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Part of Taipei city mall, next to the Taipei railway station, an underground station of Taiwan railway, Taiwan high speed rail and Taipei metro.
Part of Taipei city mall, next to the Taipei railway station, an underground station of Taiwan railway, Taiwan high speed rail and Taipei metro.

An underground city is a series of linked subterranean spaces that may provide a defensive refuge; a place for living, working or shopping; a transit system; mausolea; wine or storage cellars; cisterns or drainage channels; or several of these. Underground cities may be currently active modern creations or they may be historic including ancient sites, some of which may be all or partially open to the public.

The term may also refer to a network of tunnels that connects buildings beneath street level that may house office blocks, shopping malls, metro stations, theatres, and other attractions. These passages can usually be accessed through the public space of any of the buildings connecting to them, and sometimes have separate entries as well. This latter definition encompasses many modern structures, whereas the former more generally covers tunnel systems from ancient times to the present day.

Underground cities are especially functional in cities with very cold or hot climates, because they permit activities to be comfortably accessible year round without regard to the weather. Underground cities are similar in nature to skyway systems and may include some buildings linked by skyways or above-ground corridors rather than underground.

Some cities also have tunnels that have been abandoned.[1][2][3]

Argentina

Buenos Aires, capital of Argentina, has an extensive number of underground cities in its Subte. Most stations have small shops, bars and kiosks, while main hubs interconnect through underground pedestrian walkways with railroad stations, governmental buildings, or shopping centres. Some have additional mall-like mezzanine levels, with the Centro Obelisk of Buenos Aires area (three lines, four underground levels), Estación Retiro, Estación Constitución, Estación Once, and Federico Lacroze railway station being the most important ones.

Australia

Sydney has a series of underground shopping malls around the Town Hall underground station. The tunnels run south to the George Street cinema district, west under the town hall, and north to Pitt Street Mall through the Queen Victoria Building. The northern branch links Queen Victoria Building with Galleries Victoria, Sydney Central Plaza (which in turn links underground to Westfield Sydney and internally above ground to Centrepoint, Imperial Arcade, Skygarden, Glasshouse and 25 Martin Place). The linked centres run for over 3 km (2 mi). In 2005, Westfield Corporation submitted a development application to link Sydney Central Plaza underground with 3 other properties on Pitt Street Mall and extend the tunnel network by a further 500 m (1,640 ft) or more.

Perth has a small network of underground shopping malls running from the St Georges Terrace entrance to Trinity Arcade to Murray Street Mall.

The small town of Coober Pedy in northern South Australia has numerous underground residences and other facilities. The area was and is extensively mined for opal, and the settlers lived underground to escape the scorching daytime heat, often exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).

Canada

PATH entrance, Toronto, Ontario

The cold-winter northern continental climate of much of Canada makes underground pedestrian malls particularly useful in many cities.

Chile

Santiago has some elements of an underground city in its "Metro" subway system. While all stations have a small mezzanine level above the tracks for ticket purchase, some key stations have extensive areas of shops and kiosks in addition. Some stations even have an additional mall-like level between the street and the mezzanine levels.

China

Finland

A "compass square" of Asematunneli, an underground shopping center near the Helsinki Central railway station
A "compass square" of Asematunneli, an underground shopping center near the Helsinki Central railway station

France

Germany

Extensive underground bunkers still exist all throughout the city centre, although they are largely sealed off and closed to the public.
All of the buildings at the large Charité Virchow campus are connected via a system of spacious tunnels. In addition to employee use, particularly during inclement weather, there is also a rudimentary robotic system via which mail and packages are delivered across campus.

Greece

In Thessaloniki, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman monuments coexist underground and several of these have been discovered and emerged. Monuments such as the Catacombs of St. John and the underground museum of the Agora have limited access and many are not permitted to enter even to the locals by the Archaeological Department of the Thessaloniki underground Metro project.[14]

Hong Kong

Many MTR stations in Hong Kong form extended underground networks connecting to buildings and at the basement of some major shopping malls in the area above. The stations themselves house a number of retail shops. Notable examples are the CentralHong Kong stations and the Tsim Sha TsuiEast Tsim Sha Tsui stations. Only rarely are there not any shops. Additional underground networks have been proposed for Causeway Bay in 2006 and in Kwun Tong under Hoi Yuen Road in 2010. As of 2014, studies are underway for underground networks in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon Park, Victoria Park, Causeway Bay, Happy Valley, Admiralty, Wan Chai and Hong Kong Park. In 2017, The Development Bureau announced that two underground streets will be constructed, which would connect San Po Kong, Kai Tak station and Sung Wong Toi station.

