Arraba
  • עראבה
  • عرّابة
City (from 2016)
Hebrew transcription(s)
 • ISO 259ʕarrabba
 • Also spelledArrabe (official)
'Arrabat-Batuf (unofficial)
Entrance to Arraba
Entrance to Arraba
Arraba is located in Northwest Israel
Arraba
Arraba
Arraba is located in Israel
Arraba
Arraba
Coordinates: 32°51′2″N 35°20′20″E / 32.85056°N 35.33889°E / 32.85056; 35.33889
Grid position181/250 PAL
Country Israel
DistrictNorthern
Government
 • Head of MunicipalityOmar Wakid Nassar
Area
 • Total8,250 dunams (8.25 km2 or 3.19 sq mi)
Population
 (2022)[1]
 • Total27,115
 • Density3,300/km2 (8,500/sq mi)
Name meaningThe steppe or plateau of the Buttauf[2]

Arraba (Arabic: عرّابة; Hebrew: עראבה), also known as 'Arrabat al-Battuf, is an Arab city in Israel. It is located in the Lower Galilee in the Northern District, within Sakhnin valley, adjacent to Sakhnin and Deir Hanna, and climbing a bit on Yodfat range to its south, while also owning some lands south of that in the Beit Netofa Valley (Sahl al-Battuf) to the north of Nazareth area. Arraba attained local council status in 1965, and city status in 2016. In 2022, its population was 27,115.[1]

During the Roman period, Arraba was a Jewish settlement known as Arab or Gabara, and was home to the priestly family of Petahiah. In the fifth or sixth century CE, it was inhabited by Christians, as evidenced by the discovery of a church. The Arab Muslim tribe of Zayadina arrived in Arraba in the middle of the 17th century and later gained control of the town. In the 18th century, Zahir al-Umar, an autonomous ruler of Galilee, lived in Arraba. In the late Ottoman period, the town had a sizable Christian minority, but since then, many have emigrated to Haifa, leaving only a small number of Christian households in the predominantly Muslim city.

History

Antiquity

Arraba is identified with the ancient Jewish village called Arab, mentioned in Josephus' writings by its pronunciation in the Greek, Gabara,[3][4] but in the Mishnah and the Jerusalem Talmud as Arab.[5][6][7][8] The first-century Jewish rabbi and leader Yohanan ben Zakkai is said to have lived there eighteen years.[9][10] During the First Jewish-Roman War, Vespasian sacked the city, killing those of its Jewish citizens who had not already fled.[11] The place is presumed to have been resettled by Jews in the third-fourth centuries, since the town is mentioned as being the place of residence of one of the priestly courses known as Pethahiah, as inscribed in the Caesarea Inscription.[12]

Arabba is home to the grave of Hanina ben Dosa, a Jewish scholar who lived in the village during the first and second generations after the destruction of the Second Temple.[8][13]

In the 5th or 6th century CE, there were Christians living here, as witnessed by a church whose mosaic floor and inscription have been unearthed.[14][15] The church was destroyed either at the end of the 6th century or the beginning of the 7th century.[4]

The oldest settled section of Arraba lies at the village's south-east side, near the Christian church. Archaeological artefacts have been discovered there dating back to the Roman and Byzantine periods.[16]

Middle Ages

In the Crusader era, it was known as Arabiam.[17] In 1174, it was one of the casalia (villages) given to Phillipe le Rous.[18] In 1236, descendants of Phillipe le Rous confirmed the sale of the fief of Arraba.[19] In 1250, it was one of the casalia belonging to the Teutonic knights, a Crusader order.[8]

In the 13th century, Arrabah is mentioned by Syrian geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi in his famous work Mu'jam al-Buldān (1224–1228), as a "place in the province of Acca".[20][21]

Ottoman Empire

The village was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire in 1517 with all of Palestine, and in 1596 Arraba appeared in the tax registers as being in the Nahiya ("Subdistrict") of Tabariyya, part of Sanjak Safad. It had an all Muslim population of 125 households and 2 bachelors. The villagers paid a fixed tax rate of 20% on wheat, barley, summer crops or fruit trees, cotton, and goats or beehives; a total of 11,720 akçe. 1/4 of the revenue went to a waqf.[22][23]

At some point in the mid-17th century the Zayadina, an Arab Muslim tribe, immigrated to Arraba. Its sheikh ("chief") later acquired control of the town and its district after wresting control of the area from the Druze sheikh of Sallama. Sallama and other Druze villages in the vicinity were subsequently destroyed, Druze suzerainty over the Shaghur district came to an end and the Zayadina consequently gained significant influence in the area, including the role of tax collector of Shaghur on behalf of the Ottoman wali ("governor") of Sidon Province.[24] Arraba became home to Zahir al-Umar, a later sheikh of the Zayadina tribe. According to local legend, he sought refuge there after killing a Turkish soldier. He won the support of the local sheikh, Muhammad Nasser, by helping him settle a score with a neighboring village, which set off a series of campaigns that led to the conquest of the entire Galilee. A building said to be the home of Zahir is still standing.[25]

