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Manjira (instrument)
Other namesManjeera

The taal, manjira (also spelled manjīrā or manjeera), jalra, karatala, kartal or gini is a pair of clash cymbals,[1] originating in the Indian subcontinent, which make high-pitched percussion sounds. In its simplest form, it consists of a pair of small hand cymbals.[2] The word taal comes from the Sanskrit word Tālà, which literally means a clap. It is a part of Indian music and culture, used in various traditional customs e.g. Bihu music, Harinaam etc. It is a type of Ghana vadya.

In Hindu religious contexts it is known as karatala (karatāla; kara "hand", "arm" and tāla "rhythm", "beat"), typically used to accompany devotional music such as bhajan and kirtan. They are commonly used by Hare Krishna devotees when performing harinam, but are ubiquitous to all Hindu devotional music. It is also called karatala or kartal (pronounced as “kartel”) in some contexts.

Types

Larger version of manjira, Taal

There are many types of Taal, categorised by size, weight and appearance.

Nepal

See List of Nepali musical instruments
Woman with Jhyamta cymbals, Nepal.

The instrument is played in Nepal as well, known as the Jhyamta (Nepali: झ्याम्टा) (phonetic: Jhyāmṭā), a Nepali traditional musical instrument. The Kirat community uses this with dhol (kirat)) in various cultural festivals such as Sakela, Chyabrung, Udhauli, Ubhauli and other social functions.

Tibet

In Tibetan culture, the tingsha is a very similar instrument.

Uses

Manjiras are commonly played in folk and devotional music. They are played in various religious events and ceremonies in India and especially in bhajans. Manjiras are ancient musical instruments. Manjiras can be seen in many ancient temple pictures.

Marathi and Gujrati folk music

Manjiras have a significant importance in Gujarati and Marathi folk music. In Maharashtra they are known as Taal. Initially Manjiras were played in aarti. In Gujarat and Maharashtra, manjiras hold great importance and are played in bhajan, santvani and dayro.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Solid Instrument Article, Musical Instruments: Solids, Solid Instrument From New Delhi, Solid Instrument Musical Instrument, Popular Solid Instrument, New Delhi Based Solid Instrument". 4to40.com. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
  2. ^ Caudhurī, Vimalakānta Rôya (2007). The Dictionary Of Hindustani Classical Music. Delhi, India: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 173. ISBN 978-81-208-1708-1., originally published in 2000
  3. ^ "Enajori Instruments". Archived from the original on 1 July 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2011.
  4. ^ Courtney, David. "Manjira – Indian hand cymbals". Chandrakantha.com. Retrieved 28 February 2013.