Iran

Historical underground cities of Persia include Samen, Nushabad, and Kariz.

Italy

Japan

Shiodome City Center underground in Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Shiodome City Center underground in Minato, Tokyo, Japan
Tenjin Underground City in Chūō-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan
Tenjin Underground City in Chūō-ku, Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan

Jordan

Jordan boasts the city of Petra—"rose-red city, half as old as time"—carved from the living rock.

Mexico

Guanajuato city was built over old silver mines, some of which are used as roads. The Mexico DF metro system has many underground pedestrian walkways connecting stations.

Netherlands

In general, many large railway stations house underground hallways featuring shops, restaurants, banks and money exchange offices. A striking example of such stations would be the main hallway of the Amsterdam central station, which connects to the city's metro system, although due to renovation and re-building it was temporarily (2012–2015) not possible to walk from the subway to the train station without going outside.

Poland

Russia

Singapore

South Korea

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

Taiwan

See also: Taipei Underground Market

An underground mall in Taipei connecting two Taipei Metro stations.
An underground mall in Taipei connecting two Taipei Metro stations.

Taipei has underground streets connecting two or more metro stations. In addition, there is a large underground shopping mall near the main train station.

Turkey

A typical view from inside the underground city in Derinkuyu, one of the largest underground complexes in Cappadocia. There are few artifacts left from the original builders, mainly just large rocks that were used to block the passage for intruders. Most of the "cities" are corridors, but some places there are rooms large enough to live in, and some rooms that have the cross-like shape of a church, which is probably exactly what they were.
A typical view from inside the underground city in Derinkuyu, one of the largest underground complexes in Cappadocia. There are few artifacts left from the original builders, mainly just large rocks that were used to block the passage for intruders. Most of the "cities" are corridors, but some places there are rooms large enough to live in, and some rooms that have the cross-like shape of a church, which is probably exactly what they were.

Ukraine

United Kingdom

United States

Underground passage of the Empire State Plaza, featuring a collection of large-scale abstract modern art
Underground passage of the Empire State Plaza, featuring a collection of large-scale abstract modern art
Shirley's White House Vicksburg in 1863
Shirley's White House Vicksburg in 1863

See also

Other parent categories from the same field:

Types of underground spaces and people, and related topics:

References

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  2. ^ Lord, Steve (September 29, 2017), "Vault project shines light on underground Aurora", The Chicago Tribune, archived from the original on 2017-10-28
  3. ^ Garvin, Cosmo (17 July 2003), "The past below", Sacramento Newsreview, archived from the original on 2014-02-08
  4. ^ Jiang, Steven. "Beijing Journal: An underground 'parallel universe'". Cable News Network (2008-02-01). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
  5. ^ "广州最全16个地下商场!逛街来这里!衣服便宜又漂亮!-美食频道-手机搜狐". m.sohu.com. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  6. ^ "联系方式 | 广州花城汇购物中心". www.mowgz.com. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  7. ^ "杭州最大的地下商城今天开建 地铁站直通杭州大厦(图) - 杭网原创 - 杭州网". ori.hangzhou.com.cn. Retrieved 2016-12-24.
  8. ^ 时小咪. "每一个深圳人,都自动携带华强北基因". Weixin Official Accounts Platform. Retrieved 2020-11-09.
  9. ^ Underground Helsinki – My Helsinki
  10. ^ Underground Helsinki and Underground Urbanism
  11. ^ ABC News: Helsinki's sprawling underground tunnel network offers shelter from Russia's potential threat
  12. ^ "Notre tournée des visites souterraines : À Arras, retour au Moyen-Âge dans les boves".
  13. ^ "Arras - Der Wellington-Steinbruch- Wege der Erinnerung des Ersten Weltkriegs im Nord-Pas de Calais". www.wegedererinnerung-nordfrankreich.com.
  14. ^ "Πόλος έλξης η υπόγεια Θεσσαλονίκη (English:Underground Thessaloniki is a pole of attraction" (in Greek). October 31, 2010. Archived from the original on September 4, 2012.
  15. ^ "سال آینده میدان هفت تیر زیرزمینی می شود". www.khabaronline.ir.
  16. ^ "Never Get Lost in Shinjuku Station Again!".
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  25. ^ "New York State Office of General Services". www.ogs.ny.gov.
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  27. ^ "Map/Directory" (PDF).
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  29. ^ "Montana's Russell Country: Havre Beneath the Streets". Archived from the original on 2012-07-29.
  30. ^ "Map of Minnesota State Capitol complex" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-04-03.
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