Beetroot
Detroitdarkredbeets.png
Beetroots on the stem
SpeciesBeta vulgaris
SubspeciesBeta vulgaris subsp. vulgaris
Cultivar groupConditiva Group
OriginSea beet (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima)
Cultivar group membersMany; see text.

The beetroot is the taproot portion of a beet plant,[1] usually known in North America as beets while the vegetable is referred to as beetroot in British English, and also known as the table beet, garden beet, red beet, dinner beet or golden beet.

It is one of several cultivated varieties of Beta vulgaris grown for their edible taproots and leaves (called beet greens); they have been classified as B. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris Conditiva Group.[2]

Other cultivars of the same species include the sugar beet, the leaf vegetable known as chard or spinach beet, and mangelwurzel, which is a fodder crop. Three subspecies are typically recognized.

Etymology

Beta is the ancient Latin name for beetroot,[3] possibly of Celtic origin, becoming bete in Old English.[4] Root derives from the late Old English rōt, itself from Old Norse rót.[5]

History

The domestication of beetroot can be traced to the emergence of an allele which enables biennial harvesting of leaves and taproot.[6] Beetroot was domesticated in the ancient Middle East, primarily for their greens, and were grown by the Ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans. By the Roman era, it is thought that they were cultivated for their roots as well. From the Middle Ages, beetroot was used as a treatment for a variety of conditions, especially illnesses relating to digestion and the blood. Bartolomeo Platina recommended taking beetroot with garlic to nullify the effects of "garlic-breath".[7]

During the middle of the 19th century, wine often was coloured with beetroot juice.[8]

Food shortages in Europe following World War I caused great hardships, including cases of mangelwurzel disease, as relief workers called it. It was symptomatic of eating only beetroot.[9]

Culinary use

Beetroot, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy180 kJ (43 kcal)
9.56 g
Sugars6.76 g
Dietary fiber2.8 g
0.17 g
1.61 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
2 μg
0%
20 μg
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.031 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
3%
0.04 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.334 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
3%
0.155 mg
Vitamin B6
5%
0.067 mg
Folate (B9)
27%
109 μg
Vitamin C
6%
4.9 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
2%
16 mg
Iron
6%
0.8 mg
Magnesium
6%
23 mg
Manganese
16%
0.329 mg
Phosphorus
6%
40 mg
Potassium
7%
325 mg
Sodium
5%
78 mg
Zinc
4%
0.35 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water87.58g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Usually the deep purple roots of beetroot are eaten boiled, roasted, or raw, and either alone or combined with any salad vegetable. The green, leafy portion of the beetroot is also edible. The young leaves can be added raw to salads, whilst the mature leaves are most commonly served boiled or steamed, in which case they have a taste and texture similar to spinach. Beetroot can be roasted, boiled or steamed, peeled, and then eaten warm with or without butter as a delicacy; cooked, pickled, and then eaten cold as a condiment; or peeled, shredded raw, and then eaten as a salad. Pickled beetroot is a traditional food in many countries.

Eastern Europe

In Eastern Europe, beetroot soup, such as borscht, is common. In Poland and Ukraine, beetroot is combined with horseradish to form ćwikła or бурачки (burachky), which is traditionally used with cold cuts and sandwiches, but often also added to a meal consisting of meat and potatoes.

Similarly in Serbia beetroot (referred to by the local name cvekla) is used as winter salad, seasoned with salt and vinegar, with meat dishes.

As an addition to horseradish, it is also used to produce the "red" variety of chrain, a condiment in Ashkenazi Jewish, Hungarian, Polish, Lithuanian, Russian, and Ukrainian cuisine.

India

In Indian cuisine, chopped, cooked, spiced beetroot is a common side dish. Yellow-coloured beetroots are grown on a very small scale for home consumption.[10]

Northern Europe

A common dish in Sweden and elsewhere in the Nordic countries is Biff à la Lindström, a variant of meatballs or burgers, with chopped or grated beetroot added to the minced meat.[11][12][13]

In Northern Germany, beetroot is mashed with Labskaus or added as its side order.[14][15]

Industrial production and other uses

A large proportion of the commercial production is processed into boiled and sterilised beetroot or into pickles.

