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Trujillo
Anthem: Himno del Estado Trujillo
Location within Venezuela
CountryVenezuela
Created1899
CapitalTrujillo
Government
 • BodyLegislative Council
 • GovernorHenry Rangel Silva (2012–present)
 • Assembly delegation5
Area
 • Total7,198 km2 (2,779 sq mi)
 • Rank18th
 0.81% of Venezuela
Population
 (2011 census est.)
 • Total686,367
 • Rank17th
 2.58% of Venezuela
Time zoneUTC−4 (VET)
ISO 3166 codeVE-T
Emblematic treeBucare anauco (Erythrina fusca)
HDI (2019)0.680[1]
medium · 18th of 24
Websitewww.gbet.gov.ve
Old sugar plantation in Trujillo
Old sugar plantation in Trujillo

Trujillo State (Spanish: Estado Trujillo,[2] Spanish pronunciation: [esˈtaðo tɾuˈxiʝo] (audio speaker iconlisten)) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.[3] Its capital is Trujillo[4] but the largest city is Valera. The state is divided into 20 municipalities and 93 parishes. Trujillo State covers a total surface area of 7,198 km2 (2,779 sq mi)[5] and, has a 2011 census population of 686,367.[6]

History

Spanish colonization

The city of Trujillo was founded in 1557 by the conquistador and captain Diego García de Paredes, in honor of his homonymous and native town located in Extremadura, Spain. Hostility from the Kuikas Indians and natural calamities forced changes in settlement, but on 27 October 1570 the town was finally located under the temporary name of Trujillo de Nuestra Señora de la Paz. It is also known as the Portable City because of its many foundations due to the fierce resistance of the indigenous people who inhabited that territory when defending their lands .

On 31 December 1676, Maracaibo (separated from the province of Venezuela) and Mérida-La Grita are united in a government, which includes in its territory the current state of Trujillo, called the Province of Mérida del Espíritu Santo of Maracaibo (capital in Mérida) dependent on the Audiencia of Bogotá.

In 1677 the French pirate Michel de Grandmont sacked the city of Trujillo after subduing Maracaibo and Gibraltar on the eastern shore of Lake Maracaibo. In 1678 Governor Jorge de Madureira moves the capital from Merida to Maracaibo and changes the name to Province of Maracaibo.

On September 8, 1777, King Carlos III created the Captaincy General of Venezuela by Royal Decree, adding the surrounding provinces to his jurisdiction "in the governmental and military field" and ordering the governors of those provinces to "obey" the Captain General and "carry out his orders". The provinces of Cumaná, Maracaibo, Guayana, Trinidad and Margarita are separated from the viceroyalty of New Granada and united with the province of Venezuela. In addition, those of Maracaibo and Guayana pass from the jurisdiction of the Audiencia of Bogotá to that of Santo Domingo, to which the others already belong.

It was part of the Province of Caracas until 1786, when it became an integral part of the Province of Maracaibo. A Royal Decree of February 15, 1786, ordered the transfer of the city of Trujillo from the governorship of Caracas to that of Maracaibo. The same document separated the city of Barinas from Maracaibo, choosing it as a separate province.

19th and 20th centuries

In 1810 the city and district of Trujillo separated from the Province of Maracaibo to create a new province, which would be a signatory of the Venezuelan Independence Act in 1811.

On June 15, 1813, Simón Bolívar, the Liberator, signs in the town of Trujillo at 3:00 am the Decree of War to Death against the Spaniards and the Canaries until they were granted freedom, which makes Trujillo a very important city in the history and the War of Independence of Venezuela.

On July 2, 1813, the patriots, under the command of Colonel José Félix Ribas, defeated the royalists in the battle of Niquitao in the framework of the Admirable Campaign.

On November 27, 1820, in the town of Santa Ana de Trujillo, Simón Bolívar and Captain General Pablo Morillo sign the Treaty of Armistice and Regularization of the War. By means of these treaties the war to death was officially repealed, a truce of six months was agreed in addition to constituting a de facto recognition of the Great Colombia by the crown of Spain.

