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Baron Samedi
Veve for Baron Samedi
Loa of the Death and Fertility
Venerated inHaitian Vodou, Louisiana Voodoo, Folk Catholicism
FeastNovember 2
AttributesRum, cigar, top hat, glasses with missing lens
PatronageDeath, tombs, gravestones, cemeteries, dead relatives, obscenities, healing, smoking, drinking, disruption, spirits
Depiction of Baron Samedi.
Cross of Baron La Croix

Baron Samedi (English: Baron Saturday), also written Baron Samdi, Bawon Samedi or Bawon Sanmdi, is one of the lwa of Haitian Vodou. He is a lwa of the dead, along with Baron's numerous other incarnations Baron Cimetière, Baron La Croix and Baron Criminel.

He is the head of the Gede family of lwa; his brothers are Azagon Lacroix and Baron Piquant and he is the husband of Maman Brigitte. Together, they are the guardians of the past, of history, and of heritage.[1]


Baron Samedi is usually depicted with a top hat, black tail coat, dark glasses, and cotton plugs in the nostrils, as if to resemble a corpse dressed and prepared for burial in the Haitian style. He is frequently depicted as a skeleton (but sometimes as a black man that merely has his face painted as a skull), and speaks in a nasal voice. The former President-for-Life of Haiti, François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc, modeled his cult of personality on Baron Samedi; he was often seen speaking in a deep nasal tone and wearing dark glasses.[2]

He is noted for disruption, obscenity, debauchery, and having a particular fondness for tobacco and rum. Additionally, he is the loa of resurrection, and in the latter capacity he is often called upon for healing by those near or approaching death, as it is only the Baron that can accept an individual into the realm of the dead.[3][4]

Due to affiliation with François Duvalier, Baron Samedi is linked to secret societies in the Haitian government and includes them in his domain.[5]

Baron Samedi spends most of his time in the invisible realm of vodou spirits. He is notorious for his outrageous behavior, swearing continuously and making filthy jokes to the other spirits. He is married to another powerful spirit known as Maman Brigitte, but often chases after mortal women. He loves smoking and drinking and is rarely seen without a cigar in his mouth or a glass of rum in his bony fingers. Baron Samedi can usually be found at the crossroads between the worlds of death and the living. When someone dies, he digs their grave and greets their soul after they have been buried, leading them to the underworld.

Connection to other loa

Baron Samedi is the leader of the Gede, loa with particular links to magic, ancestor worship and death.[6] These lesser spirits are dressed like The Baron and are as rude and crude but not nearly as charming as their master. They help carry the dead to the underworld.[7]


Among believers in Vodou, Baron Samedi is the master of the dead as well as a giver of life. He can cure mortals of any disease or wound so long as he thinks it is worthwhile. His powers are especially great when it comes to Vodou curses and black magic. Even if somebody has been afflicted by a hex that brings them to the verge of death, they will not die if The Baron refuses to dig their grave. So long as The Baron keeps them out of the ground, they are safe.

In many Haitian cemeteries the longest standing grave of male is designated as the grave of Baron Samedi. A cross (the kwa Bawon, meaning "Baron's cross") is placed at a crossroads in the cemetery to represent the point where the mortal and spiritual world cross. Often, a black top hat is placed on top of this cross.[8]

He also ensures that all corpses rot in the ground to stop any soul from being brought back as a zombie. What he demands in return depends on his mood. Sometimes he is content with his followers wearing black, white or purple clothes or using sacred objects;[citation needed] he may simply ask for a small gift of cigars, rum, black coffee, grilled peanuts, or bread. But sometimes The Baron requires a Vodou ceremony to help him cross over into this world.[citation needed]

In other media

This article may contain irrelevant references to popular culture. Please remove the content or add citations to reliable and independent sources. (March 2023)



Video games



  1. ^ Courlander, Harold (1944). Gods of the haitian mountains. journal of negro history.
  2. ^
  3. ^ Conner, p. 83, "Baron Samedi"
  4. ^ Conner, p. 83, "
  5. ^ Taylor, Patrick (1992). "Anthropology and Theology in Pursuit of Justice". Callaloo. 15 (3): 811–823. doi:10.2307/2932023. ISSN 0161-2492. JSTOR 2932023. Archived from the original on 2021-10-05. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  6. ^ Conner, p. 157, "Ghede"
  7. ^ Creole religions of the Caribbean, Margarite Fernández Olmos and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert. New York: NYU Press. 2003. ISBN 978-0-8147-2720-1. Pg. 113 - 114
  8. ^ Hayes, Anne Marie; Robinson, Michelle (2001). "Instructional Resources Haitian Art: Exploring Cultural Identity". Art Education. 54 (1): 25–32. doi:10.2307/3193890. ISSN 0004-3125. JSTOR 3193890. Archived from the original on 2021-10-05. Retrieved 2021-11-29.
  9. ^ "Baron Samedi A Closer Look". Archived from the original on 2022-05-19. Retrieved 2023-03-17.
  10. ^ Archived at Ghostarchive and the Wayback Machine: "Gregory Hines, Tonya Pinkins, Jammin' on Broadway - YouTube". Retrieved 2021-01-26.
  11. ^ "CVE-2021-3156: Heap-Based Buffer Overflow in Sudo (Baron Samedit)". Qualys Security Blog. 2021-01-26. Archived from the original on 2021-02-14. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  12. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin. "Recent root-giving Sudo bug also impacts macOS". ZDNet. Archived from the original on 2021-02-10. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  13. ^ "New Linux SUDO flaw lets local users gain root privileges". BleepingComputer. Archived from the original on 2021-02-13. Retrieved 2021-02-14.
  14. ^ February 2021, Barclay Ballard 03 (3 February 2021). "Sudo bug also found to affect macOS". TechRadar. Archived from the original on 2021-02-04. Retrieved 2021-02-14.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  15. ^ Paulsen, Steven (1996). "Cowboys and Atmosfear". Bloodsongs. Australia: Bambada Press (7): 16. Baron Samedi, the zombie, is named after the ancient Arawak Indian God of the Dead.
  16. ^ "Desperado Episode 3 Transcript" (PDF). Microsoft Word. Aeaea. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 7, 2021. Retrieved November 6, 2021.