The Munsters
The Munsters title card.png
Season One opening, with Yvonne De Carlo featured behind the title
Created byAllan Burns
Chris Hayward[1]
Developed byNorm Liebmann
Ed Haas
StarringFred Gwynne
Yvonne De Carlo
Al Lewis
Beverley Owen (1964)
Pat Priest (1964–66)
Butch Patrick
Theme music composerJack Marshall
Bob Mosher (unaired lyrics)
Opening theme"The Munsters' Theme"
ComposerJack Marshall
Country of originUnited States
Original languageEnglish
No. of seasons2
No. of episodes70 (list of episodes)
Production
ProducersJoe Connelly
Bob Mosher
Production locationsUniversal Studios, Universal City, California
Camera setupSingle-camera
Running time25 minutes
Production companiesKayro-Vue Productions
Universal Television
DistributorMCA Inc.
NBCUniversal Television Distribution
Release
Original networkCBS
Picture formatBlack-and-white 35mm film
Audio formatMonaural
Original releaseSeptember 24, 1964 (1964-09-24) –
May 12, 1966 (1966-05-12)
Chronology
Followed byThe Munsters Today
Mockingbird Lane

The Munsters is an American sitcom depicting the home life of a family of benign monsters. The series stars Fred Gwynne as Frankenstein's monster[Notes 1] and household head Herman Munster, Yvonne De Carlo as his vampire wife Lily,[2] Al Lewis as Grandpa the aged vampire Count Dracula,[Notes 2] Beverley Owen (later replaced by Pat Priest) as their niece Marilyn and Butch Patrick as their werewolf-like son Eddie.

Produced by the creators of Leave It to Beaver, the series was a satire of American suburban life, the wholesome television family fare of the era and traditional monster movies.[3][4] It achieved higher Nielsen ratings than did the similarly macabre-themed The Addams Family, which aired concurrently on ABC.

In 1965, The Munsters was nominated for the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series[5] but lost to The Rogues. In the 21st century, it received several TV Land Award nominations, including one for Most Uninsurable Driver (Herman Munster).[6]

The series originally aired on Thursdays at 7:30 p.m. on CBS from September 24, 1964 to May 12, 1966. Seventy episodes were produced. The show was canceled after ratings had dropped to a series low in the face of competition from ABC's Batman.[7] Patrick said, "I think 'Batman' was to blame. 'Batman' just came along and took our ratings away."[8] However, The Munsters found a large audience in syndication. A spinoff series ensued, as well as several films, including one with a theatrical release and several more recent attempts to reboot it.[9]

Premise

The Munsters are a Transylvanian-American family living at 1313 Mockingbird Lane in the fictional city of Mockingbird Heights.[Notes 3] The series' running gag is that the odd-looking family with strange tastes considers itself to be an average American family.[10] Herman is the family's sole wage-earner, although Lily and Grandpa make short-lived attempts to earn money from time to time. While Herman is the head of the household, Lily also makes many decisions. According to episode 44 ("Happy 100th Anniversary"), they were married in 1865.

Other than Marilyn, the character's costumes and appearances were based on the classic monsters of Universal Studios films of the 1930s and 1940s, including the iconic version of Frankenstein's monster[11] developed by Jack Pierce for the 1931 Universal film Frankenstein. As Universal jointly produced The Munsters, the show was able to employ the copyrighted designs. Makeup for the series was credited to Bud Westmore, who pioneered many other makeup effects and designs for the studio's monsters after Pierce.

The show satirized the typical family sitcom formula of the era: the well-meaning father, the nurturing mother, the eccentric live-in relative, the naïve teenager and the precocious child. The show also references several real sitcoms. In episode 45, "Operation Herman", Lily tells Herman to have a father-son talk with Eddie because "a thing like this is up to the father. Anyone who's watched Father Knows Best for nine years ought to know that," to which Herman replies, "All right. But Donna Reed always handles things on her show." In episode 47, "John Doe Munster", Grandpa describes My Three Sons as being about a "crazy, mixed-up family that's always having weird adventures."[Notes 4]

Al Lewis explained, "We can do a lot of satirical pointed things on society that you couldn't do on an ordinary show." Lewis also said, "Philosophically, the format is that in spite of the way people look to you physically, underneath there is a heart of gold.[12]