In 1838, Arabeh was noted as a Muslim and Christian village in the Esh-Shagur district, located between Safad, Acca and Tiberias.[26]

In 1875 Victor Guérin found Arrabah to have 900 Muslim inhabitants and 100 Greek-Orthodox Christians.[27] In 1881, the PEF's Survey of Western Palestine (SWP) described Arrabet al Buttauf as "A large stone-built village, containing about 1,000 Moslems and Christians, and surrounded by groves of olives and arable land. Water is obtained from a large birkeh and cisterns. This was the place where Dhaher el Amr´s family was founded, and was long occupied by them."[28]

A population list from about 1887 showed that Arrabet had 970 inhabitants; about 80% Muslim and 20% Catholic Christians.[29]

British Mandate

Arraba 1947 from Palmach archives

In the 1922 census of Palestine, conducted by the British Mandate authorities, Arrabeh had a population of 984, 937 Muslim and 47 Christian,[30] of the Christians, 42 were Melkite, 4 Orthodox and one was Anglican.[31] At the time of the 1931 census, Arraba had 253 occupied houses and a population of 1187 Muslims and 37 Christians.[32]

In the 1945 statistics the population was 1,800; 1,740 Muslims and 60 Christians,[33] with 30,852 dunams (a dunam is a unit of area equivalent to 1000 square metres or one-tenth of a hectare) of land, according to an official land and population survey.[34] 3,290 dunams were used for plantations and irrigable land, 14,736 dunams for cereals,[35] while 140 dunams were built-up (urban) land.[36]

Israel in the 20th century

House of the family of Zahir al-'Umar (Dhaher el-Omar)

In 1948, during Operation Hiram (October 29–31), the town surrendered to the advancing Israeli army. Many of the inhabitants fled but some remained.[37] Arraba became a local council in 1965. The village remained under Martial Law until 1966.

Arraba was home to the first Land Day demonstrations in 1976 demanding the state of Israel to stop the expropriation of Palestinian Arab lands. Together with Sakhnin and Deir Hanna, it formed what is called the triangle of Land Day. Israel's reaction to control the protest was forceful and six people were killed by Israeli police. The reason for the Land Day follows:

On March 11, 1976, the Israeli government published an expropriation plan including lands in the Galilee. It affected some 20,000 dunams of land between the Arab villages of Sakhnin and Arraba.[38] The land was said to be used for security purposes but was also used to build new Jewish settlements.[39] David McDowall identifies the resumption of land seizures in the Galilee and the acceleration of land expropriations in the West Bank in the mid-1970s as the immediate catalyst for both the Land Day demonstration and similar demonstrations that were taking place contemporaneously in the West Bank. He writes: "Nothing served to bring the two Palestinian communities together politically more than the question of land."[40]

Israel in the 21st century

Arraba became a city in 2016. In the late 2010s, Arraba native and Harvard graduate, Nuseir Yassin, gained international acclaim with his Nas Daily videos.[41] In one of the chapters he invites the entire State of Israel to visit his parental home in Arraba.

Economy

The symbol of the local council is an onion, a watermelon and a cantaloupe which symbolize the crops for which Arraba is famous. Throughout history Arraba was mostly an agricultural village depending mainly on the al-Batuf Plain (Hebrew name: Beit Netofa Valley) to grow crops. However, currently the dependence on agriculture is declining rapidly due to the rise in population, urbanization and a subsequently more modern lifestyle.[citation needed]

Holy Sites

Arraba houses the tomb of Hanina Ben Dosa, a Jewish scholar and miracle worker who lived in the first century CE.[8][13] It is known to locals as "maqam as-Siddiq".[42]

Arraba is also home to the shrine of ash-Sheikh Dabus, attributed to a Sufi sheikh from the 17th century by local tradition. Alternative traditions suggest the shrine is associated with the family of Zahir al-Umar, or a commander from Saladin's army. The ash-Sheikh Dabus shrine is located 50 meters away from Hanina Ben Dosa's tomb, within the cemetery belonging to the Na'amneh and Hatib families.[42]

Architecture

In the 1870s, Guerin saw the mosque which he thought had probably once been a church on the basis of its east–west orientation. Inside there were two monolithic columns which he took as further proof of its antiquity.[27]

Andrew Petersen, an archaeologist specializing in Islamic architecture, surveyed the place in 1994, and found several interesting buildings.[25] The modern-day mosque was built in 1953 on the site of an older building.[25] Opposite the mosque is a palatial house with an ablaq entrance made of black and white masonry. This is the house associated with the family of Zahir al-'Umar/Dhaher el-Omar.[25]

Sports

The town's football club Ahva Arraba dissolved in 2019 due to debts. It was replaced by a new club, Hapoel Arraba.

