Antonin Artaud
Artaud in 1926
Antoine-Marie-Joseph Artaud

(1896-09-04)4 September 1896
Marseille, France
Died4 March 1948(1948-03-04) (aged 51)
Resting placeSaint-Pierre Cemetery, Marseille
EducationCollège du Sacré-Cœur
  • Theatre director
  • poet
  • actor
  • artist
  • essayist
Known for
Notable workThe Theatre and Its Double

Antoine Marie Joseph Paul Artaud, better known as Antonin Artaud (pronounced [ɑ̃tɔnɛ̃ aʁto]; 4 September 1896 – 4 March 1948), was a French artist who is widely recognized as a major figure of the European avant-garde. He worked across a variety of media, but is best known for his writings, as well as his work in the theatre and cinema.[1][2] He had a profound influence on twentieth-century theatre through his conceptualization of the Theatre of Cruelty.[3][4][5] Known for his raw, surreal and transgressive work, his texts explored themes from the cosmologies of ancient cultures, philosophy, the occult, mysticism and indigenous Mexican and Balinese practices.[6][7][8][9]

Early life

Antonin Artaud was born in Marseille, to Euphrasie Nalpas and Antoine-Roi Artaud. His parents were first cousins: his grandmothers were sisters from Smyrna (modern day İzmir, Turkey).[2] His paternal grandmother, Catherine Chilé, was raised in Marseille, where she married Marius Artaud, a Frenchman. His maternal grandmother, Mariette Chilé, grew up in Smyrna, where she married Louis Nalpas, a local ship chandler.[10] He was, throughout his life, greatly affected by his Greek ancestry. Euphrasie gave birth to nine children, but four were stillborn and two others died in childhood.[2]

At age five, Artaud was diagnosed with meningitis, which had no cure at the time.[11] It is questionable, however, if he was correctly diagnosed. David Shafer asserts that

given the frequency of such misdiagnoses, coupled with the absence of a treatment (and consequent near-minimal survival rate) and the symptoms he had, it's unlikely that Artaud actually contracted it.[2]

Artaud attended the Collège Sacré-Coeur, a Catholic middle and high school, from 1907 to 1914. At school he began reading works by Arthur Rimbaud, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Edgar Allan Poe and founded a private literary magazine in collaboration with his friends.

Towards the end of his tenure at the Collège, Artaud started to noticeably withdraw from social life and "destroyed most of his written work and gave away his books".[5]:3 Distressed, his parents arranged for him to see a psychiatrist.[2]:25 Over the next five years Artaud was admitted to a series of sanatoria.[12]:163

In 1916, there was a pause in Artaud's treatment when he was conscripted into the French Army.[2]:26 He was discharged early due to "an unspecified health reason" (Artaud later claimed it was "due to sleepwalking", while his mother ascribed it to his "nervous condition").[5]:4

In May 1919, the director of the sanatorium prescribed laudanum for Artaud, precipitating a lifelong addiction to that and other opiates.[12]:162 In March 1921, he moved to Paris where he was put under the psychiatric care of Dr Édouard Toulouse who took him in as a boarder.[2]:29


Theatrical apprenticeships

In Paris, Artaud worked with a number of celebrated French "teacher-directors", including Jacques Copeau, André Antoine, Georges and Ludmilla Pitoëff, Charles Dullin, Firmin Gémier and Lugné-Poe.[4] His core theatrical training was as part of Dullin's troupe, Théâtre de l'Atelier, which he joined in 1921.[13]:345

As a member of Dullin's troupe, Artaud trained for 10 to 12 hours a day.[14]: 119  Artaud was originally a strong proponent of Dullin's teaching and they shared a strong interest in east Asian theater, specifically performance traditions from Bali and Japan.[5]:10 He stated that "Hearing Dullin teach I feel that I'm rediscovering ancient secrets and a whole forgotten mystique of production."[13]:351 However, as they continued to work together their disagreements increased, particularly in relation to the differing logics of Eastern and Western theatre traditions.[13]:351-2 Their final disagreement was over his performance as the Emperor Charlemagne in Alexandre Arnoux's Huon de Bordeaux; he left the troupe in 1923 after eighteen months as a member.[1]:22;[13]:345

Shortly thereafter he joined the troupe of Georges and Ludmilla Pitoëff. He remained with them through the next year, when he shifted his focus to work in the cinema.[5]:15-16

