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Total sounding (TS) is a sounding method performed as part of geotechnical investigation. The sounding combines conventional rotary-pressure sounding with bedrock drilling, including rotation, ramming and flushing modes. The result indicates sediment stratification, occasionally soil type and may verify depth to bedrock.[1]


The rotary-pressure sounding method was developed by the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI) and the Public Roads Administration (NPRA) in 1967.[2]


  1. ^ "Geotechnical Methods | Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse".
  2. ^ Rygg, N. O. (1989). "Rotary-Pressure Sounding: 20 Years of Experience". Norwegian Geotechnical Institute Publication (177).