Notable people

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Regional Statistics". Israel Central Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 21 March 2024.
  2. ^ Palmer, 1881, p. 124
  3. ^ Klausner (1934), pp. 261–263; Rappaport (2013), p. 44 (note 2); Safrai (1985), pp. 59–62; Tsafrir (1994), p. 127. On the evolution of this place name, see Robinson, E. (1856), p. 83 (note 3)
  4. ^ a b "LXXXIV. Gabara (mod. ʿArraba)", Volume 5/Part 1 Galilaea and Northern Regions: 5876-6924, De Gruyter, pp. 537–540, 2023-03-20, doi:10.1515/9783110715774-092, ISBN 978-3-11-071577-4, retrieved 2024-02-07
  5. ^ Shabbat 16:7 (in Hebrew)
  6. ^ HaReuveni (1999), p. 779
  7. ^ Klein (1915), p. 157; Klein (1909), pp. 75-ff.
  8. ^ a b c d Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 206
  9. ^ Jerusalem Talmud, Shabbat 16:8 (81b)
  10. ^ Meyers (1976), p. 95, citing Neusner (1962), 28: A Life of Rabban Yohanan ben Zakkai, Brill: Leiden 1962
  11. ^ Josephus, De Bello Judaico (Wars of the Jews) iii.vii.1
  12. ^ Avi-Yonah (1964), pp. 24–28
  13. ^ a b Rozenfeld, Ben Tsiyon (2010). Torah centers and rabbinic activity in Palestine, 70-400 CE: history and geographic distribution. Chava Cassel. Leiden: Brill. p. 131. ISBN 978-90-474-4073-4. OCLC 695990313.
  14. ^ Ribak (2007), p. 128
  15. ^ Dauphin, 1998, p. 715
  16. ^ Zaharoni (1978), vol. 3, p. 114
  17. ^ Frankel, 1979, p. 255
  18. ^ Strehlke, 1869, p. 8, No. 7; cited in Röhricht, 1893, RHH, p. 137, No. 517; cited in Ellenblum, 2003, p. 109, note 16 and Frankel, 1988, p. 255
  19. ^ Strehlke, 1869, p. 64, No.81; cited Röhricht, 1893, RHH, p. 269, No. 1069; cited in Frankel, 1988, p. 265
  20. ^ Le Strange, 1890, p. 399
  21. ^ Sa'd Sabbagh, Biladuna Filasteen, Vol. 11
  22. ^ Hütteroth and Abdulfattah, 1977, p. 187
  23. ^ Note that Rhode, 1979, p. 6 Archived 2019-04-20 at the Wayback Machine writes that the Safad register that Hütteroth and Abdulfattah studied was not from 1595/6, but from 1548/9
  24. ^ Firro, 1992, p. 45
  25. ^ a b c d Petersen, 2001, p. 95
  26. ^ Robinson and Smith, 1841, vol. 3, 2nd appendix, p. 133
  27. ^ a b Guérin, 1880, pp. 466-468
  28. ^ Conder and Kitchener, 1881, SWP I, p. 364
  29. ^ Schumacher, 1888, p. 173
  30. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XI, Sub-district of Acre, p. 37
  31. ^ Barron, 1923, Table XVI, p. 50
  32. ^ Mills, 1932, p. 99
  33. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics, 1945, p. 4
  34. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 40
  35. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 80
  36. ^ Government of Palestine, Department of Statistics. Village Statistics, April, 1945. Quoted in Hadawi, 1970, p. 130
  37. ^ Morris, 1987, p. 226
  38. ^ Endelman, Todd M. Comparing Jewish societies University of Michigan Press, 1997; p. 292. ISBN 0472065920, 9780472065929
  39. ^ Orly Halpern (March 30, 2006). "Israel's Arabs to Mark Land Day". The Jerusalem Post, English Online Edition. Retrieved 2006-11-01.[dead link]
  40. ^ McDowall, David (1990). Palestine and Israel: The Uprising and Beyond (Illustrated, reprint ed.). I.B.Tauris. ISBN 1850432899, 9781850432890. McDowall, 1990, p. 157-158.
  41. ^ Keyser, Zachary (16 September 2020). "BDS calls on Arab content creators to boycott Arab-Israeli Nas Daily". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 12 December 2020. Nuseir Yassin, 28, a native of Arrabe in the Lower Galilee, operates a Facebook page with over 17 million subscribers. He rose to popularity featuring one-minute daily videos of his worldly travels.
  42. ^ a b Tal, Uri (2023). Muslim Shrines in Eretz Israel: History, Religion, Traditions, Folklore. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi. pp. 72–73. ISBN 978-965-217-452-9.

Bibliography