Alliance, Ohio
Glamorgan Castle
Glamorgan Castle
Carnation City
Location of Alliance in Stark County
Location of Alliance in Stark County
Alliance is located in Ohio
Alliance is located in the United States
Coordinates: 40°54′48″N 81°6′29″W / 40.91333°N 81.10806°W / 40.91333; -81.10806
CountryUnited States
CountiesStark, Mahoning
 • TypeMayor-Council[1]
 • MayorAndrew D Grove
 • Council PresidentArt Garnes
 • Total9.06 sq mi (23.46 km2)
 • Land9.01 sq mi (23.34 km2)
 • Water0.04 sq mi (0.12 km2)
Elevation1,158 ft (353 m)
 • Total21,672
 • Density2,404.79/sq mi (928.52/km2)
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
ZIP code
Area code(s)330, 234
FIPS code39-01420[4]
GNIS feature ID1064313[3]

Alliance is a city in eastern Stark County, Ohio, United States, with a small district lying in adjacent Mahoning County. The city is approximately 16 miles (26 km) northeast of Canton, 27 miles (43 km) southwest of Youngstown and 51 miles (82 km) southeast of Cleveland. Its population was 21,672 as of the 2020 census.

Alliance was established in 1854 by the merger of three smaller communities. The city was a manufacturing and railroad hub for much of the 20th century and is also associated with the state flower of Ohio, the scarlet carnation, and is known as "The Carnation City". The University of Mount Union, a private liberal arts college established in 1846, is located in Alliance. The city is part of the Canton–Massillon metropolitan area.


Chapman Hall, University of Mount Union campus (1864)

Alliance was founded in 1854 by the merger of three smaller communities called Williamsport, formed in 1827, Freedom, formed in 1838, and Liberty, formed in 1850 to act as a station and support hub for the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad.[5] A fourth community, Mount Union, was added in 1888. Alliance was incorporated as a city in 1889.[6]

There are two popular theories regarding the origin of the city's name. One holds that it was chosen because of the "alliance" of three small settlements into a larger entity.[7] The other theory says the name reflects the fact that two major railroad lines, the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Railroad and the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad, intersected at Alliance, once known as "The Crossing".[6][7][8]

On April 12, 1856, Alliance was directly struck by a tornado, causing extensive damage. A roof of a church was removed, and another church was moved off its foundation. A train that stopped at the Alliance Station was pushed off its rails. The destruction was estimated to be $15,000 to $20,000 (in 1856 dollars, equivalent to $651,407 in 2022). A few injuries and one fatality were confirmed.[9][10]

In 1923, Alliance Rubber Company was founded in Alliance. It was a manufacturer of rubber bands cut from discarded rubber rings into small strips.

Alliance's Main Street was originally laid out to bring traffic to the train station, the heart of the city's transportation hub. The railroads were central to industry and personal transportation, bringing in raw materials for factories and sending out finished goods. Due to this, Alliance is sometimes referred to as "the town where Main Street is a dead end".[11]

Alliance became a qualified Tree City USA as recognized by the National Arbor Day Foundation in 1982.[12]


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.96 square miles (23.21 km2), of which 8.92 square miles (23.10 km2) is land and 0.04 square miles (0.10 km2) is water.[13] There are no lakes within city limits, although the Mahoning River flows through the northeastern part of the city.


Historical population
U.S. Decennial Census[14]

2010 census

As of the census[15] of 2010, there were 22,322 people, 8,631 households, and 5,232 families living in the city. The population density was 2,502.5 inhabitants per square mile (966.2/km2). There were 10,022 housing units at an average density of 1,123.5 per square mile (433.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.6% White, 10.5% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.5% from other races, and 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population.

There were 8,631 households, of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.6% were married couples living together, 17.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.9% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.4% were non-families. 32.0% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96.

The median age in the city was 35.3 years. 22% of residents were under the age of 18; 16.1% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 22.4% were from 25 to 44; 23.9% were from 45 to 64; and 15.7% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female.

2000 census

As of the census[4] of 2000, there were 23,253 people, 8,908 households, and 5,665 families living in the city. The population density was 2,700.1 inhabitants per square mile (1,042.5/km2). There were 9,730 housing units at an average density of 1,129.8 per square mile (436.2/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 85.51% White, 11.19% African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.77% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, and 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.17% of the population.

There were 8,908 households, out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 14.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.4% were non-families. 30.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 23.5% under the age of 18, 15.5% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, and 16.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $30,078, and the median income for a family was $37,011. Males had a median income of $31,033 versus $20,063 for females. The per capita income for the city was $15,185. About 12.7% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.8% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over.

Arts and culture

This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Alliance, Ohio" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2023) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Alliance is a town rich with social, industrial and railroad history, with the restored Glamorgan Castle,[16] previous home of the owner of Morgan Engineering, the Haines House, a restored underground railroad home, and the Mabel Hartzell historic home. The name of Levi L. Lamborn, the man who cultivated the scarlet carnation, Ohio's state flower, can still be seen on the facade of a building in the old downtown district. The Richardsonian Romanesque stone house of the Devine family is currently being renovated. The historic downtown area is experiencing a gradual renaissance, with the opening of a Saturday Farmers' Market on Main Street near the historic Caboose, and the renovation of a storefront on Main Street as an art gallery and live performance space, joining a scattering of antique shops and other businesses.