The Munsters reflected changes in social attitudes during the civil-rights era, and in 2020 a speech that Herman makes to Eddie in the 1965 episode "Eddie's Nickname" went viral: "The lesson I want you to learn is that it doesn't matter what you look like. Whether you are tall or short; or fat or thin; or ugly or handsome—like your father—or you can be black, or yellow or white, it doesn't matter. What matters is the size of your heart and the strength of your character."[13]

Cast

Main article: List of The Munsters characters

The cast of The Munsters in an early publicity photo. Standing, L–R: Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis. Sitting: Butch Patrick, Fred Gwynne, Beverley Owen
The cast of The Munsters in an early publicity photo. Standing, L–R: Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis. Sitting: Butch Patrick, Fred Gwynne, Beverley Owen

Regulars

Recurring characters

Production

Development

The idea of a family of comical monsters was first suggested to Universal Studios by animator Bob Clampett, who developed the idea from 1943 to 1945 as a series of cartoons.[14] The project did not make progress until mid-1963[15] when a similar idea was submitted by The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Friends writers Allan Burns and Chris Hayward. The proposal was later handed to writers Norm Liebman and Ed Haas, who wrote a pilot script, Love Thy Monster.

According to Burns, "We sort of stole the idea from Charles Addams and his New Yorker cartoons.... Because Universal owned the Frankenstein character and the Dracula character for movie rights, they decided to take their characters instead of the characters we had written."[16]

While some executives believed that the series should be animated, others who argued for live action prevailed. In 1964, a live-action pilot titled "My Fair Munster" was filmed in color by MCA Television for CBS.[11] Fred Gwynne and Al Lewis were the first to be cast early in February 1964. They had recently completed the series Car 54, Where Are You? and had good chemistry together. Beverly Owen was signed to play Marilyn, Joan Marshall was cast as Herman's wife Phoebe and "Happy" Nate Derman was cast as Eddie. A second pilot was ordered in April 1964 with Yvonne De Carlo replacing Marshall, and the character renamed Lily. For a third pilot, Derman was replaced by Butch Patrick. CBS liked both De Carlo and Patrick, but ordered a fourth pilot in which Eddie was less spoiled.[17]

The show was produced by Joe Connelly and Bob Mosher, who were already known for creating the Leave It to Beaver television series. Prior to that, they had written many episodes of Amos 'n' Andy, a popular network radio program, during its half-hour comedy era.

Filming

Over the course of Season 1, the makeup for Herman, Lily and Grandpa was adjusted. Lily's hair originally had a large white streak, which was reduced in later episodes. Her necklace featured a bat instead of a star, and her eyebrows were angled more. Grandpa's makeup was exaggerated, including heavier eyebrows, and Herman's face was widened for a dopier and less human appearance. Gwynne also added a stutter whenever Herman was angry or wanted to make a point, and he frequently left his mouth open, adding to the effect of a goofy, less frightening figure.

Sets

Main article: Munster Mansion

The Munsters' home was a decaying Second Empire Victorian mansion located at 1313 Mockingbird Lane in Mockingbird Heights. The town's location is not specified in the series, but in later incarnations it is described as a small town outside Los Angeles.

Herman and Lily in the kitchen
Herman and Lily in the kitchen

The Munster home was located on the Universal Studios backlot. It was originally constructed with two other houses on Stage 12, the studio's largest soundstage, for the 1946 film So Goes My Love. After that film was completed, the sets were placed into storage until 1950, when they (along with other house sets built from stock units) were reassembled on Colonial Street. All three houses were seen in many television shows and films, including Leave It to Beaver.[18]

In 1964, the house was redressed as the Munster home and a stone wall was added around the property. After The Munsters ended its run, the house was restored. It was the home of the family in Shirley (NBC, 1979–80).

In 1981, all of the homes on Colonial Street were moved from the north end of the lot to their present location. The former Munster house was used in Coach and, after another remodel, Desperate Housewives.

The interiors of the Munsters' mansion were filmed on Stages 30 and 32 at Universal Studios. The interior was riddled with dust, smoke and cobwebs. (When Lily "dusted" the house, her Electrolux emitted clouds of dust, which she applied to surfaces that would normally be cleaned). As a running gag, parts of the house would often be damaged, mostly by Herman's tantrums or clumsiness, but the damage would not last.

