In basketball, traveling is a violation of the rules that occurs when a player holding the ball moves one or both their feet illegally. Traveling is also called, predominantly in a streetball game, "walking" or "steps". If the pivot foot is lifted, a pass or try for made basket must be made before the pivot foot is replaced to the floor. In the NBA and FIBA, players are also given a "gather step".
When a player has taken more than three steps without the ball being dribbled, a traveling violation is called. In 2018, FIBA revised the rule so that one can take a "gather step" before taking the two steps. A travel can also be called via carrying or an unestablished pivot foot. If the pivot foot of a player changes or moves, it is considered traveling.
Rule 9, Section 5. Traveling
Art. 1. A player shall not travel with the ball.
Art. 2. Traveling occurs when a player holding the ball moves a foot or both feet in any direction in excess of prescribed limits described in this section.
Art. 3. A player who catches the ball with both feet on the playing court may pivot, using either foot. When one foot is lifted, the other is the pivot foot.
Art. 4. A player who catches the ball while moving or ends a dribble may stop and establish a pivot foot as follows:
Art. 5. After coming to a stop and establishing the pivot foot:
Art. 6. After coming to a stop when neither foot can be the pivot foot:
Art. 7. It is traveling when a player falls to the playing court while holding the ball without maintaining a pivot foot.
The National Federation of State High School Associations (NFHS) traveling rule is almost identical to the NCAA rule, with an additional article clarifying restrictions regarding a player holding the ball while on the floor.
Rule 10, Section XIII—Traveling
a. A player who receives the ball while standing still may pivot, using either foot as the pivot foot.
b. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing or upon completion of a dribble, may take two steps in coming to a stop, passing or shooting the ball. A player who receives the ball while he is progressing must release the ball to start his dribble before his second step.
The first step occurs when a foot, or both feet, touch the floor after gaining control of the ball.
The second step occurs after the first step when the other foot touches the floor, or both feet touch the floor simultaneously.
A player who comes to a stop on step one when both feet are on the floor or touch the floor simultaneously may pivot using either foot as his pivot. If he jumps with both feet he must release the ball before either foot touches the floor.
A player who lands with one foot first may only pivot using that foot.
A progressing player who jumps off one foot on the first step may land with both feet simultaneously for the second step. In this situation, the player may not pivot with either foot and if one or both feet leave the floor the ball must be released before either returns to the floor.
c. In starting a dribble after (1) receiving the ball while standing still, or (2) coming to a legal stop, the ball must be out of the player’s hand before the pivot foot is raised off the floor.
d. If a player, with the ball in his possession, raises his pivot foot off the floor, he must pass or shoot before his pivot foot returns to the floor. If he drops the ball while in the air, he may not be the first to touch the ball.
e. A player who falls to the floor while holding the ball, or while coming to a stop, may not gain an advantage by sliding.
f. A player who attempts a field goal may not be the first to touch the ball if it fails to touch the backboard, basket ring or another player.
g. A player is not allowed to be the first to touch his own pass unless the ball touches his backboard, basket ring or another player.
h. Upon ending his dribble or gaining control of the ball, a player may not touch the floor consecutively with the same foot (hop).
According to some observers, enforcement of the rule as written is not necessarily rigorous in the NBA, and traveling violations are often overlooked.
Article 25 of the FIBA Official Basketball Rules 2018:
25.1.1. Traveling is the illegal movement of one foot or both feet beyond the limits outlined in this article, in any direction, while holding a live ball on the playing court.
25.1.2. A pivot is the legal movement in which a player who is holding a live ball on the playing court steps once or more than once in any direction with the same foot, while the other foot, called the pivot foot, is kept at its point of contact with the floor.
25.2.1. Establishing a pivot foot by a player who catches a live ball on the playing court:
25.2.2. A player falling, lying or sitting on the floor:
The ball becomes dead and a throw-in is awarded to the opposing team out of bounds nearest the point where the violation took place under NCAA and NFHS rules. Under NBA rules, the ball is awarded to the opposing team at the nearest spot but no closer to the baseline than the free throw line extended.
Netball rules do not permit players to let their landing foot touch the ground again if it is lifted at all while in possession of the ball, so players can take 1.5 steps while holding the ball. Pivoting does not count as a step. Players are entitled to balance on the other foot if the landing foot is lifted. An infraction of this rule is usually called traveling (or steps) as in basketball.
IFNA Rule 14.3 states:
A free pass is awarded to the opposing team where the infringement occurred.
In korfball, either foot can be used as pivot, no matter which foot touches the ground first. This means that in practice, one can take 2.5 steps, e.g. landing on the right foot, putting down the left and displacing the right. The left foot is the pivot in this case. The left foot can then be lifted, but may not be repositioned.