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Systems design interfaces, and data for an electronic control system to satisfy specified requirements. Systems design could be seen as the application of systems theory to product development. There is some overlap with the disciplines of systems analysis, systems architecture and systems engineering.[1][2]


If the broader topic of product development "blends the perspective of marketing, design, and manufacturing into a single approach to product development,"[3] then design is the act of taking the marketing information and creating the design of the product to be manufactured. Systems design is therefore the process of defining and developing systems to satisfy specified requirements of the user.

The basic study of system design is the understanding of component parts and their subsequent interaction with one another.[4]

Physical design

The physical design relates to the actual input and output processes of the system. This is explained in terms of how data is input into a system, how it is verified/authenticated, how it is processed, and how it is displayed. In physical design, the following requirements about the system are decided.

  1. Input requirement,
  2. Output requirements,
  3. Storage requirements,
  4. Processing requirements,
  5. System control and backup or recovery.[5]

Put another way, the physical portion of system design can generally be broken down into three sub-tasks:

  1. User Interface Design
  2. Data Design
  3. Process Design

Web System design

Online websites, such as Google, Twitter, Facebook, Amazon and Netflix are used by millions of users worldwide. A scalable, highly available system must be designed to accommodate an increasing number of users. Here are the things to consider in designing the system:

  1. Functional and non functional requirements
  2. Capacity estimation
  3. Database to use, Relational or NoSQL
  4. Vertical scaling, Horizontal scaling, Shard
  5. Load Balancing
  6. Primary-secondary Replication
  7. Cache and CDN
  8. Stateless and Stateful servers
  9. Datacenter georouting
  10. Message Queue, Publish-Subscribe Architecture
  11. Performance Metrics Monitoring and Logging
  12. Build, test, configure deploy automation
  13. Finding single point of failure
  14. API Rate Limiting
  15. Service Level Agreement

See also


  1. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from Federal Standard 1037C. General Services Administration. Archived from the original on 2022-01-22.
  2. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. United States Department of Defense.
  3. ^ Ulrich & Eppinger (2000). Product Design & Development. Irwin McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-229647-X.
  4. ^ Papanek, Victor J. (1984) [1972]. Design for the Real World: Human Ecology and Social Change (2nd ed.). Chicago: Academy Chicago. p. 276. ISBN 0897331532. OCLC 12343986.
  5. ^ Arden, Trevor (1991). Information technology applications. London: Pitman. ISBN 978-0-273-03470-4.

Further reading