The Munster Koach
The Munster Koach

Props

In the fourth episode ("Rock-A-Bye Munster"), Lily buys a hot rod and a hearse from a used-car dealership and has them customized into one car (the Munster Koach) as Herman's birthday present. The Munster Koach and DRAG-U-LA (built by Grandpa in episode 36, "Hot Rod Herman") were designed by Tom Daniel and built by auto customizer George Barris for the show. The Munster Koach was a hot rod built on a lengthened 1926 Ford Model T chassis with a custom hearse body. It was 18 feet long and cost almost $20,000 to build. Barris also built the DRAG-U-LA, a dragster built from a coffin (according to Barris, a real coffin was purchased for the car), which Grandpa used to win back the Munster Koach after Herman lost it in a race.

Theme song

The instrumental theme song, titled "The Munsters' Theme", was composed by composer/arranger Jack Marshall.[19] Described by writer Jon Burlingame as a "Bernard-Herrmann-meets-Duane-Eddy sound",[20] the theme was nominated for a Grammy Award in 1965. The song's lyrics, which were written by coproducer Bob Mosher, were never aired on CBS.

Episodes

Pitch episode

The original cast in 1964
The original cast in 1964

The first presentation was filmed in color and ran 16 minutes (later cut to just over 13 minutes). It was used to pitch the series to CBS and its affiliates. (The episode is available on the first season of The Munsters DVDs.) It never aired, but the script was reused as the basis for Episode 2, "My Fair Munster". The cast in the title sequence included Joan Marshall as Phoebe (instead of Lily), Beverley Owen as Marilyn, Nate "Happy" Derman as Eddie, Al Lewis as Grandpa and Fred Gwynne as Herman. Although the same house exterior was used, it was later changed to appear spookier for the series. This included adding the tower deck and Marilyn's deck, a new coat of paint and enlarging the living room. Although Grandpa had the same dungeon, Gwynne did not wear padding in the pitch episode, had a more protruding forehead, and was broad but thin. The most noticeable difference was his somber expression rather than his comic silliness during the series.[20] Except for Marilyn, the family had a blue-green tint to their skin. The biggest character difference was that Eddie was portrayed by Derman as a nasty brat.[21] Eddie, as played by Patrick, was mostly respectful.

The pilot title sequence had light, happy music borrowed from the Doris Day movie The Thrill of It All[22] instead of the instrumental rock theme. It was also decided that Marshall too closely resembled Morticia Addams[22] and that Derman was too nasty as Eddie, so both were replaced.[22] On the basis of the first presentation, the new series, still not completely cast, was announced by CBS on February 18, 1964. A second black-and-white presentation was filmed with DeCarlo and Patrick. In this version, Eddie appeared with a more normal look, although his hairstyle was later altered to include a pronounced widow's peak.

1965 Easter special

During the first season, the Munster family appeared in an Easter special when they visited Marineland of the Pacific in Palos Verdes, California, to get a new pet for Eddie. Shot on videotape, the episode aired just once on CBS on April 18, and was long thought lost until a copy was donated to the Paley Center in New York in 1997.[23][24]

Episode list

Main article: List of The Munsters episodes

SeasonEpisodesOriginally aired
First airedLast aired
PilotsUnaired
138September 24, 1964 (1964-09-24)June 10, 1965 (1965-06-10)
232September 16, 1965 (1965-09-16)May 12, 1966 (1966-05-12)
SpecialApril 18, 1965 (1965-04-18)

Syndication

The series entered syndication on local stations after its original run. In the 1990s, it aired on Nick at Nite and on TV Land from 2000 to 2008. In October 2011, the series was picked up by Cartoon Network's sister channel Boomerang and ran through the entire month of October that year for Halloween along with The Addams Family.

On October 5, 2015, Cozi TV began airing the series on weeknights and in a two-hour block on Sunday evenings.[25]

Reception

Ratings

TV appearances in character

Fred Gwynne and Al Lewis appeared in full makeup and costumes riding in the Munster Koach in the 1964 Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade.[27] Gwynne made solo appearances in character on The Red Skelton Show in April 1965, in the special Murray The K – It's What's Happening, Baby in June 1965[28] and on and The Danny Kaye Show in April 1966.

Franchise

Film

Main article: The Munsters (film series)

Several Munsters movies were released. Three featuring original cast members include Munster, Go Home! (1966), The Mini-Munsters (1973) and The Munsters' Revenge (1981). A television film titled Here Come the Munsters aired in 1995, and The Munsters' Scary Little Christmas was released in 1996. A feature film titled The Munsters was released on September 22, 2022.

