Skeletal formula of zwitterion
Ball-and-stick model of the L-allysine molecule as a zwitteiron
Preferred IUPAC name
(2S)-2-Amino-6-oxohexanoic acid
Other names
2-aminoadipate semialdehyde, 2-amino-5-formylvaleric acid, norvaline, 6-oxo-DL-norleucine
3D model (JSmol)
MeSH allysine
  • InChI=1S/C6H11NO3/c7-5(6(9)10)3-1-2-4-8/h4-5H,1-3,7H2,(H,9,10) checkY
  • InChI=1/C6H11NO3/c7-5(6(9)10)3-1-2-4-8/h4-5H,1-3,7H2,(H,9,10)/t5-/m0/s1
  • InChI=1/C6H11NO3/c7-5(6(9)10)3-1-2-4-8/h4-5H,1-3,7H2,(H,9,10)
  • O=CCCC[C@H](N)C(=O)O
  • O=CCCCC(N)C(=O)O
Molar mass 145.158 g·mol−1
Appearance unstable
Density 1.74g/cm3
Boiling point 295.2 °C (563.4 °F; 568.3 K)
Flash point 132.3 °C (270.1 °F; 405.4 K)
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
☒N verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Allysine is a derivative of lysine that features a formyl group in place of the terminal amine. The free amino acid does not exist, but the allysine residue does. It is produced by aerobic oxidation of lysine residues by the enzyme lysyl oxidase. The transformation is an example of a post-translational modification. The semialdehyde form exists in equilibrium with a cyclic derivative.[1]

Conversion of lysine residue to allysine residue.

Allysine is involved in the production of elastin and collagen.[2] Increased allysine concentration in tissues has been correlated to the presence of fibrosis.[3]

Allysine residues react with sodium 2-naphthol-6-sulfonate to produce a fluorescent bis-naphtol-allysine product.[4] In another assay, allysine-containing proteins are reduced with sodium borohydride to give a peptide containing the 6-hydroxynorleucine (6-hydroxy-2-aminocaproic acid) residue, which (unlike allysine) is stable to proteolysis.[1]

Further reading

See also


  1. ^ a b Requena, J. R.; Levine, R. L.; Stadtman, E. R. (2003). "Recent Advances in the Analysis of Oxidized Proteins". Amino Acids. 25 (3–4): 221–226. doi:10.1007/s00726-003-0012-1. PMID 14661085. S2CID 28837698.
  2. ^ Eyre, David R.; Paz, Mercedes A.; Gallop, Paul M. (1984). "Cross-Linking in Collagen and Elastin". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 53: 717–748. doi:10.1146/ PMID 6148038.
  3. ^ Wahsner J, Désogère P, Abston E, Graham-O'Regan KA, Wang J, Rotile NJ, et al. (April 2019). "68Ga-NODAGA-Indole: An Allysine-Reactive Positron Emission Tomography Probe for Molecular Imaging of Pulmonary Fibrogenesis". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 141 (14): 5593–5596. doi:10.1021/jacs.8b12342. PMC 6494104. PMID 30908032.
  4. ^ Waghorn PA, Oliveira BL, Jones CM, Tager AM, Caravan P (October 2017). "High sensitivity HPLC method for determination of the allysine concentration in tissue by use of a naphthol derivative". Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. 1064: 7–13. doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2017.08.032. PMC 5662445. PMID 28886479.