Literary career

In 1923, Artaud submitted poems to La Nouvelle Revue Française (NRF), a prominent French literary journal. The poems were rejected, but Artaud's writing intriqued the journal's editor, Jacques Rivière, and he was invited for a meeting. This initiated a written correspondence, which resulted Artaud's first major publication, the epistolary work Correspondance avec Jacques Rivière.[5]:45 Artaud continued to publish some of his most influential works in the NRF, which he would later revise for The Theatre and Its Double, including the "First Manifesto for a Theatre of Cruelty" (1932) and "Theatre and the plague" (1933).[1]:105

Work in cinema

Artaud (right) in La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc
Artaud (right) in La Passion de Jeanne d'Arc (1928)

Artaud had an active career in the cinema as a critic, actor, and writer.[15]

Lugné-Poe, who gave Artaud his first work in a professional theatre, later described Artaud as "a painter lost in the midst of actors".[13]: 350  His performance as Jean-Paul Marat in Abel Gance's Napoléon (1927) used exaggerated movements to convey the fire of Marat's personality.[citation needed] He also played the monk Massieu in Carl Theodor Dreyer's The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928).[5]:17

Artaud wrote a number of film scenarios, ten of which have survived.[5]:23 Only one of the scenarios was produced, The Seashell and the Clergyman (1928). Directed by Germaine Dulac, many critics and scholars consider it to be the first surrealist film, though Aratud's relationship to the resulting film was conflicted.[16][17]

Association with surrealists

Artaud was briefly associated with the surrealists, before being expelled by André Breton in 1927.[5]:21 This was in part due to the Surrealists increasing affiliation with the Communist Party in France.:[18] 274 As Ros Murray notes, "Artaud was not into politics at all, writing things like: 'I shit on Marxism.'" Additionally, "Breton was becoming very anti-theatre because he saw theatre as being bourgeois and anti-revolutionary."[19]

In "The Manifesto for an Abortive Theatre" (1926/27), written for the Theatre Alfred Jarry, Artaud makes a direct attack on the surrealists, whom he calls "bog-paper revolutionaries" that would "make us believe that to produce theatre today is a counter-revolutionary endeavour".[6]:24 He declares they are "bowing down to Communism",[6]:25 which is "a lazy man's revolution",[6]:24 and calls for a more "essential metamorphosis" of society.[6]:25

Théâtre Alfred Jarry (1926–1929)

In 1926, Artaud, Robert Aron and the expelled surrealist Roger Vitrac founded the Théâtre Alfred Jarry (TAJ).[20] They staged four productions between June 1927 and January 1929. The Theatre was extremely short-lived, but was attended by an enormous range of European artists, including Arthur Adamov, André Gide, and Paul Valéry.[20]:249

(For more details, including a full list of productions, see Théâtre Alfred Jarry)

At the Paris Colonial Exposition (1931)

In 1931, Artaud saw Balinese dance performed at the Paris Colonial Exposition. Although he misunderstood much of what he saw, it influenced many of his ideas for theatre.[5]:26 Adrian Curtin has noted the significance of the Balinese use of music and sound, stating that Artaud was struck by "the 'hypnotic' rhythms of the gamelan ensemble, its range of percussive effects, the variety of timbres that the musicians produced, and – most importantly, perhaps – the way in which the dancers' movements interacted dynamically with the musical elements instead of simply functioning as a type of background accompaniment."[21]: 253 

The Cenci (1935)

In 1935, Artaud staged an original adaptation of Percy Bysshe Shelley's The Cenci at the Théâtre des Folies-Wagram in Paris. The drama was Artaud's first and only chance to stage a production following his manifestos for a Theatre of Cruelty.[21]:250 It was a commercial failure.[citation needed]

In his adaptation, he emphasized the play's cruelty and violence, in particular "its themes of incest, revenge and familial murder".[5]:21 While Shelley's version of The Cenci conveyed the motivations and anguish of the Cenci's daughter Beatrice with her father through monologues, Artaud was much more concerned with conveying the menacing nature of the Cenci's presence and the reverberations of their incest relationship though physical discordance, as if an invisible "force-field" surrounded them.[14]: 123 Jane Goodall writes of The Cenci,

The predominance of action over reflection accelerates the development of events...the monologues...are cut in favor of sudden, jarring that a spasmodic effect is created. Extreme fluctuations in pace, pitch, and tone heighten sensory awareness intensify ... the here and now of performance.[14]:119

