Ammonium vanadate
Ammonium vanadate
Photo of a sample of ammonium vanadate
IUPAC name
Ammonium trioxovanadate(V)
Other names
Ammonium vanadate
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.029.329 Edit this at Wikidata
RTECS number
  • YWD875000
UN number 2859
  • InChI=1S/H3N.3O.V/h1H3;;;;/q;;;;-1/p+1 checkY
  • InChI=1/H3N.3O.V/h1H3;;;;/q;;;;- 1/p+1/rH3N.O3V/c;1-4(2)3/h1H3;/q;-1/p+1
  • [NH4+].O=[V-](=O)=O
Molar mass 116.98 g/mol
Appearance white
Density 2.326 g/cm3
Melting point >200 °C (392 °F; 473 K)[1] (decomposes)
4.8 g/100 ml (20 °C)[1]
Solubility soluble in diethanolamine, ethanolamine
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
possible mutagen, dangerous for the environment
GHS labelling:
GHS06: ToxicGHS08: Health hazard
H301, H332, H340, H361, H370, H372, H412
P201, P202, P260, P261, P264, P270, P271, P273, P281, P301+P310, P304+P312, P304+P340, P307+P311, P308+P313, P312, P314, P321, P330, P405, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth 4: Very short exposure could cause death or major residual injury. E.g. VX gasFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 0: Normally stable, even under fire exposure conditions, and is not reactive with water. E.g. liquid nitrogenSpecial hazards (white): no code
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
58.1 mg/kg, oral (rat)
Related compounds
Other anions
Ammonium orthovanadate
Ammonium hexavanadate
Other cations
Sodium metavanadate
Potassium metavanadate
Related compounds
Vanadium pentoxide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Ammonium metavanadate is the inorganic compound with the formula NH4VO3. It is a white salt, although samples are often yellow owing to impurities of V2O5. It is an important intermediate in the purification of vanadium.[2]

Synthesis and structure

The compound is prepared by the addition of ammonium salts to solutions of vanadate ions, generated by dissolution of V2O5 in basic aqueous solutions, such as hot sodium carbonate. The compound precipitates as a colourless solid.[3][4] This precipitation step can be slow.

The compound adopts a polymeric structure consisting of chains of [VO3], formed as corner-sharing VO4 tetrahedra. These chains are interconnected via hydrogen bonds with ammonium ions.[5]

ball-and-stick model polyhedral model [(VO3)n]n− chains


Vanadium is often purified from aqueous extracts of slags and ore by selective precipitation of ammonium metavanadate. The material is then roasted to give vanadium pentoxide:[2]

2 NH4VO3 → V2O5 + 2 NH3 + H2O


Vanadates can behave as structural mimics of phosphates, and in this way they exhibit biological activity.[6][7]

Ammonium metavanadate is used to prepare Mandelin reagent, a qualitative test for alkaloids.[citation needed]


  1. ^ a b John Rumble (June 18, 2018). CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (99th ed.). CRC Press. pp. 4–40. ISBN 978-1138561632.
  2. ^ a b Günter Bauer, Volker Güther, Hans Hess, Andreas Otto, Oskar Roidl, Heinz Roller, Siegfried Sattelberger "Vanadium and Vanadium Compounds" in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, 2005, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a27_367
  3. ^ G. Brauer "Ammonium Metavanadate" in Handbook of Preparative Inorganic Chemistry, 2nd Ed. Edited by G. Brauer, Academic Press, 1963, NY. Vol. 1. p. 1272.
  4. ^ Robert H. Baker, Harry Zimmerman, R. N. Maxson "Ammonium Metavanadate" Inorganic Syntheses, 1950, Vol. 3, 117-118. doi:10.1002/9780470132340.ch30
  5. ^ Vladimír Syneček and František Hanic (1954). "The crystal structure of ammonium metavanadate". Czechoslovak Journal of Physics. 4 (2): 120–129. Bibcode:1954CzJPh...4..120S. doi:10.1007/BF01687750. S2CID 97890604.
  6. ^ Korbecki, Jan; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Chlubek, Dariusz "Biochemical and medical importance of vanadium compounds" Acta Biochimica Polonica 2012, vol. 59, pp. 195-200.
  7. ^ Crans, D. C.; Chatterjee, P. B. "Vanadium Biochemistry" Reedijk, Jan; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth, Eds. Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry II (2013), 3, 323-342. doi:10.1016/B978-0-08-097774-4.00324-7