Herr Flick in the BBC sitcom Allo Allo.

Retconning also differs from direct revision. For example, when George Lucas re-edited the original Star Wars trilogy, he made changes directly to the source material, rather than introducing new source material that contradicted the contents of previous material.

Retconning is not the same as a reboot or reimagining which completely discards the original timeline, such as in Battlestar Galactica. However, there have been partial reboots of franchises where the core of the franchise is still canonical, but the expanded universe is relegated to a secondary continuity which, while not completely invalid, is subject to revision and critical review. Robotech is an example of this. With the release of the 2006 sequel film Robotech The Shadow Chronicles, Harmony Gold established that only the original 1985 animated series and the 2006 sequel film are considered canonical, relegating the aborted Robotech II: The Sentinels, comics, and novels from the 1980s and 1990s to secondary continuity and, if elements are used from them, they are subject to selective revision and updating as appropriate to mesh with future canonical productions and to prevent conflict with the original animated series. While the Jack McKinney Robotech novel End of the Circle is evidently no longer canon, the prequel comic Robotech: Prelude to the Shadow Chronicles establishes that the general storyline of The Sentinels still occurred in some fashion, but various elements, including the timeline, specific unfolding of events, and some characterizations are different from what was previously depicted in earlier comics and novels. In such cases, the franchise producer may state that there is no intention to address the changes through remakes or direct retellings of such stories. It is essentially left to the viewer's imagination as to how differently the revised story unfolded.

See also


  1. ^ For instance, Arthur C. Clarke stated in his Author's Note to 2061: Odyssey Three: "Just as 2010: Odyssey Two was not a direct sequel to 2001: A Space Odyssey, so this book is not a linear sequel to 2010. They must all be considered as variations on the same theme, involving many of the same characters and situations, but not necessarily happening in the same universe. Developments since 1964 make total consistency impossible, as the later stories incorporate discoveries and events that had not even taken place when the earlier books were written."[5]


  1. ^ a b Friedenthal, Andrew J. (2017). "A Brief Prehistory of Retroactive Continuity". Retcon Game: Retroactive Continuity and the Hyperlinking of America. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi. doi:10.14325/mississippi/9781496811325.003.0010. ISBN 9781496811325.
  2. ^ "Political Corrections, Part 2". Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  3. ^ "Retcons and Stetcons". 2014-07-12. Retrieved 2015-02-22.
  4. ^ a b Personal View (2007-03-12). "One of these comic heroes really is dead". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 2014-03-02.
  5. ^ Clarke, Arthur C. 2061: Odyssey Three. New York: Ballantine Books, 1988. Page ix
  6. ^ Booker, M. Keith (2010). Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels [Two Volumes]. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 510. ISBN 9780313357473. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  7. ^ Tupper, E. Frank (1973). The Theology of Wolfhart Pannenberg. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. p. 100, 221. ISBN 9780664209735. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  8. ^ Thomas, Roy (w), Kubert, Joe (p), Hoberg, Rick (i). "Vengeance from Valhalla" All-Star Squadron 18 (February 1983), DC Comics
  9. ^ "Google Discussiegroepen". Retrieved 2014-03-02.
  10. ^ Doyle, Arthur Conan; Eastman, David (1984). The Final Problem. Caulfield East, Victoria: Edward Arnold. ISBN 089375613X.
  11. ^ McAleer, John (1994). Rex Stout: A Biography (1st ed.). San Bernardino, California: Brownstone Books. pp. 403, 566. ISBN 9780941028103.
  12. ^ "TV ACRES: Quotations > Signoffs > Classic Series Finales > St. Elsewhere". Archived from the original on September 13, 2012. Retrieved August 9, 2015.
  13. ^ Moser, Margaret (1997-06-05). "TV Eye". The Austin Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-03-09.
  14. ^ Ryan, Tim (May 22, 2014). "Critic Consensus: X-Men: Days of Future Past is Certified Fresh". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on May 25, 2014. Retrieved May 26, 2014.
  15. ^ "Rise of Skywalker Novel Confirms Palpatine Was a Clone". Collider. March 1, 2020.
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^ Cross, Mary (2013). 100 People who Changed 20th-century America, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. p. 591. ISBN 9781610690850. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
  20. ^ "Wilma Flintstone: A fox in leopard clothing?". Archived from the original on 22 June 2015. Retrieved 23 August 2015.