Artaud's opening stage directions demonstrate his approach. He describes the opening scene as "suggestive of extreme atmospheric turbulence, with wind-blown drapes, waves of suddenly amplified sound, and crowds of figures engaged in "furious orgy", accompanied by "a chorus of church bells", as well as the presence of numerous large mannequins.[14]: 120 

The Cenci had a set designed by Balthus.[citation needed] It employed innovative sound effects—including the first theatrical use of the electronic instrument the Ondes Martenot.[citation needed] Scholar Adrian Curtin has argued for the importance of the "sonic aspects of the production, which did not merely support the action but motivated it obliquely".[21]:251

The Theatre and its Double (1938)

In 1938 one of Artaud's most important texts was published: The Theatre and Its Double.[5]:34 In it, he proposed "a theatre that was in effect a return to magic and ritual and he sought to create a new theatrical language of totem and gesture – a language of space devoid of dialogue that would appeal to all the senses."[22]: 6  His "Theatre of Cruelty" abandonded the formal proscenium arch and dominance of the playwright, which he considered "a hindrance to the magic of genuine ritual", in favor of "violent physical images crush and hypnotize the sensibility of the spectator seized by the theatre as by a whirlwind of higher forces".[22]:6

Travels and institutionalization

Journey to Mexico

In 1935, Artaud decided to go to Mexico. He was convinced there was "a sort of deep movement in favour of a return to civilisation before Cortez" in Mexico, which would help him develop his artistic vision.[23]:11 The Mexican Legation in Paris gave him a travel grant, and he left for Mexico in January 1936. He arrived the following month.[5]: 29–30  While in Mexico, Artaud "became something of a 'fixture' in the Mexican art scene", though he was often under the influence of opiates, and spent much of his time "seated and immobile, 'cual momia' [like a mummy]".[24]:73 Artaud also lived in Norogachic, a Rarámuri village in the Sierra Tarahumara.[24]:77 He claimed to have participated in peyote rites,[8] though scholars have questioned this.[25][26] During this time he stopped using opiates and suffered withdrawal.[2][24]:77[26]

Ireland and repatriation to France

In 1937, Artaud returned to France, where his friend René Thomas gave him a walking-stick of knotted wood that Artaud believed contained magical powers and was the 'most sacred relic of the Irish church, the Bachall Ísu, or "Staff of Jesus".[5]:32 Artaud traveled to Ireland, landing at Cobh and travelling to Galway, possibly in an effort to return the staff. Speaking very little English and no Gaelic whatsoever, he was unable to make himself understood.[5]:33 In Dublin, Artaud found himself penniless and spent most of his trip in "hostels for the homeless".[5]:34 After "several violent alteractions with the Dublin police" he was finally arrested after an incident a Jesuit college.[5]:34 Before deportation he was briefly confined in the notorious Mountjoy Prison.[2]:152 According to Irish Government papers he was deported as "a destitute and undesirable alien".[27] On his return trip by ship, Artaud believed he was being attacked by two crew members. He retaliated and was put in a straitjacket; upon his return to France he was involuntarily retained by the police and transferred to a psychiatric hospital.[5]:34 Artaud spent the rest of his life moving between different institutions, depending on his condition and world circumstances.

In Rodez

In 1943, when France was occupied by the Germans and Italians, Robert Desnos arranged to have Artaud transferred to the psychiatric hospital in Rodez, well inside Vichy territory, where he was put under the charge of Dr. Gaston Ferdière.[28] At Rodez Artaud underwent therapy including electroshock treatments and art therapy.[29]:194 The doctor believed that Artaud's habits of crafting magic spells, creating astrology charts, and drawing disturbing images were symptoms of mental illness.[30] Artaud denounced the electroshock treatments and consistently pleaded to have them suspended, while also ascribing to them "the benefit of having returned him to his name and to his self mastery".[29]:196 Scholar Alexandra Lukes points out that "the 'recovery' of his name" might have been "a gesture to appease his doctors' conception of what constitutes health".[29]:196 It was during this time that Artaud began writing and drawing again, after a long dormant period.[31] In 1946, Ferdière released Artaud to his friends, who placed him in the psychiatric clinic at Ivry-sur-Seine.[32]

