Substance intoxication
SpecialtyPsychiatry, narcology, addiction medicine Edit this on Wikidata

Substance intoxication is a transient condition of altered consciousness and behavior associated with recent use of a substance.[1] It is often maladaptive and impairing, but reversible.[2] If the symptoms are severe, the term "substance intoxication delirium" may be used.[3] Slang terms for the state include: getting high (generic), and being stoned, cooked, or blazed (usually in reference to cannabis).[4]

Substance intoxication may often accompany a substance use disorder (SUD); if persistent substance-related problems exist, SUD is the preferred diagnosis.[5]

The term "intoxicated", used by laymen, most often refers to alcohol.

Classification

The ICD-10 Mental and Behavioural Disorders due to psychoactive substance use shows:[6]

Caffeine

The discussion over whether the coffee (caffeine) "buzz" counted as intoxication or not was hotly debated during the early to mid 16th century.[7]

Contact high

Contact high is a phenomenon that occurs in otherwise sober people who experience a drug-like effect just by coming into contact with someone who is under the influence of a psychoactive drug. In a similar way to the placebo effect, a contact high may be caused by classical conditioning as well as by the physical and social setting.[8][9]

The term is often incorrectly used to describe the high obtained from passive inhalation of marijuana.[9][10]

Slang terms

Main articles: argot and Drug culture

Slang terms include: getting high (generic), being stoned, cooked, or blazed (usually in reference to cannabis),[4] and many more specific slang terms for particular intoxicants. Alcohol intoxication is graded in intensity from buzzed, to tipsy all the way up to drunk, hammered, plastered, smashed, wasted, destroyed, shitfaced and a number of other terms. The term rolling is a common word used to describe being under the influence of MDMA and for LSD the phrases frying or tripping have been used. "Tripping" is a term that is considered applicable to virtually all hallucinogens which includes psychedelics, dissociatives, deliriants and possibly certain types of hypnotics.[citation needed]

See also

References

  1. ^ Michael B. First; Allan Tasman (2 October 2009). Clinical Guide to the Diagnosis and Treatment of Mental Disorders. John Wiley and Sons. pp. 146–. ISBN 978-0-470-74520-5. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  2. ^ Michael B. First; Allen Frances; Harold Alan Pincus (2004). DSM-IV-TR guidebook. American Psychiatric Pub. pp. 135–. ISBN 978-1-58562-068-5. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  3. ^ William H. Reid; Michael G. Wise (26 August 1995). DSM-IV training guide. Psychology Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-0-87630-768-7. Retrieved 27 April 2010.
  4. ^ a b Johnson BD, Bardhi F, Sifaneck SJ, Dunlap E (2005). "Marijuana Argot As Subculture Threads". British Journal of Criminology. 46 (1): 46–77. doi:10.1093/bjc/azi053.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  5. ^ "Acute intoxication". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on July 4, 2004. Retrieved 2020-01-31.
  6. ^ Drs; Sartorius, Norman; Henderson, A.S.; Strotzka, H.; Lipowski, Z.; Yu-cun, Shen; You-xin, Xu; Strömgren, E.; Glatzel, J.; Kühne, G.-E.; Misès, R.; Soldatos, C.R.; Pull, C.B.; Giel, R.; Jegede, R.; Malt, U.; Nadzharov, R.A.; Smulevitch, A.B.; Hagberg, B.; Perris, C.; Scharfetter, C.; Clare, A.; Cooper, J.E.; Corbett, J.A.; Griffith Edwards, J.; Gelder, M.; Goldberg, D.; Gossop, M.; Graham, P.; Kendell, R.E.; Marks, I.; Russell, G.; Rutter, M.; Shepherd, M.; West, D.J.; Wing, J.; Wing, L.; Neki, J.S.; Benson, F.; Cantwell, D.; Guze, S.; Helzer, J.; Holzman, P.; Kleinman, A.; Kupfer, D.J.; Mezzich, J.; Spitzer, R.; Lokar, J. "The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders Clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines" (PDF). www.who.int World Health Organization. Microsoft Word. bluebook.doc. pp. 65–76. Retrieved 24 June 2021 – via Microsoft Bing.
  7. ^ Brown, Daniel W. (2004). A new introduction to Islam. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. pp. 149–51. ISBN 978-1-4051-5807-7.
  8. ^ Bozzetti, L. (1968). "Dr. Bozzetti Replies". American Journal of Psychiatry. 124 (11). doi:10.1176/ajp.124.11.1600-b.
  9. ^ a b Olson, Jay A.; Suissa-Rocheleau, Léah; Lifshitz, Michael; Raz, Amir; Veissière, Samuel P. L. (2020). "Tripping on nothing: Placebo psychedelics and contextual factors". Psychopharmacology. 237 (5): 1371–1382. doi:10.1007/s00213-020-05464-5. PMID 32144438. S2CID 212577549.
  10. ^ Keup, Wolfram (Jan 1971). "The Vocabulary of the Drug User and Alcoholic: A Glossary". International Journal of the Addictions. 6 (2): 353. doi:10.3109/10826087109057793. PMID 4950517.