The Cat Fanciers' Association relocated to the former Midland-Buckeye bank, at 260 East Main Street, in June 2011, opening the CFA Foundation's Feline Historical Museum, the first of its kind of the United States.

Alliance was also home to the World War History & Art Museum, located in College Plaza at 1300 East State Street. WWHAM had a dozen exhibits including a world class collection of 320 original paintings and drawings by the troops of World War I, an HO scale model of the German 2nd Panzer Division in 1944, and original art by the pilots and airmen of World War II. It closed to the public on April 17, 2014, and now does traveling shows.[17]

The Carnation City

Alliance is commonly referred to as the Carnation City, having been given that designation by the Ohio General Assembly in 1959.[18] Alliance gave Ohio its official state flower, the scarlet carnation. Alliance's association with the carnation began in 1866 when an Alliance doctor, Levi L. Lamborn, purchased six potted carnation plants to grow in a greenhouse at his house. At that time this flower was rarely cultivated in the United States. In 1876 Lamborn ran against William McKinley for the Congressional seat from this district. The two men were personal friends, although they were political opponents. McKinley had expressed his admiration for Lamborn's carnations, so before each of their political debates Lamborn gave McKinley a carnation to wear on his lapel. Mr. McKinley won the election and associated the carnation with his success, and wore carnations during his successful campaigns for Governor of Ohio and then President of the United States.[18]

In 1884, Lamborn suggested that Ohio should make the carnation a state emblem. In 1904, three years after President McKinley's assassination, the Ohio General Assembly designated the scarlet carnation as the official state flower as a "token of love and reverence to the memory of William McKinley". On January 29 of each year (President McKinley's birth anniversary), a bouquet of red carnations is placed in the hands of McKinley's statue at the Capitol in Columbus.[18]

Since 1960, Alliance has held an annual Carnation Festival during August.[19]


Alliance operates under a mayor–council government. Eight council members are elected as a legislature for 2-year terms, comprising four separate wards, three at-large districts, and a council president.[1] In addition, an independently elected mayor serves as an executive.[20] The current mayor is Alan Andreani, and the current council president is Art Garnes.[1] The mayor, auditor, treasurer, and law director are all elected to 4-year terms.


Primary and secondary schools

Alliance is served by the public Alliance City School District, which oversees the following schools serving the city:[21]

The local Catholic parish school, Holy Cross Academy – Regina Coelli Campus, is overseen by the Diocese of Youngstown and serves students from pre-kindergarten to eighth grade.[22][23]

Higher education

The University of Mount Union was founded in 1846 and is near the intersection of Union Avenue and State Street.


Alliance Station

Alliance is served by Amtrak's Capitol Limited between Chicago and Washington, D.C., via Alliance Station, located at 820 East Main Street. The municipality is also served by the Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) bus system.


Alliance is the city of license for PBS affiliate WNEO, channel 45, which has its studios and offices in Kent.

Notable people


  1. ^ a b c "Members - City Council". City of Alliance. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
  2. ^ "ArcGIS REST Services Directory". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 20, 2022.
  3. ^ a b "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  4. ^ a b "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  5. ^ Sanders, Craig (2009). Canton Area Railroads. Charleston, S.C.: Arcadia Publishing. p. 7. ISBN 9780738561110.
  6. ^ a b Incorporation of Alliance Archived August 27, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Rodman Public Library website (accessed February 3, 2008)
  7. ^ a b City of Alliance website Archived February 13, 2008, at the Wayback Machine (accessed February 3, 2008)
  8. ^ "Alliance, Ohio FAQ". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 4, 2008.
  9. ^ Alliance Tornado of 1856 News
  10. ^ Tornado in 1856
  11. ^ "A Short History of Alliance, Ohio". Alliance Historical Society. Archived from the original on November 20, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  12. ^ "Tree Cities Ohio" [1]. " Arbor Day Foundation accessed September 18, 2020.
  13. ^ "US Gazetteer files 2010". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 25, 2012. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  14. ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  15. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 6, 2013.
  16. ^ "Glamorgan Castle History and Events". Alliance City Schools. Archived from the original on December 1, 2014. Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  17. ^ "World War History and Art Museum". Retrieved November 30, 2014.
  18. ^ a b c Dr. Lamborn's Carnations Archived February 4, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, Rodman Public Library website (accessed February 3, 2008)
  19. ^ Greater Alliance Carnation Festival website
  20. ^ "Mayor / Director". City of Alliance. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
  21. ^ "Alliance City schools". National Center for Education Statistics. U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved January 31, 2023.
  22. ^ "Regina Coelli Campus – About Us".
  23. ^ "Stark's restructured Catholic schools prepare to open". The Alliance Review. August 15, 2013.
  24. ^ Beeman, Edward (2007). "Charles Armstrong, M.D.: A Biography" (PDF). Retrieved October 26, 2011.
  25. ^ "Honorary Degrees". West Virginia University. Archived from the original on September 19, 2017. Retrieved June 21, 2017.
  26. ^ Price, Mark J. (April 20, 2009). "Local History: Chemists Form Bonds for Science". Akron Beacon Journal.