When Venezuela separated from Gran Colombia in 1830, the Department of Zulia was renamed the Province of Maracaibo. The provinces of Merida and Coro were immediately separated, leaving the province composed only of the sections Zulia and Trujillo.

In 1831 the province of Trujillo was constituted by separating from the province of Maracaibo which was composed only of the Zulia section. The state of Trujillo was created in 1863, as it would be during the government of Juan Vicente Gómez, when he created more states after being diminished by Cipriano Castro.

General Simón Bolívar signing the decree of War to Death against Spanish Empire during the War of Independence in Trujillo, 1813
General Simón Bolívar signing the decree of War to Death against Spanish Empire during the War of Independence in Trujillo, 1813

Between 1859 and 1864, during the Federal War, the state was strangely divided into two factions, the conservatives of Jajó and the liberals of Santiago. In 1863 the state was created as Trujillo, formed by the former province of Trujillo that had been created in 1810, with the territory that had been assigned to it in 1856: Trujillo, Escuque, Boconó and Carache. In that same year it was called the Sovereign State of Los Andes; but the Constitution of 1864 recognizes it as the state of Trujillo. In 1881 it is part, together with Mérida and Táchira, of the Great State of Los Andes

In 1887, the port of La Ceiba became very important when the Gran Ferrocarril La Ceiba-Sabana de Mendoza began operations and later in 1895 it was extended to Motatán. In 1898, it was separated and organized again as Trujillo State, giving itself a new Constitution in 1899; with this denomination it has continued until today.

The railway line begins to lose importance in 1925 with the inauguration of the Trasandina Highway, as well as the progressive decrease of coffee production in Venezuela. In the era of President Juan Vicente Gómez, the population of Trujillo was almost entirely foreign and commercial, but after its fall, its cultural development began. The Ateneo de Trujillo (Kuikas complex) is an example, little by little this population became a city and capital of the state. Among other towns, the most important are Boconó and Valera, both of which are great tourist attractions.

Geography

The state of Trujillo is mainly mountainous as it is crossed from southwest to northeast by the Andes mountain range, although it also has hills and plains.

The Andes Mountains are divided here into three branches, these are separated by the Motatan and Boconó valleys. The highlight of the state is the 4,006 m Teta de Niquitao. The plains are the Sabanas de Monay and the plains of El Cenizo. The shores that border Lake Maracaibo are swampy. Trujillo State is the smallest of the Andean states, and the one with the lowest absolute population as well, although its density is higher than Merida State. It is located in western Venezuela.

Limits

The boundaries of the state of Trujillo are:

Relief

Los Cedros Lagoon, Trujillo State
Los Cedros Lagoon, Trujillo State

The relief is rugged because it is located in the Venezuelan Andes (Sierra de Merida), which is part of the great Andes Mountains, although it has a vast flat region in the depression of Lake Maracaibo.

Climate

The climate is tropical mountainous, and the temperature can be between 20° and 10 °C approximately. However, there are areas such as Monay where the temperature can reach 32 °C and in the páramo area, such as the Riecito area at the border of the Urdaneta, Boconó, and Trujillo municipalities, where the average temperature drops to 4 °C. The relief favors the formation of a series of local climates, where the winds play a very important role, penetrating the state from the northeast, as well as from the east. The predominant climate in almost the entire state corresponds, according to Köeppen's classification, to a savanna climate (Aw), with an average annual temperature in the state capital of approximately 23.5 °C and rainfall of up to 936 mm per year. Soils Despite its traditionally agricultural character, the state of Trujillo has a limited amount of land suitable for agriculture. The presence of large mountain areas is a determining factor in this limitation. However, the State Management Plan states that 64.5% of the territory has good conditions for the implementation of a variety of agricultural production systems of a certain intensity, and that the remaining 35.5% is covered by natural protective vegetation. The development of an intensive agriculture must be subordinated to conservation practices of the resources involved, that is why three levels of preservation of lands with potential for agricultural activity are proposed: maximum, medium and low, expressing each one of them different degrees of flexibility in the defense of the soil resource.

