The Time Machine
Title page
AuthorH. G. Wells
Cover artistBen Hardy
CountryUnited Kingdom
GenreScience fiction
PublisherWilliam Heinemann (UK)
Henry Holt (US)
Publication date
TextThe Time Machine at Wikisource

The Time Machine is a post-apocalyptic science fiction novella by H. G. Wells, published in 1895. The work is generally credited with the popularization of the concept of time travel by using a vehicle or device to travel purposely and selectively forward or backward through time. The term "time machine", coined by Wells, is now almost universally used to refer to such a vehicle or device.[1]

Utilizing a frame story set in then-present Victorian England, Wells' text focuses on a recount of the otherwise anonymous Time Traveller's journey into the far future. A work of future history and speculative evolution, Time Machine is interpreted in modern times as a commentary on the increasing inequality and class divisions of Wells' era, which he projects as giving rise to two separate human species: the fair, childlike Eloi, and the savage, simian Morlocks, distant descendants of the contemporary upper and lower classes respectively.[2][3] It is believed that Wells' depiction of the Eloi as a race living in plenitude and abandon was inspired by the utopic romance novel News from Nowhere (1890), though Wells' universe in the novel is notably more savage and brutal.[4]

In his 1931 preface to the book, Wells wrote that The Time Machine seemed "a very undergraduate performance to its now mature writer, as he looks over it once more", though he states that "the writer feels no remorse for this youthful effort". However, critics have praised the novella's handling of its thematic concerns, with Marina Warner writing that the book was the most significant contribution to understanding fragments of desire[clarify] before Sigmund Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams, with the novel "[conveying] how close he felt to the melancholy seeker after a door that he once opened on to a luminous vision and could never find again".[5]

The Time Machine has been adapted into two feature films of the same name, as well as two television versions and many comic book adaptations. It has also indirectly inspired many more works of fiction in many media productions.


Wells had considered the notion of time travel before, in a short story titled "The Chronic Argonauts" (1888). This work, published in his college newspaper, was the foundation for The Time Machine.

He frequently stated that he had thought of using some of this material in a series of articles in the Pall Mall Gazette, but in response to a request by W. E. Henley, the editor of National Observer, he rewrote "The Chronic Argonauts" into a series of seven loosely connected and fictionalized essays which were anonymously published in the newspaper from 17 March to 23 June 1894.[6][7] The series was never completed as Henley stepped down from his role as editor in National Observer. With his encouragement, Wells continued to work on the story, and at the end of the year when Henley was given the position as editor of Heinemann's periodical The New Review, he arranged for the story to be published there in serialized form in the January to May 1895 editions instead, which Wells was paid £100 (equal to about £12,000 today) for.[8][9][10] Henry Holt and Company published the first book edition (possibly prepared from a different manuscript)[11] on 7 May 1895; Heinemann published an English edition on 29 May.[8] These two editions are different textually and are commonly referred to as the "Holt text" and "Heinemann text", respectively. Nearly all modern reprints reproduce the Heinemann text.[12]

The story reflects Wells's own socialist political views, his view on life and abundance, and the contemporary angst about industrial relations. It is also influenced by Ray Lankester's theories about social degeneration[13] and shares many elements with Edward Bulwer-Lytton's novel Vril, the Power of the Coming Race (1871).[14] It is also thought that Wells' Eloi race shares many features with the works of other English socialists, most notably William Morris and his work News from Nowhere (1890), in which money is depicted as irrelevant and work is merely undertaken as a form of pleasure.[4] Other science fiction works of the period, including Edward Bellamy's novel Looking Backward: 2000–1887 (1888) and the later film Metropolis (1927), dealt with similar themes.[citation needed] In his later reassessment of the book, published as the 1931 preface to The Time Machine, Wells wrote that the text seemed to him "a very undergraduate performance to its now mature writer, as he looks over it once more", though he also claims that "the writer feels no remorse for this youthful effort". His preface also notes that the text has "lasted as long as the diamond-framed safety bicycle, which came in at about the date of its first publication", and is "assured it will outlive him", attesting to the power of the book.[5]

Based on Wells's personal experiences and childhood, the working class literally spent a lot of their time underground. His own family would spend most of their time in a dark basement kitchen when not being occupied in their father's shop.[15] Later, his own mother would work as a housekeeper in a house with tunnels below,[16] where the staff and servants lived in underground quarters.[17] A medical journal published in 1905 would focus on these living quarters for servants in poorly ventilated dark basements.[18] In his early teens, Wells became a draper's apprentice, having to work in a basement for hours on end.