Final years

At Ivry-sur-Seine Artaud's friends encouraged him to write.[citation needed] He visited a Vincent van Gogh exhibition at the Orangerie in Paris and wrote the study Van Gogh le suicidé de la société ["Van Gogh, The Man Suicided by Society"]; in 1947, the French magazine K published it.[33]:8 In 1949, the essay was the first of Artaud's to be translated in a United States-based publication, the influential literary magazine Tiger's Eye.[33]:8 This rekindled interest in his work.[citation needed]

Self portrait of Artaud from 1947
Self-portrait of Artaud from 1947

Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de Dieu

He recorded Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de Dieu (To Have Done With the Judgment of God) on 22–29 November 1947. The work remained true to his vision for the theatre of cruelty, using "screams, rants and vocal shudders" to forward his vision.[33]:1 Wladimir Porché, the Director of French Radio, shelved the work the day before its scheduled airing on 2 February 1948.[1]:62 This was partly for its scatological, anti-American, and anti-religious references and pronouncements, but also because of its general randomness, with a cacophony of xylophonic sounds mixed with various percussion elements, as well as cries, screams, grunts, onomatopoeia, and glossolalia.[citation needed]

As a result, Fernand Pouey, the director of dramatic and literary broadcasts for French radio, assembled a panel to consider the broadcast of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu.[1]:62 Among approximately 50 artists, writers, musicians, and journalists present for a private listening on 5 February 1948 were Jean Cocteau, Paul Éluard, Raymond Queneau, Jean-Louis Barrault, René Clair, Jean Paulhan, Maurice Nadeau, Georges Auric, Claude Mauriac, and René Char.[34] Porché refused to broadcast it even though the panel were almost unanimously in favor of Artaud's work being broadcast.[1]:62 Pouey left his job and the show was not heard again until 23 February 1948, at a private performance at Théâtre Washington.[citation needed] The work's first public broadcast did not take place until 8 July 1964 when the Los Angeles-based public radio station KPFK played an illegal copy provided by the artist Jean-Jacques Lebel.[33]:1 The first French radio broadcast of Pour en Finir avec le Jugement de dieu occurred 20 years after its original production.[35]


In January 1948, Artaud was diagnosed with colorectal cancer.[36] He died shortly afterwards, on 4 March 1948 in a psychiatric clinic in Ivry-sur-Seine, a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris.[37] He was found by the gardener of the estate seated alone at the foot of his bed holding a shoe, and it was suspected that he died from a lethal dose of the drug chloral hydrate, although it is unknown whether he was aware of its lethality.[37][15]

Legacy and influence

Artaud has had a profound influence on theatre, avant-garde art, literature, psychiatry and other disciplines.[4][12][16][28][33]

Theatre and performance

Artaud has exerted a strong influence on the development of experimental theatre and performance art. Susan Sontag has asserted that his impact was "so profound" that Western theatre traditions can be divided into two periods - before Artaud and after Artaud".[38]:xxxviii

Many of his works were not produced for the public until after his death. For instance, Spurt of Blood (1925) was not produced until 1964, when Peter Brook and Charles Marowitz staged it as part of their "Theatre of Cruelty" season at the Royal Shakespeare Company.[5]: 73  Artists such as Karen Finley, Spalding Gray, Elizabeth LeCompte, Richard Foreman, Charles Marowitz, Sam Shepard, Joseph Chaikin, Charles Bukowski, Allen Ginsberg, and more all named Artaud as one of their influences.[22]: 6–25 

His influence can be seen in:


Artaud also had a significant influence on philosophers.[33]:22 Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari, borrowed Artaud's phrase "the body without organs" to describe their conception of the virtual dimension of the body and, ultimately, the basic substratum of reality in their Capitalism and Schizophrenia.[44] Philosopher Jacques Derrida provided one of the key philosophical treatments of Artaud's work through his concept of "parole soufflée".[45] Feminist scholar Julia Kristeva drew on Artaud for her theorisation of "subject in process".[33]:22-3


Poet Allen Ginsberg claimed Artaud's work, specifically "To Have Done with the Judgement of God", had a tremendous influence on his most famous poem "Howl".[46] The Latin American dramatic novel Yo-Yo Boing! by Giannina Braschi includes a debate between artists and poets concerning the merits of Artaud's "multiple talents" in comparison to the singular talents of other French writers.[47] A novel, Traitor Comet, was published in June 2023 as the first in a series on Artaud's life and his friendship with the poet Robert Desnos.[48]