Hydrography

Burate River, Trujillo State
Burate River, Trujillo State

Rivers

Demographics

The main cities in the state of Trujillo are: Valera, a city that is the economic capital of the state, and at the same time, the city with the largest population (165,848 inhabitants in 2015 and about 200,000 with the conglomerate Valera-Carvajal). Another important city is Boconó, which is one of the cities with the largest population of the state (127,420 inhabitants), this is an agro-industrial city. Trujillo is the political-administrative capital of the state, with some growth in tourism and other economies. Other important towns are: La Puerta, Pampán, a town of historical importance, Pampanito, Cuicas, Santa Ana de Trujillo, Carache, a great producer of papelón, Betijoque, Escuque, Motatán and others, towns of great regional culture, among others. Its main and only port is La Ceiba located on the eastern coast of Lake Maracaibo.

Economy

The state bases its economic activity mainly on agriculture, which is complemented by other important sectors.

Potato harvest in the state of Trujillo
Potato harvest in the state of Trujillo

Agriculture

The great variety of geological, geomorphological and climatic factors have determined the existence of a great variety of soils in the state, which has a total of 291,280 ha of agricultural land, representing 39.36% of its total area. In addition some 55,110 ha of livestock use (7.45%), some 307,020 ha of forest vegetation (41.49%) and 86,590 ha of combined use (11.70%). In the plain in contact with Lake Maracaibo or "low zone", specifically in jurisdiction of the municipalities of Andrés Bello, La Ceiba, Sucre, Bolívar and Monte Carmelo, and in the plains of Monay (municipality of Pampán), the highest proportion It comprises about 200,000 ha of land suitable for agricultural and forestry use for the cultivation of cereals,oilseeds,roots and tubers,vegetables and plantations and/or fruit trees.

One of the oldest irrigation systems and agricultural settlements in the country, El Cenizo, was built in this area and development programmes have been undertaken It is also located on the plain in the industrial zone of Agua Santa, of the same name as the Caús-Pocó, with fruit trees, cereals and an important Cattle farm. In the plains of Monay, located in the north and east of the AguaViva, sugar cane production has a great competitive advantage due to its proximity to the La Pastora power station and the agronomic conditions of its soils.

Tourism

Among the sites of tourist interest in the state are the buildings and monuments that served as the scene of events that had a strong meaning during the time of the independence struggle, the main ones are the Admirable campaign and the signing of the Decree of War to Death and the Treaty of Armistice and Regularization of the War. In addition to these we can also find various natural monuments.

Monument to Our Lady of Peace, Trujillo State
Monument to Our Lady of Peace, Trujillo State
Momboy Valley, Trujillo State
Momboy Valley, Trujillo State

National Parks

Guaramacal National Park, Trujillo
Guaramacal National Park, Trujillo

Religión

The majority of the population of the state of Trujillo is Christian, mostly belonging to the Catholic Church, with minorities belonging to other Christian denominations and small groups of atheists.

The state has a rich Christian religious architecture among which it is possible to highlight:

Church of St. John the Baptist in Valera, Trujillo
Church of St. John the Baptist in Valera, Trujillo
Dr. Eusebio Baptista Park, Boconó, Trujillo
Dr. Eusebio Baptista Park, Boconó, Trujillo

Municipalities and municipal seats

Carache Municipality, Trujillo
Carache Municipality, Trujillo
Municipality Seat
Andrés Bello
Santa Isabel
Boconó
Boconó
Bolívar
Sabana Grande
Candelaria
Chejendé
Carache
Carache
Escuque
Escuque
José Felipe Márquez Cañizales
El Paradero
Juan Vicente Campo Elías
Campo Elías
La Ceiba
Santa Apolonia
Miranda
El Dividive
Monte Carmelo Monte Carmelo
Motatán
Motatán
Pampán
Pampán
Pampanito
Pampanito
Rafael Rangel
Betijoque
San Rafael de Carvajal
Carvajal
Sucre
Sabana de Mendoza
Trujillo
Trujillo
Urdaneta
La Quebrada
Valera
Valera
San Isidro Castle, Valera Municipality
San Isidro Castle, Valera Municipality