This work is an early example of the Dying Earth subgenre. The portion of the novella that sees the Time Traveller in a distant future where the sun is huge and red also places The Time Machine within the realm of eschatology; that is, the study of the end times, the end of the world, and the ultimate destiny of humankind.[citation needed][19]

Holt, Rinehart & Winston re-published the book in 2000, paired with The War of the Worlds, and commissioned Michael Koelsch to illustrate a new cover art.[20]


The Time Machine was reprinted in Two Complete Science-Adventure Books in 1951

A Victorian English scientist and gentleman inventor, identified by a narrator simply as the Time Traveller, lives in Richmond, Surrey.

He explains to his weekly dinner guests that time is a fourth dimension and demonstrates a tabletop model machine for travelling through it. He reveals he has built a machine capable of carrying a person through time. At dinner the following week, a weary, bedraggled Traveller stumbles into the room and recounts to his guests what he has experienced on his journey to the future.

In the new narrative, the Time Traveller tests his device. At first, he thinks nothing has happened but soon finds out he went five hours into the future. He continues forward and sees his house disappear and turn into a lush garden. The Traveller stops in A.D. 802,701, where he meets the Eloi, a society of small, elegant, childlike humanoids. They live in small communities within large and futuristic yet slowly deteriorating buildings and adhere to a fruit-based diet. His efforts to communicate with them are hampered by their lack of curiosity or discipline. They appear happy and carefree but fear the dark, particularly moonless nights. They give no response to mysterious nocturnal disappearances, possibly because the mere thought of it frightens them. After exploring the area around the Eloi's residences, the Traveller reaches the top of a hill overlooking what was once London and finds only the ruins of what had once been an impressive metropolis. He concludes that the entire planet has become a garden, with little trace of human society or engineering from the hundreds of thousands of years prior, and that communism[21] has at last been achieved. He also theorizes that intelligence springs from necessity; with no real challenges facing the Eloi, they have lost the spirit, intelligence, and physical fitness of humanity at its peak.

Returning to the site where he arrived, the Traveller is shocked to find his machine missing; it has been dragged by some unknown party into a nearby structure, resembling a sphinx, with heavy doors locked from the inside. Luckily, the machine cannot travel through time without its levers, which he had removed before leaving it. Later, he encounters the Morlocks, ape-like troglodytes who live in darkness underground and surface only at night. Deducing that this second race must have taken his time Machine, he explores one of many "wells" that lead to the Morlocks' dwellings, where he discovers them operating the machinery and industry that makes the above-ground paradise of the Eloi possible. He alters his theory, speculating that the human race has diverged into two species: the favored aristocracy has become the intellectually degraded Eloi, and their mechanical servants have become the brutal, light-fearing Morlocks.

Before narrowly escaping the tunnels, the Traveller also observes the "underworlders" eating a strange meat, which he cannot at first identify. He later comes to the horrific realization that the Morlocks raise the Eloi like cattle and then use them as a food supply.

Meanwhile, he rescues an Eloi named Weena from drowning, as none of the other Eloi take any notice of her plight, and with time, they develop an affectionate relationship. He takes Weena with him on an expedition to "The Palace of Green Porcelain", a distant structure which turns out to be a derelict museum. Here, the Traveller finds a fresh supply of matches and fashions a crude weapon against Morlocks, whom he must fight to recover his machine. He plans to take Weena back to his own time. Because the long and tiring journey back to Weena's home is too much for them, they stop in the forest for the night. They are eventually attacked by Morlocks, and Weena faints. The Traveller escapes when a small fire he had left behind them to repel the Morlocks turns into a forest fire; Weena and the Morlocks are lost in the blaze, and the Traveller is devastated over his loss.

