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Rothari
King of the Lombards
Miniature of King Rothari from the 11th century "Codex Legum Longobardorum"
Reign636 - 652
PredecessorArioald
SuccessorRodoald
Bornc. 606
Died652(652-00-00) (aged 45–46)
SpouseGundeberga
IssueRodoald
DynastyHarodingian
FatherNanding
ReligionArian

Rothari (or Rothair) (c. 606 – 652), of the house of Arodus, was king of the Lombards from 636 to 652; previously he had been duke of Brescia. He succeeded Arioald, who was an Arian like himself, and was one of the most energetic of Lombard kings. Fredegar relates (Chronicle, 71) that at the beginning of his reign he put to death many insubordinate nobles, and that in his efforts for peace he maintained very strict discipline.

Life

Rothari was the son of Nanding, and Duke of Brescia. Upon the death of Arioald in 636, he was elected King of the Lombards. He married Arioald's widow, Gundeberga, daughter of King Agilulf and Queen Theodelinda. The Catholic Gundeberga agreed to marry the Arian Rothari because he was tolerant of Catholics. He managed to reinforce the central authority of the king in the face of resistance on the part of the dukes.[1]

Career

Rothari conquered Genoa in 641 and all remaining Eastern Roman territories in the lower valley of the Po, including Oderzo (Opitergium) in 641. Before commencing a campaign the rest of Eastern Roman Liguria in 643, he issued the Edictum Rothari a compilation of Lombard law based on ancient customs.[1] According to Paul the Deacon, "Rothari then captured all the cities of the Romans which were situated upon the shore of the sea from the city of Luna in Tuscany up to the boundaries of the Franks." (IV.xlv)

With these quick conquests, he left the Eastern Roman Empire with only the Ravennan marshes in northern Italy. The exarch of Ravenna, Plato, tried to regain some territory, but his invading army was defeated by Rothari on the banks of the Scultenna (the Panaro) near Modena, with the loss of 8,000 men, in 645. However, he recaptured Oderzo at same year. Oderzo finally was razed again by Grimoald in 667.

Italy at the time of Rothari.

Legacy

Rothari's most lasting act was drawing up the eponymous Edictum Rothari which was the first written codification of Lombard law (it was written in Latin). He convened a gairethinx to affirm this new and improved collection of old tradition in 642 or 643. The edict only covered his Lombard men and subjects: Romans continued to live under Roman law in Lombard jurisdictions.[2]

He was succeeded by his son Rodoald. A baptistery in Monte Sant'Angelo is traditionally known as the "Tomb of Rothari", although he was probably buried in the church of San Giovanni Domnarum in Pavia, founded by his wife Gundeberga.[3][4]

Notes

  1. ^ a b "Ròtari re dei Longobardi", Treccani
  2. ^ "German Tribes org Lombard Kings". GermanTribes.org. Archived from the original on 2010-07-18. Retrieved 2010-07-18.
  3. ^ "The politics of memory of the Lombard monarchy in Pavia, the kingdom's capital". Materializing Memory. Archaeological material culture and the semantics of the past. Retrieved 29 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Chiesa di S. Giovanni Domanarum- complessso". Lombardia Beni Culturali. Retrieved 3 August 2022.

References

Regnal titles Preceded byAlchis Duke of Brescia ? – 636 Succeeded byGaidoald Preceded byArioald King of the Lombards 636–652 Succeeded byRodoald