TV

The Mini-Munsters

Main article: The Mini-Munsters

In 1973, ABC aired an animated one-hour special, The Mini-Munsters, based on characters from the original series.

The Munsters Today

Main article: The Munsters Today

A first-run syndication television series titled The Munsters Today ran from 1988 to 1991 and lasted for 72 episodes. The unaired pilot episode, written by Lloyd J. Schwartz, explained the 22-year gap with an accident in Grandpa's lab that put the family to sleep. They awake in the late 1980s and must adapt to their new surroundings. The show features John Schuck (Herman), Lee Meriwether (Lily), Howard Morton (Grandpa) and Jason Marsden (Eddie). Marilyn was portrayed by Mary-Ellen Dunbar in the unaired pilot and by Hilary Van Dyke thereafter.

Mockingbird Lane

Main article: Mockingbird Lane

A reboot by Pushing Daisies creator Bryan Fuller was developed for NBC as a one-hour drama with "spectacular visuals."[29][30][31] NBC ordered a pilot episode,[32] and announced in January 2012 that it would be called Mockingbird Lane, a reference to the Munsters' address.[33] NBC ultimately canceled plans for Mockingbird Lane to be produced as a weekly series, but later announced that the pilot episode would air in late October 2012 as a Halloween special.[34] The cancellation resulted from disagreements on the show's dark nature and inconsistent tone.[35]

Unrealized projects

Music

In 1998, Rob Zombie released the single "Dragula". Its title was taken from the name of Grandpa's dragster DRAG-U-LA.[38] The music video mimics, in parts, the Munsters taking a ride in the car.

A sample of the show's theme-song guitar riff was used in the song "Uma Thurman" by Fall Out Boy.[39]

Home media

Between 2004 and 2008, Universal Studios Home Entertainment released the entire series on DVD in Regions 1 & 2.

DVD Name Ep# Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 Additional Information
Season 1 38 August 24, 2004[40]
February 5, 2013 (re-released)[41]
October 17, 2005 November 30, 2006
  • Original unaired pilot
  • Dual-sided discs (Region 1 only)
Season 2 32 October 25, 2005[42]
February 5, 2013 (re-released)[43]
May 1, 2006 October 25, 2006
  • America's First Family of Fright
  • Fred Gwynne: More Than a Munster
  • Yvonne De Carlo: Gilded Lily
  • Al Lewis: Forever Grandpa
  • Dual-sided discs (Region 1 only)
The Complete Series 70 October 7, 2008[44]
September 13, 2016 (re-released)[45]
N/A N/A
  • Original unaired pilot
  • America's First Family of Fright
  • Fred Gwynne: More Than a Munster
  • Yvonne De Carlo: Gilded Lily
  • Al Lewis: Forever Grandpa
  • "Family Portrait" (colorized version)
  • Munster, Go Home
  • The Munsters' Revenge
  • 12 single-sided discs
The Complete Series (Closed Casket Collection) 70 N/A October 8, 2007
  • Original unaired pilot
  • America's First Family of Fright
  • Fred Gwynne: More Than a Munster
  • Yvonne De Carlo: Gilded Lily
  • Al Lewis: Forever Grandpa
  • 12 single-sided discs
The Complete Series August 3, 2016

The "Family Portrait" episode in color, which was absent from the Season 1 and 2 standalone box sets, was released on a standalone Region 1 DVD on October 7, 2008.[46]

Merchandise

Gold Key Comics produced a Munsters comic book that ran for 16 issues from 1965 to 1968 and featured photo covers from the TV series. When the series first appeared, the Comics Code Authority still forbade the appearance of vampires in comic books. However, because Gold Key was not a member of the Comics Magazine Association of America, it was not obligated to conform to the Comics Code, and Lily and Grandpa appeared in the comics without controversy.

Other merchandise included a set of rubber squeaky toys, Colorforms, and an Aurora model kit of the living room and family. AMT produced model kits of the Munster Koach and DRAG-U-LA. The Aurora model of the living room featured Herman in his electric chair, Eddie squatting in front of the fire, Lily knitting and Grandpa hanging in a bat-like manner from the rafters. Marilyn was not included. ERTL later produced a very detailed 1:18 scale diecast of the Munster Koach. Mattel issued two Herman Munster dolls: one was a talking doll and the other was a hand puppet (both with rings that could be pulled to make them talk utilizing Gwynne's actual voice) that were issued from 1964 until around 1968.