The Morlocks open the Sphinx and use the machine as bait to capture the Traveller, not understanding that he can use it to escape. He reattaches the levers before travelling further ahead to roughly 30 million years from his own time. There, he sees some of the last living things on a dying Earth: reddish, crab-like creatures slowly wandering the blood-red beaches chasing enormous butterflies, in a world covered in simple lichenoid vegetation. He continues to make jumps forward through time, seeing Earth's rotation gradually cease and the sun grow larger, redder, and dimmer, and the world falling silent and freezing as the last degenerate living things die out.

Overwhelmed, he returns to his own time, arriving at the laboratory just three hours after he originally left. He arrives late to his own dinner party, whereupon, after eating, the Traveller relates his adventures to his disbelieving visitors, producing as evidence two strange white flowers Weena had put in his pocket.

The original narrator relates that he returned to the Traveller's house the next day, finding him preparing for another journey and promising to return in a short time. After waiting for three years, however, the Narrator states that the Traveller has not returned from his journey.

Deleted text

A section from the thirteenth chapter of the serial published in New Review (May 1895, partway down p. 577 to p. 580, line 29)[22] does not appear in either of the 1895 editions of the book.[23][24][25] It was drafted at the suggestion of Wells's editor, William Ernest Henley, who wanted Wells to "oblige your editor" by lengthening the text with, among other things, an illustration of "the ultimate degeneracy" of humanity. "There was a slight struggle," Wells later recalled, "between the writer and W. E. Henley who wanted, he said, to put a little 'writing' into the tale. But the writer was in reaction from that sort of thing, the Henley interpolations were cut out again, and he had his own way with his text."[26] This portion of the story was published elsewhere as "The Final Men" (1940)[27] and "The Grey Man".[28] The deleted text was also published by Forrest J Ackerman in an issue of the American edition of Perry Rhodan.[citation needed]

The deleted text recounts an incident immediately after the Traveller's escape from the Morlocks. He finds himself in the distant future in a frost-covered moorland with simple grasses and black bushes, populated with furry, hopping herbivores resembling kangaroos. He stuns or kills one with a rock, and upon closer examination realises they are probably the descendants of humans / Eloi / Morlocks. A gigantic, centipede-like arthropod approaches and the Traveller flees into the next day, finding that the creature has apparently eaten the tiny humanoid. The Dover Press[29] and Easton Press editions of the novella restore this deleted segment.[citation needed]


Significant scholarly commentary on The Time Machine began from the early 1960s, initially contained in various broad studies of Wells's early novels (such as Bernard Bergonzi's The Early H.G. Wells: A Study of the Scientific Romances) and studies of utopias/dystopias in science fiction (such as Mark R. Hillegas's The Future as Nightmare: H.G. Wells and the Anti-Utopians). Much critical and textual work was done in the 1970s, including the tracing of the very complex publication history of the text, its drafts, and unpublished fragments.

Academic publications

A further resurgence in scholarship came around the time of the novella's centenary in 1995, and a major outcome of this was the 1995 conference and substantial anthology of academic papers, which was collected in print as H.G. Wells's Perennial Time Machine.[30] This publication then allowed the development of a guide-book for academic study at Master's and Ph.D. level: H.G. Wells's The Time Machine: A Reference Guide.[31]

The scholarly journal The Wellsian has published around twenty articles on The Time Machine, and a U.S. academic journal The Undying Fire, devoted to H.G. Wells studies, has published three articles since its inception in 2002.[citation needed][32]

Subtext of the names Eloi and Morlock

The name Eloi is the Hebrew plural for Elohim, or lesser gods, in the Old Testament.[33][dubious ]

Wells's source for the name Morlock is less clear. It may refer to the Canaanite god Moloch associated with child sacrifice. The name Morlock may also be a play on mollocks – what miners might call themselves – or a Scots word for rubbish,[33] or a reference to the Morlacchi community in Dalmatia.[34]


The Time Machine can be read as a symbolic novel. The time machine itself can be viewed as a symbol, and there are several symbols in the narrative, including the Sphinx, flowers, and fire.


Radio and audio

Escape radio broadcasts

The CBS radio anthology Escape adapted The Time Machine twice, in 1948 starring Jeff Corey, and again in 1950 starring Lawrence Dobkin as the traveller. A script adapted by Irving Ravetch was used in both episodes. The Time Traveller was named Dudley and was accompanied by his skeptical friend Fowler as they travelled to the year 100,080.

