Technical writing is writing or drafting technical communication used in technical and occupational fields, such as computer hardware and software, architecture, engineering, chemistry, aeronautics, robotics, finance, medical, consumer electronics, biotechnology, and forestry. Technical writing encompasses the largest sub-field in technical communication.[1]

The Society for Technical Communication defines technical communication as any form of communication that exhibits one or more of the following characteristics: "(1) communicating about technical or specialized topics, such as computer applications, medical procedures, or environmental regulations; (2) communicating by using technology, such as web pages, help files, or social media sites; or (3) providing instructions about how to do something, regardless of how technical the task is".[2]

Overview

Further information: Technical writer

Technical writing is performed by a technical writer (or technical author) and is the process of writing and sharing technical information in a professional setting.[3]: 4  A technical writer's primary task is to communicate technical information to another person or party in the clearest and most effective manner possible.[3]: 4  The information that technical writers communicate is often complex, so strong writing and communication skills are essential. Technical writers not only convey information through text, but they must be proficient with computers as well. Technical writers use a wide range of programs to create and edit illustrations, diagramming programs to create visual aids, and document processors to design, create, and format documents.[4]

While technical writing is commonly associated with online help and user manuals, the term technical documentation can cover a wider range of genres and technologies. Press releases, memos, reports, business proposals, datasheets, product descriptions and specifications, white papers, résumés, and job applications are but a few examples of writing that can be considered technical documentation.[5] Some types of technical documentation are not typically handled by technical writers. For example, a press release is usually written by a public relations writer, though a technical writer might have input on any technical information included in the press release.

History

While technical writing has only been recognized as a profession since World War II,[6]: 2 [7] its roots can be traced to classical antiquity.[8]: 233  Critics cite the works of writers like Aristotle as the earliest forms of technical writing.[8]: 234  Geoffrey Chaucer's work, A Treatise on the Astrolabe, is an early example of a technical document.[9] The earliest examples of technical writing date back to the Old English period.[10]

With the invention of the mechanical printing press, the onset of the Renaissance and the rise of the Age of Reason, documenting findings became a necessity. Inventors and scientists like Isaac Newton and Leonardo da Vinci prepared documents that chronicled their inventions and findings.[6]: 1  While never called technical documents during their period of publication, these documents played a crucial role in developing modern forms of technical communication and writing.[6]

The field of technical communication grew during the Industrial Revolution.[11]: 3  There was an increasing need to provide people with instructions for using the more and more complex machines that were being invented.[11]: 8  However, unlike the past, where skills were handed down through oral traditions, no one besides the inventors knew how to use these new devices. Writing thus became the fastest and most effective way to disseminate information, and writers who could document these devices were desired.[11]

During the 20th century, the need for technical writing skyrocketed, and the profession became officially recognized. The events of World War I and World War II led to advances in medicine, military hardware, computer technology, and aerospace technologies.[6]: 2  This rapid growth, coupled with the urgency of war, created an immediate need for well-designed documentation to support the use of these technologies. Technical writing was in high demand during this time, and "technical writer" became an official job title during World War II.[6]: 1 

Following World War II, technological advances led to an increase in consumer goods and standards of living.[6]: 3  During the post-war boom, public services like libraries and universities, as well as transport systems like buses and highways, saw substantial growth. The need for writers to chronicle these processes increased.[6]: 1  It was also during this period that large business and universities started using computers. Notably, in 1949, Joseph D. Chapline authored the first computational technical document, an instruction manual for the BINAC computer.[12]

The invention of the transistor in 1947 allowed computers to be produced more cheaply and within the purchasing range of individuals and small businesses.[6]: 3  As the market for these "personal computers" grew, so did the need for writers who could explain and provide user documentation for these devices.[6]: 3  The profession of technical writing saw further expansion during the 1970s and 1980s as consumer electronics found their way into the homes of more and more people.[6]