A video game based on The Munsters was published by Again, Again (a division of Alternative Software) in 1989. It was available for the Amstrad CPC, ZX Spectrum, Commodore 64, Amiga, Atari ST, MSX, and MS-DOS, but it was criticized by the gaming press because of its short length and lackluster gameplay.[47]

In 1990, Atari Corporation released Midnight Mutants for the Atari 7800, featuring Al Lewis' likeness in his Grampa Munster character on the box and label. However, as Atari had reached an agreement with Universal, they could not call him Grampa Munster, so he was simply called Grampa.[citation needed]

In 1966, a three-reel View-Master set featuring The Munsters episode "The Most Beautiful Ghoul in the World" was released, accompanied by a booklet containing drawings and additional text. The set is notable because the photographs provide rare color views of the characters and sets, including house interiors, Grandpa's dungeon laboratory and the characters' heavy greenish-white facial makeup.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Episodes referring to the fact that Herman is Frankenstein's monster include #55, "Just Another Pretty Face," in which Grandpa explains how he came to possess Herman's original blueprint by reading the inscription on it: "To our favorite Count, Dracula - a souvenir from Dr. Frankenstein and all the guys and gals" and #61, "Cyrano de Munster," in which Lily, suspecting Herman of infidelity, tells Marilyn: "I'll take Herman apart so that even Dr. Frankenstein couldn't put him together"
  2. ^ Episodes mentioning that Grandpa is Count Dracula include #55, "Just Another Pretty Face," in which he explains his possession of Herman's original blueprint by reading the inscription on it: "To our favorite Count, Dracula - a souvenir from Dr. Frankenstein and all the guys and gals," and #58, "Grandpa's Lost Wife," in which a legal document names him as "sometimes known as 'The Count,' sometimes known as 'Sam Dracula.'"
  3. ^ A close-up of a bounced check in episode 44 reveals the family address and city, but no state.
  4. ^ Nick at Nite's Classic TV Companion, edited by Tom Hill, copyright 1996 by Viacom International. "Some crystal ball you've got!" Herman complained to Grandpa. "All it can do is pick up reruns of My Little Margie!"