1994 Alien Voices audio drama

In 1994, an audio drama was released on cassette and CD by Alien Voices, starring Leonard Nimoy as the Time Traveller (named John in this adaptation) and John de Lancie as David Filby. John de Lancie's children, Owen de Lancie and Keegan de Lancie, played the parts of the Eloi. The drama is approximately two hours long and is more faithful to the story than several of the film adaptations. Some changes are made to reflect modern language and knowledge of science.

7th Voyage

In 2000, Alan Young read The Time Machine for 7th Voyage Productions, Inc., in 2016 to celebrate the 120th Anniversary of H.G. Wells's novella.[36]

2009 BBC Radio 3 broadcast

Robert Glenister starred as the Time Traveller, with William Gaunt as H. G. Wells in a new 100-minute radio dramatisation by Philip Osment, directed by Jeremy Mortimer as part of a BBC Radio Science Fiction season. This was the first adaptation of the novella for British radio. It was first broadcast on 22 February 2009 on BBC Radio 3[37] and later published as a 2-CD BBC audio book.

The other cast members were:

The adaptation retained the nameless status of the Time Traveller and set it as a true story told to the young Wells by the time traveller, which Wells then re-tells as an older man to the US journalist, Martha, whilst firewatching on the roof of Broadcasting House during the Blitz. It also retained the deleted ending from the novella as a recorded message sent back to Wells from the future by the traveller using a prototype of his machine, with the traveller escaping the anthropoid creatures to 30 million AD at the end of the universe before disappearing or dying there.

Big Finish

On 5 September 2017, Big Finish Productions released an adaptation of The Time Machine. This adaptation was written by Marc Platt and starred Ben Miles as the Time Traveller.

Platt explained in an interview that adapting The Time Machine to audio was not much different from writing Doctor Who, and that he could see where some of the roots of early Doctor Who came from.[38]

Film adaptations

1949 BBC teleplay

The first visual adaptation of the book was a live teleplay broadcast from Alexandra Palace on 25 January 1949 by the BBC, which starred Russell Napier as the Time Traveller and Mary Donn as Weena. No recording of this live broadcast was made; the only record of the production is the script and a few black and white still photographs. A reading of the script, however, suggests that this teleplay remained fairly faithful to the book.[39]

1960 film

Main article: The Time Machine (1960 film)

In 1960, the novella was made into a US science fiction film, also known promotionally as H.G. Wells's The Time Machine. The film starred Rod Taylor, Alan Young, and Yvette Mimieux. The film was produced and directed by George Pal, who also filmed a 1953 version of Wells's The War of the Worlds. The film won an Academy Award for time-lapse photographic effects showing the world changing rapidly.

In 1993, Rod Taylor hosted Time Machine: The Journey Back reuniting him with Alan Young and Whit Bissell, featuring the only sequel to Mr. Pal's classic film, written by the original screenwriter, David Duncan. In the special were Academy Award-winners special effect artists Wah Chang and Gene Warren.

1978 television film

Main article: The Time Machine (1978 film)

Sunn Classic Pictures produced a television film version of The Time Machine as a part of their "Classics Illustrated" series in 1978. It was a modernization of the Wells's story, making the Time Traveller a 1970s scientist working for a fictional US defence contractor, "the Mega Corporation". Dr. Neil Perry (John Beck), the Time Traveller, is described as one of Mega's most reliable contributors by his senior co-worker Branly (Whit Bissell, an alumnus of the 1960 adaptation). Perry's skill is demonstrated by his rapid reprogramming of an off-course missile, averting a disaster that could destroy Los Angeles. His reputation secures a grant of $20 million for his time machine project. Although nearing completion, the corporation wants Perry to put the project on hold so that he can head a military weapon development project. Perry accelerates work on the time machine, permitting him to test it before being forced to work on the new project.