The band Bauhaus included a song about the playwright, called "Antonin Artaud", on their album Burning from the Inside.[49] Influential Argentine hard rock band Pescado Rabioso recorded an album titled Artaud. Their leader Luis Alberto Spinetta wrote the lyrics partly basing them on Artaud's writings.[50]

Venezuelan rock band Zapato 3 included a song named "Antonin Artaud" on their album "Ecos punzantes del ayer" (1999) [1]

Composer John Zorn has written many works inspired by and dedicated to Artaud, including seven CDs: "Astronome", "Moonchild: Songs Without Words", "Six Litanies for Heliogabalus", "The Crucible", "Ipsissimus", "Templars: In Sacred Blood" and "The Last Judgment", a monodrama for voice and orchestra inspired by Artaud's late drawings "La Machine de l'être" (2000), "Le Momo" (1999) for violin and piano, and "Suppots et Suppliciations" (2012) for full orchestra.


Filmmaker E. Elias Merhige, during an interview by writer Scott Nicolay, cited Artaud as a key influence for the experimental film Begotten.[51]


Year Title Role Director Notes
1923 Fait-divers Monsieur 2 Autant-Lara [38]:182
1925 Surcouf Jacques Morel, a traitor Luitz-Morat
1926 Graziella Cecco Marcel Vandal
1926 Le Juif Errant Gringalet Luitz Morat [38]:183
1927 Napoléon Marat Abel Gance [52]:182
1928 The Passion of Joan of Arc Massieu Carl Dreyer
1928 Verdun: Visions of History Paul Amiot Léon Poirier
1928 L'Argent Secretary Mazaud Marcel L'Herbier
1929 Tarakanova Le jeune tzigane Raymond Bernard
1931 La Femme d'une nuit A traitor Marcel L'Herbier
1931 Montmartre Unidentified Raymond Bernard
1931 L'Opéra de quat'sous A Thief G. W. Pabst
1932 Coups de feu à l'aube Leader of a group of assassins Serge de Poligny
1932 Les Croix de bois A delirious soldier Raymond Bernard
1932 L'enfant de ma soeur unidentified role Henri Wullschleger
1933 Mater Dolorosa Lawyer Abel Gance
1934 Liliom Knife-seller Fritz Lang
1934 Sidonie Panache Emir Aba-el Kadcr Henri Wullschleger
1935 Lucrezia Borgia Savonarola Abel Gance
1935 Koenigsmark The Librarian Maurice Tourneur


Selected works


Year Title Original Publication/Publisher Notes
1913 Sonnets mystique
1922 Tric-Trac du ciel
1925 L'Ombilic des limbes
1927 Le Pèse-Nerfs
L'Art et la mort
La Coquille et le clergyman film scenario
Sorcellerie et cinéma
1934 Héliogabale ou l'Anarchiste couronne
1938 Le Théâtre et son double Gallimard, Collection Métamorphoses seminal collection of texts on theatre
1946 Lettres de Rodez
1947 Van Gogh, le suicide de la société
Au pays des Tarahumaras
1948 Pour en finir avec le jugement de Dieu
Lettre contre la Kabbale

English translation

Year Title Translator Publisher Notes
1958 The Theatre and Its Double Mary Caroline Richards New York: Grove Weidenfeld
1963 Artaud Anthology Jack Hirschman San Francisco: City Lights Publishers Edited and with an introduction by Susan Sontag
1971 Collected Works of Antonin Artaud Victor Corti London: Calder and Boyars
1976 Selected Writings Helen Weaver New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux Edited and with an introduction by Susan Sontag
1995 Watchfiends and Rack Screams: works from the final period Clayton Eshleman, with Bernard Bador Boston: Exact Change
2008 50 Drawings to Murder Magic Donald Nicholson-Smith London: Seagull Books ISBN 978-1-905422-66-1
2019 Heliogabalus or, the Crowned Anarchist Alexis Lykiard London: Infinity Land Press ISBN 978-1-9160091-1-0
2024 The Theatre and Its Double Mark Taylor-Batty Bloomsbury Publishing: Methuen Drama ISBN: 9781350288720