References

  1. ^ Fox, Margalit (December 19, 2006). "Chris Hayward, 81, TV Writer and a Creator of 'Munsters,' Is Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  2. ^ "Yvonne De Carlo Is The Mama In a Nice Monster Family". St. Petersburg Times. June 23, 1964. Archived from the original on June 6, 2020. Retrieved April 9, 2014.
  3. ^ "The Munsters: The Complete First Season". DVD Talk. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
  4. ^ "The Munsters: The Complete Series". DVD Talk. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
  5. ^ "Munsters, The". Golden Globes. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  6. ^ Genzlinger, Neil (March 14, 2005). "'TV Land Awards' turn back the time". Chicago Tribune. New York Times News Service. Retrieved April 6, 2018.
  7. ^ Fred John Del, Bianco Jr. (2012). 50 Favs of the '60s '70s '80s: A Look Back at Three Dynamic Decades. AuthorHouse. p. 58. ISBN 978-1-468-56111-1.
  8. ^ Nolasco, Stephanie (October 30, 2019). "'Munsters' child star Butch Patrick explains why hit '60s series came to an end". Fox News. Retrieved May 3, 2021.
  9. ^ Decaro, Frank (October 26, 2008). "A Neighborhood Where Every Day Was Halloween". The New York Times. Retrieved October 10, 2010.
  10. ^ Furdyk, Brent (June 4, 2020). "'Woke' Herman Munster's Speech From 1965 Sitcom Episode Is Going Viral Over Its Timely Message". ET Canada.
  11. ^ a b The Munsters: America's First Family of Fright (Television production). 2003.
  12. ^ Daily Variety. July 29, 1964
  13. ^ "How Herman Munster can be so right about racism and still be a little bit wrong - The Washington Post". The Washington Post.
  14. ^ Glut, Donald F. (September 11, 2015). The Frankenstein Archive. ISBN 9780786480692.
  15. ^ Monsters to Be Just Plain Folks On a CBS-TV Comedy Series. New York Times 15 Feb 1964
  16. ^ Lewellen, Scott (2013). Funny You Should Ask: Oral Histories of Classic Sitcom Storytellers. McFarland. p. 130.
  17. ^ ""The Munsters" My Fair Munster: Unaired Pilot (TV Episode 2004) - IMDb". IMDb.
  18. ^ Ingram, Billy (2002). Tvparty!: Television's Untold Tales. Bonus Books, Inc. p. 228. ISBN 1-566-25184-2.
  19. ^ Cox, Stephen; De Carlo, Yvonne; Patrick, Butch (2006). "Munster Maestro: About Jack Marshall". The Munsters: A Trip Down Mockingbird Lane. New York: Random House. ISBN 0-8230-7894-9. OCLC 68192546.
  20. ^ a b Cox, Stephen (2006). The Munsters: A Trip Down Mockingbird Lane. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 35–36. ISBN 0-823-07894-9.
  21. ^ Cox, Stephen (2006). The Munsters: A Trip Down Mockingbird Lane. Random House Digital, Inc. pp. 36, 38. ISBN 0-823-07894-9.
  22. ^ a b c Biography, "The Munsters," 1998
  23. ^ "Munsterland". Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  24. ^ "Pop Colorture". Retrieved September 19, 2017.
  25. ^ TV, COZI. "The Munsters". Cozi TV. Retrieved February 21, 2020.
  26. ^ Spencer, Walter (August 1967). "TV's Vast Grey Belt" (PDF). Television Magazine. 24 (8): 55. Retrieved February 16, 2020.
  27. ^ "The year the Munsters crashed Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade – brioux.tv".
  28. ^ "Long-Lost "Happening" 1965 Music Special Resurfaces on PBS".
  29. ^ Joyce Eng (September 30, 2010). "NBC, Bryan Fuller Remaking The Munsters". TVGuide.com.
  30. ^ Michael Schneider (August 11, 2011). "Exclusive: The Munsters Back in Development at NBC". TVGuide.com.
  31. ^ Hanh Nguyen (November 17, 2011). "NBC Picks Up Munsters Reboot Pilot From Pushing Daisies Creator". TVGuide.com.
  32. ^ "NBC Orders 'The Munsters' Reboot to Pilot". Yahoo TV. November 17, 2011. Archived from the original on January 4, 2014.
  33. ^ Jeffery, Morgan (February 2, 2012). "NBC's 'The Munsters' becomes 'Mockingbird Lane'". Digital Spy. Retrieved February 2, 2012.
  34. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (October 11, 2012). "NBC's 'Mockingbird Lane' Pilot To Air on October 26 As Halloween Special". Deadline. Retrieved October 24, 2012.
  35. ^ Andreevs, Nellie (January 6, 2013). "NBC May Take Another Stab At 'The Munsters' Reboot Series". Deadline. Retrieved September 18, 2016.
  36. ^ Boston Globe. 29 Aug 2004: N11.
  37. ^ "Seth Meyers Rebooting The Munsters TV Show". ScreenRant. August 10, 2017. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  38. ^ Billboard, November 21, 1998 - Vol. 110, No. 47, Page 81.
  39. ^ New Fall Out Boy Song 'Uma Thurman' Is Best Yet From New Album Billboard. Retrieved November 4, 2021.
  40. ^ "The Munsters – The Complete First Season: Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis, Butch Patrick, Beverley Owen, Pat Priest, Bob Mosher: Movies & TV". Amazon. August 24, 2004. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  41. ^ "The Munsters: Season 1: Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis, Butch Patrick, Pat Priest, Beverley Owen, Bob Mosher: Movies & TV". Amazon. February 5, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  42. ^ "The Munsters – Complete Second Season: Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis, Butch Patrick, Pat Priest, Beverley Owen, Bob Mosher: Movies & TV". Amazon. October 25, 2005. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  43. ^ "The Munsters: Season 2: Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis, Butch Patrick, Pat Priest, Bob Mosher: Movies & TV". Amazon. February 5, 2013. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  44. ^ Walmart. "The Munsters: The Complete Series (DVD)". Walmart.com. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  45. ^ "The Munsters: The Complete Series: Fred Gwynne, Yvonne De Carlo, Al Lewis, Butch Patrick, Pat Priest, Beverley Owen, Bob Mosher: Movies & TV". Amazon. September 13, 2016. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  46. ^ "The Munsters: Family Portrait: Fred Gwynne, Al Lewis, Yvonne De Carlo: Movies & TV". Amazon. October 7, 2008. Retrieved October 13, 2018.
  47. ^ The Munsters at SpectrumComputing.co.uk

Bibliography