Population

Race and ethnicity

According to the 2011 Census, the racial composition of the population was:[7]

Racial composition Population %
Mestizo N/A 49.6
White 369,961 48.3
Black 9,958 1.3
Other race N/A 0.8

Education

Sports

The most popular sport in the region is football, something similar to what happens in other Andean states of Venezuela such as Táchira or Mérida. The most prominent team is Trujillanos Fútbol Club, which plays in the first division of Venezuela and is based in the Estadio Olímpico José Alberto Pérez de Valera, where the much smaller Somos Escuque Fútbol Club, a third division team, also plays its matches.

José Alberto Pérez Stadium in Valera, Trujillo State
José Alberto Pérez Stadium in Valera, Trujillo State

The organization in charge of promoting sports in the state, is the Trujillo State Sports Institute called Indet, which manages other facilities such as the Ricardo Salas Gymnasium in San Luis (Gimnasio Cubierto "Ricardo Salas") in the Municipality of Valera, which is a sports hall suitable for sports such as basketball, volleyball or indoor football. Other facilities include the Baseball Stadium in San Luis, the Luis Loreto Lira Sports Centre, the "Carmania" Cultural Complex, the Vicente Laguna Velodrome in Mendoza Fría, the "Regulo Jiménez" Wrestling Gymnasium, the "Ana De Marchandi" Gymnasium, the "Nestor Rosales" Tae Kwon Do Gymnasium, the "Romulo Ramírez" Indoor Football Gymnasium, and the "Alicia Nava" Olympic Swimming Pool.

Government and politics

See also: Cabinet of Venezuela § Federal Council of Government

Like other states, the structure of the government of Trujillo is laid out in the Constitution, the highest law in the state.

Executive Power

It is composed by the Governor of the State of Trujillo and a group of State Secretaries chosen by him to assist him in the government functions. The Governor is elected by the people through direct and secret vote for a period of four years and with the possibility of one or more reelections as of 2009 for an equal period, being in charge of the state administration.

Since 1989 the Governors are chosen in direct elections by the people, the current Trujillo Government is led by Henry Rangel Silva.

Legislative Power

The state legislature is the unicameral Legislative Council of the State of Trujillo, elected by the people through a universal, direct and secret vote every four years, with the possibility of being reelected for other consecutive periods, under a system of proportional representation of the population of the state and its municipalities. The state has 9 legislators, of which 1 belongs to the opposition (UNT) and 8 to the government (PSUV and UVE).

Trujillo Police

Like the other 23 federal entities of Venezuela, the State maintains its own police force, which is supported and complemented by the National Police and the Venezuelan National Guard.

Headquarters of the General Directorate of the State Police of Trujillo
Headquarters of the General Directorate of the State Police of Trujillo

See also

References

  1. ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved July 31, 2021.
  2. ^ State), Trujillo (Venezuela (1904). Ley de división territorial del estado Trujillo (in Spanish). Tip. del estado.
  3. ^ Vila, Marco Aurelio (1966). Aspectos geográficos del Estado Trujillo (in Spanish). Corporación Venezolana de Fomento.
  4. ^ Estadística, Venezuela Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría División de (1968). Estadísticas del Estado Trujillo (in Spanish). Ministerio de Agricultura y Cría, División de Estadística.
  5. ^ "GeoHive – Venezuela population statistics". Retrieved July 4, 2012.
  6. ^ Estado Trujillo: censo de población y vivienda 2001 (in Spanish). Instituto Nacional de Estadística. 2006.
  7. ^ "Resultado Básico del XIV Censo Nacional de Población y Vivienda 2011 (Mayo 2014)" (PDF). Ine.gov.ve. p. 29. Retrieved September 8, 2015.

Coordinates: 9°25′01″N 70°30′00″W / 9.417°N 70.500°W / 9.417; -70.500