Critical and biographic works

In English


Articles and chapters

In French

In German


  1. ^ a b c d e f Esslin, Martin (2018) [1977]. Antonin Artaud. Alma Books. ISBN 9780714545622.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Shafer, David A., 1958– (15 April 2016). Antonin Artaud. London, UK. p. 16. ISBN 9781780236018. OCLC 954427932.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Sellin, Eric (2017) [1975]. The dramatic concepts of Antonin Artaud. Thompson, Peter. New Orleans, Louisiana: Quid Pro Books. ISBN 9781610273718. OCLC 988943807.
  4. ^ a b c Jannarone, Kimberly. (2012). Artaud and his doubles (1st paperback ed.). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 978-1280880506. OCLC 802057630.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Morris, Blake (30 December 2021). Antonin Artaud. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-429-67097-8.
  6. ^ a b c d e Artaud, Antonin (1 January 1999). Collected Works. Alma Classics. ISBN 978-0-7145-0172-7.
  7. ^ Artaud, Antonin (1956–94). Oeuvres completes (in French). Gallimard.
  8. ^ a b Artaud, Antonin (1976). The Peyote Dance. Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-23090-6.
  9. ^ Artaud, Antonin (1995). Watchfiends and Rack Screams: works from the final period. Exact Change. ISBN 1-878972-18-9.
  10. ^ Grossman, Évelyne (2004). Antonin Artaud, œuvres. Paris: Éditions Gallimard. ISBN 978-2-07-076507-2.
  11. ^ de Mèredieu, Florence (2006). C'était Antonin Artaud. Paris: Fayard. ISBN 978-2-213-62525-6.
  12. ^ a b c Eshleman, Clayton (2001). Companion Spider: Essays. Wesleyan University Press. ISBN 978-0-8195-6483-2.
  13. ^ a b c d e Deák, František (October 1977). "Antonin Artaud and Charles Dullin: Artaud's Apprenticeship in Theatre". Educational Theatre Journal. 29 (3): 345–353. doi:10.2307/3206180. JSTOR 3206180.
  14. ^ a b c d Goodall, Jane (Summer 1987). "Artaud's Revision of Shelley's The Cenci: The Text and its Double". Comparative Drama. 21 (2): 115–126. doi:10.1353/cdr.1987.0047. JSTOR 41153273. S2CID 190460270.
  15. ^ a b Barber, Stephen (1994). Antonin Artaud: Blows and Bombs. Faber & Faber. ISBN 978-0-571-17252-8.
  16. ^ a b Barber, Stephen (1999). Artaud: The Screaming Body. Creation Books. ISBN 9781840680096.
  17. ^ Virmaux, Alain; Sanzenbach, Simone (1966). "Artaud and Film". The Tulane Drama Review. 11 (1): 154–165. doi:10.2307/1125279. ISSN 0886-800X. JSTOR 1125279.
  18. ^ Drain, Richard (11 September 2002). Twentieth Century Theatre: A Sourcebook. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-134-86474-4.
  19. ^ "ARTAUD'S ENCOUNTER WITH THE SURREALISTS: ARTAUD VS. BRETON – Interview with Ros Murray". Essential Drama. 2017. Retrieved 29 November 2019.
  20. ^ a b Jannarone, Kimberly (2005). "The Theatre before Its Double: Artaud Directs in the Alfred Jarry Theatre". Theatre Survey. 46 (2): 247–273. doi:10.1017/S0040557405000153. ISSN 1475-4533. S2CID 194096618.
  21. ^ a b c Curtin, Adrian (2010). "Cruel Vibrations: Sounding Out Antonin Artaud's Production of Les Cenci". Theatre Research International. 35 (3): 250–262. doi:10.1017/S0307883310000568. ISSN 0307-8833. S2CID 194010604.
  22. ^ a b c Botting, Gary (1972). The Theatre of Protest in America. Edmonton: Harden House.
  23. ^ Hertz, Uri (2003). "Artaud in Mexico". Fragmentos. 25: 11–17.
  24. ^ a b c Patteson, Joseph (2021). Drugs, violence and Latin America: global psychotropy and culture. Cham, Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-3-030-68923-0.
  25. ^ LeClézio, Jean-Marie G. (1984). "Antonin Artaud: le reve Mexicain". Europe: Revue Littéraire Mensuelle. 667–668.
  26. ^ a b Krutak, Lars (2014). "(Sur)real or Unreal?: Antonin Artaud in the Sierra Tarahumara of Mexico". Journal of Surrealism and the Americas. 8 (1): 28–50.
  27. ^ Artaud, Antonin. "'An absent-minded person of the student type': Extracts from the Artaud file". The Dublin Review. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2012.