In recent years, the prominence of computers in society has led to many advances in the field of digital communications, leading to changes in the tools technical writers use.[6]: 3  Hypertext, word processors, graphics editing programs, and page layout software have made the creation of technical documents faster and easier, and technical writers of today must be proficient in these programs.[3]: 8–9 

Technical documents

Technical writing covers many genres and writing styles, depending on the information and audience.[3]: 84–114  Technical documents are not solely produced by technical writers. Almost anyone who works in a professional setting produces technical documents of some variety. Some examples of technical documentation include:

Tools

The following tools are used by technical writers to author and present documents:

List of associations

References

  1. ^ What is Technical Communications? TechWhirl. Accessed December 9, 2014.
  2. ^ "Defining Technical Communication". Society for Technical Communication. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Mike Markel (2012). Technical Communication 10th Edition. Bedford/St. Martins.
  4. ^ Johnson, Tom (December 19, 2011). "What Tools Do Technical Writers Use". I'd Rather Be Writing. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  5. ^ Perelman, Leslie C.; Barrett, Edward; Paradis James. "Document Types". The Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k O'Hara, Fredrick M. Jr. "A Brief History of Technical Communication" (PDF). Montana State University Billings. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  7. ^ Alamargot, Denis; Terrier, Patrice; Cellier, Jean-Marie, eds. (2007-10-01). Written Documents in the Workplace. doi:10.1163/9789004253254. ISBN 9780080474878.
  8. ^ a b Doody, Aude; Follinger, Sabine; Taub, Liba (February 8, 2012). "Structures and Strategies in Ancient Greek and Roman Technical Writing: An Introduction" (PDF). Studies in History and Philosophy of Science. University Of Cambridge. 43 (2): 233–236. Bibcode:2012SHPSA..43..233D. doi:10.1016/j.shpsa.2011.12.021. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 3, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  9. ^ "The Way to the Stars: Build Your Own Astrolabe". Saint John's College. Retrieved April 22, 2014.
  10. ^ Hagge, John (July 1990). "The First Technical Writer in English: A Challenge to the Hegemony of Chaucer". Journal of Technical Writing and Communication. 20 (3): 269–289. doi:10.2190/vwcw-xkmv-949f-vlf7. ISSN 0047-2816. S2CID 170879476.
  11. ^ a b c Crabbe, Stephen (2012). "Constructing a Contextual History of English Language Technical Writing" (PDF). University of Portsmouth. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 12, 2014. Retrieved April 30, 2014.
  12. ^ "History of Technical Writing". Proedit. 14 September 2012. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g Tebeaux, Elizabeth; Dragga, Sam (2010). The Essentials of Technical Communication. Oxford University Press.
  14. ^ Perelman, Leslie C., Barrett, Edward, and Paradis James. "Press jaylan peregrino". The Mayfield grave naba Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  15. ^ Perelman, Leslie C., Barrett, Edward, and Paradis James. "Specifications." The Mayfield Handbook of Technical & Scientific Writing. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  16. ^ "Dictionary and Thesaurus | Merriam-Webster". www.merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2016-01-22.
  17. ^ a b Anderson, Paul V. (2007). Technical Communication [A Reader-Centered Approach] 6th Edition. Thompson Wadsworth.
  18. ^ Johnson, Tom "What Tools Do Technical Writers Use". I'd Rather Be Writing. December 19, 2011. Retrieved May 4, 2014.
  19. ^ "What is LyX". LyX. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  20. ^ Hewitt, John (January 18, 2005). "How Technical Writers use Microsoft Visio". Poe War. Archived from the original on May 12, 2014. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  21. ^ Brierley, Sean (2002). Screen Captures 102 (PDF). STC Carolina (Report). pp. 5–8. Retrieved May 9, 2014.
  22. ^ Johnson, Tom (December 19, 2011). "What Tools Do Technical Writers Use". I'd Rather Be Writing. Retrieved May 4, 2014.