2002 film

Main article: The Time Machine (2002 film)

The 1960 film was remade in 2002, starring Guy Pearce as the Time Traveller, a mechanical engineering professor named Alexander Hartdegen, Mark Addy as his colleague David Philby, Sienna Guillory as Alex's ill-fated fiancée Emma, Phyllida Law as Mrs. Watchit, and Jeremy Irons as the Uber-Morlock. Playing a quick cameo as a shopkeeper was Alan Young, who featured in the 1960 film. (H.G. Wells himself can also be said to have a "cameo" appearance, in the form of a photograph on the wall of Alex's home, near the front door.)

The film was directed by Wells's great-grandson Simon Wells, with an even more revised plot that incorporated the ideas of paradoxes and changing the past. The place is changed from Richmond, Surrey, to downtown New York City, where the Time Traveller moves forward in time to find answers to his questions on 'Practical Application of Time Travel;' first in 2030 New York, to witness an orbital lunar catastrophe in 2037, before moving on to 802,701 for the main plot. He later briefly finds himself in 635,427,810 with toxic clouds and a world laid waste (presumably by the Morlocks) with devastation and Morlock artifacts stretching out to the horizon.

It was met with mixed reviews and earned $56 million before VHS/DVD sales. The Time Machine used a design that was very reminiscent of the one in the Pal film but was much larger and employed polished turned brass construction, along with rotating glass reminiscent of the Fresnel lenses common to lighthouses. (In Wells's original book, the Time Traveller mentioned his 'scientific papers on optics'). Hartdegen becomes involved with a female Eloi named Mara, played by Samantha Mumba, who essentially takes the place of Weena, from the earlier versions of the story. In this film, the Eloi have, as a tradition, preserved a "stone language" that is identical to English. The Morlocks are much more barbaric and agile, and the Time Traveller has a direct impact on the plot.

Derivative work

Time After Time (1979 film)

Main article: Time After Time (1979 film)

In Time After Time, H.G. Wells invents a time machine and shows it to some friends in a manner similar to the first part of the novella. He does not know that one of his friends is Jack The Ripper. The Ripper, fleeing police, escapes to the future (1979), but without a key which prevents the machine from remaining in the future. When it does return home, Wells follows him in order to protect the future (which he imagines to be a utopia) from the Ripper. In turn, the film inspired a 2017 TV series of the same name.


Classics Illustrated was the first to adapt The Time Machine into a comic book format, issuing an American edition in July 1956.

The Classics Illustrated version was published in French by Classiques Illustres in Dec 1957, and Classics Illustrated Strato Publications (Australian) in 1957, and Kuvitettuja Klassikkoja (a Finnish edition) in November 1957. There were also Classics Illustrated Greek editions in 1976, Swedish in 1987, German in 1992 and 2001, and a Canadian reprint of the English edition in 2008.

In 1976, Marvel Comics published a new version of The Time Machine, as #2 in their Marvel Classics Comics series, with art by Alex Niño. (This adaptation was originally published in 1973 by Pendulum Press as part of their Pendulum Now Age Classics series; it was colorized and reprinted by Marvel in 1976.)

In 1977, Polish painter Waldemar Andrzejewski adapted the novel as a 22-page comic book, written in Polish by Antoni Wolski.

From April 1990, Eternity Comics published a three-issue miniseries adaptation of The Time Machine, written by Bill Spangler and illustrated by John Ross — this was collected as a trade paperback graphic novel in 1991.

In 2018, US imprint Insight Comics published an adaptation of the novel, as part of their "H. G. Wells" series of comic books.

Sequels by other authors

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Wells's novella has become one of the cornerstones of science-fiction literature. As a result, it has spawned many offspring. Works expanding on[citation needed] Wells's story include:

See also


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  3. ^ "Class in The Time Machine". The British Library. Archived from the original on 15 July 2021. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
  4. ^ a b Parrinder, Patrick (2000), "Science Fiction: Metaphor, Myth or Prophecy?", Science Fiction, Critical Frontiers, London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 23–34, doi:10.1007/978-1-349-62832-2_2, ISBN 978-1-349-62834-6, archived from the original on 20 March 2022, retrieved 1 July 2021
  5. ^ a b Wells, Herbert George (2007). The Time Machine. London: Penguin UK. pp. 94–96. ISBN 9780141439976.
  6. ^ H. G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction
  7. ^ H. G. Wells: Early Writings in Science and Science Fiction
  8. ^ a b Hammond, John R. (2004). H. G. Wells's The Time Machine: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0313330070.
  9. ^ SF: The Other Side of Realism; Essays on Modern Fantasy and Science Fiction
  10. ^ The National Observer Essays by H. G. Wells - ITTDB
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  12. ^ "The Time Machine (Paperback) | the Book Table". Archived from the original on 30 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  13. ^ " » MAN OF THE YEAR MILLION". 14 January 2010. Archived from the original on 14 January 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2021.
  14. ^ Edward Bulwer-Lytton (2007). The Coming Race. Wesleyan University Press. p. 46. ISBN 978-0-8195-6735-2. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  15. ^ "HG Wells' letter goes on display in Sevenoaks". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  16. ^ Beale, Lewis (3 March 2002). "Wells's Future is Forever Recurring". Film. The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
  17. ^ John R. Hammond (2004). H. G. Wells's The Time Machine: A Reference Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-313-33007-0. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2020.
  18. ^ "Working Women". Entertainment - One for the Books: Nonfiction. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 15 July 2018. Retrieved 15 July 2018.
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  21. ^ Chapter VI: "'Communism,' said I to myself."
  22. ^ "New Review, May 1895, p. 577". 1895. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  23. ^ H. G. Wells (1895). "The Further Vision". The Time Machine, Henry Holt [publisher], May 1895, p. 192. H. Holt. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  24. ^ H. G. Wells. "The Further Vision". The Time Machine, William Heinemann [publisher], May 1895, p. 134. Archived from the original on 28 November 2021. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  25. ^ "The Internet Time Travel Database: The Time Machine". Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  26. ^ Hammond, John R. (2004). H. G. Wells's The Time Machine: A Reference Guide. Westport, Conn.: Praeger. p. 50. ISBN 978-0313330070.
  27. ^ "The Internet Time Travel Database: The Final Men". Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 31 March 2021.
  28. ^ Symon, Evan V. (14 January 2013). "10 Deleted Chapters that Transformed Famous Books". Listverse. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  29. ^ Everett Franklin Bleiler; Richard Bleiler (1990). Science-Fiction, the Early Years: A Full Description of More Than 3,000 Science-Fiction Stories from Earliest Times to the Appearance of the Genre Magazines in 1930, with author, title, and motif indexes. Kent State University Press. p. 796. ISBN 9780873384162.
  30. ^ H.G. Wells's Perennial Time Machine: Selected Essays from the Centenary Conference, "The Time Machine: Past, Present, and Future". H.G. Wells's Time Machine centenary conference, 1995. University of Georgia Press. 2001.
  31. ^ Hammond, John R. (2004). H.G. Wells's The Time Machine: A reference guide. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 978-0313330070.
  32. ^ "Index to The Undying Fire". The H.G. Wells Society. Archived from the original on 13 July 2020. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  33. ^ a b c Stover, Leon (1996). The Time Machine: An invention – A critical text of the 1895 London first edition. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company. p. 7. ISBN 978-0786401246.
  34. ^ Wolff, Larry (2003). "The rise and fall of 'Morlacchismo': South Slavic identity in the mountains of Dalmatia". In Naimark, Norman; Case, Holly (eds.). Yugoslavia and Its Historians: Understanding the Balkan Wars of the 1990s. Stanford University Press. p. 49. ISBN 9780804780292. Archived from the original on 20 March 2022. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  35. ^ a b c Alkon, Paul K. (1994). Science Fiction Before 1900: Imagination Discovers Technology. New York: Twayne Publishers. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-0805709520.
  36. ^ Lucas, Clyde (28 October 2015). "The Time Machine Alan Young". IMDb. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
  37. ^ "The Time Machine". BBC Radio 3 – Drama on 3. 30 August 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 31 October 2015.
  38. ^ "Out Now: H.G. Wells' The Time Machine". Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  39. ^ Cornell, Paul; Day, Martin; Topping, Keith (30 July 2015). The Classic British Telefantasy Guide. Orion Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-575-13352-5.
  40. ^ Sherlock Holmes in Orbit, Archived 24 July 2019 at the Wayback Machine, John DeChancie, "The Richmond Enigma", Sherlock Holmes in Orbit, DAW Books, New York: 1995