  28. ^ a b Murray, Ros (2014). Antonin Artaud: The Scum of the Soul. Springer. ISBN 9781137310583.
  29. ^ a b c Harding, Jason; Nash, John (30 October 2019). Modernism and Non-Translation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198821441.
  30. ^ Lotringer, Sylvere (2003). Mad Like Artaud (1st ed.). Univocal Publishing. p. 20. ISBN 9781937561413. He was no less susceptible to all sorts of delirious ideas, which had continuously justified his internment in an asylum. Dr. Ferdiere, a poet himself, seems not to have doubted for an instant that his symptoms were of a pathologic nature and not a poetic one, as if the two didn't flow from the same source.
  31. ^ Lotringer, Sylvere (2003). Mad Like Artaud (1st ed.). Univocal Publishing. p. 21. ISBN 9781937561413.
  32. ^ Morfee, Adrian. "Antonin Marie Joseph Artaud". Literature Resource Center. Modern French Poets. Retrieved 12 April 2016.
  33. ^ a b c d e f g Bradnock, Lucy (2021). No more masterpieces : modern art after Artaud. New Haven. ISBN 978-0-300-25103-6. OCLC 1184240032.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  34. ^ Gadoffre, G. F. A. (1971). "Antonin Artaud and the Avant-Garde Theatre". Bulletin of the John Rylands Library. University of Manchester. pp. 329–336. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  35. ^ Media poetry : an international anthology. Kac, Eduardo. Bristol, UK: Intellect. 2007. ISBN 978-1-84150-932-7. OCLC 185144409.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  36. ^ de Gramont, Sanche (Winter 1971). "Review: Antonin Artaud". Diacritics. 1 (2): 25. JSTOR 465078.
  37. ^ a b Thévenin, Paule; Knapp, Bettina (1965). "A Letter on Artaud". The Tulane Drama Review. 9 (3): 99–117. doi:10.2307/1125050. ISSN 0886-800X. JSTOR 1125050.
  38. ^ a b c Artaud, Antonin (10 October 1988). Antonin Artaud: Selected Writings. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520064430. actor.
  39. ^ Oxford illustrated encyclopedia. Judge, Harry George., Toyne, Anthony. Oxford [England]: Oxford University Press. 1985–1993. p. 23. ISBN 0-19-869129-7. OCLC 11814265.((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  40. ^ "Antonin Artaud". Encyclopædia Britannica. 4 March 1948. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  41. ^ "Dark Days". Williams Record. Williamstown, Massachusetts. January 1968.
  42. ^ Edmonton: Harden House, 1972.
  43. ^ "Marowitz, Charles (1977). Artaud at Rodez. London: Marion Boyars. ISBN 0-7145-2632-0.
  44. ^ Deleuze, Gilles, and Félix Guattari (1980), "28 November 1947: How Do You Make Yourself a Body Without Organs?" In A Thousand Plateaus. Trans. Brian Massumi. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 149–166. ISBN 978-0816614028.
  45. ^ Derrida, Jacques (1986). Forcener le subjectile (in French). Schirmer/Mosel Publishers.
  46. ^ Ginsberg, Allen (1995). Miles, Barry (ed.). "Howl" Original Draft Facsimile, Transcript & Variant Versions, Fully Annotated by Author, with Contemporaneous Correspondence, Account of First Public Reading, Legal Skirmishes, Precursor Texts & Bibliography. Harper Perennial. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-06-092611-3.
  47. ^ Sommer, Doris (1998). "Introduction". Yo-Yo Boing! by Giannina Braschi. Pittsburgh: Latin American Literary Review Press. ISBN 9780935480979.
  48. ^ Traitor Comet by Personne. Outskirts Press. 2023. ISBN 9781977260826.
  49. ^ "bauhaus:lyrics:antonin artaud". Retrieved 9 October 2016.
  50. ^ Unterberger, Richie. "Artaud – Pescado Rabioso". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  51. ^ "E. Elias Merhige: The Greatest Apple You'll Ever Eat". The Outer Dark: Episode 29. 28 January 2016. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 29 January 2016.
  52. ^ Innes, Christopher (9 March 2004). Avant Garde Theatre: 1892 1992. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9780203359372.