Betanin, obtained from the roots, is used industrially as red food colorant, to improve the color and flavor of tomato paste, sauces, desserts, jams and jellies, ice cream, candy, and breakfast cereals.[10] When beetroot juice is used, it is most stable in foods with a low water content, such as frozen novelties and fruit fillings.[16]

Beetroot can be used to make wine.[17]

Nutrition

Raw beetroot is 88% water, 10% carbohydrates, 2% protein, and less than 1% fat (see table). In a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) amount providing 180 kilojoules (43 kilocalories) of food energy, raw beetroot is a rich source (27% of the Daily Value - DV) of folate and a moderate source (16% DV) of manganese, with other nutrients having insignificant content (table).[18]

Health effects

A clinical trial review reported that consumption of beetroot juice modestly reduced systolic blood pressure but not diastolic blood pressure.[19]

Safety

The red colour compound betanin is not broken down in the body, and in higher concentrations may temporarily cause urine or stools to assume a reddish color, in the case of urine a condition called beeturia.[20]

Although harmless, this effect may cause initial concern due to the visual similarity to what appears to be blood in the stool, hematochezia (blood passing through the anus, usually in or with stool) or hematuria (blood in the urine).[21]

Nitrosamine formation in beetroot juice can reliably be prevented by adding ascorbic acid.[22]

Cultivars

Below is a list of several commonly available cultivars of beetroot. Generally, 55 to 65 days are needed from germination to harvest of the root. All cultivars can be harvested earlier for use as greens. Unless otherwise noted, the root colours are shades of red and dark red with different degrees of zoning noticeable in slices.

See also

Gallery

  • A bundle of beetroot
    A bundle of beetroot
  • Section through taproot
    Section through taproot
  • Yellow beetroot
    Yellow beetroot
  • Salad of grated beetroot and apple
    Salad of grated beetroot and apple
  • Finnish rosolli
    Finnish rosolli
  • Sliced, pickled beetroot
    Sliced, pickled beetroot
  • Red chrain is made with beetroot
    Red chrain is made with beetroot
  • Beetroot juice
    Beetroot juice
  • Golden, red, and white beetroots (left to right).
    Golden, red, and white beetroots (left to right).
  • Roasted beetroot
    Roasted beetroot
  • Root and cross section of cultivar 'Chioggia'
    Root and cross section of cultivar 'Chioggia'
  • Root and cross section of a yellow cultivar
    Root and cross section of a yellow cultivar

References

  1. ^ "beet". def. 1 and 2. also "beet-root". Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) © Oxford University Press 2009
  2. ^ "Sorting Beta names". Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database. The University of Melbourne. Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Retrieved 2013-04-15.
  3. ^ Gledhill, David (2008). "The Names of Plants". Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521866453 (hardback), ISBN 9780521685535 (paperback). pp 70
  4. ^ "Beet". Online Etymology Dictionary, Douglas Harper. 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  5. ^ "Root | Meaning of Root by Lexico".
  6. ^ Pin, Pierre A.; Zhang, Wenying; Vogt, Sebastian H.; et al. (2012-06-19). "The Role of a Pseudo-Response Regulator Gene in Life Cycle Adaptation and Domestication of Beet". Current Biology. 22 (12): 1095–1101. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2012.04.007. ISSN 0960-9822. PMID 22608508.
  7. ^ Platina De honesta voluptate et valetudine, 3.14
  8. ^ Nilsson et al. (1970). "Studies into the pigments in beetroot (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. vulgaris var. rubra L.)"
  9. ^ MacMillan, Margaret Olwen (2002) [2001]. "We are the League of the People". Paris 1919: Six Months That Changed the World (1st U.S. ed.). New York: Random House. p. 60. ISBN 978-0375508264. LCCN 2002023707. Relief workers invented names for things they had never seen before, such as the mangelwurzel disease, which afflicted those who lived solely on beetroot.
  10. ^ a b Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  11. ^ "Historien om biff à la Lindström" (in Swedish). Aftonbladet. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  12. ^ "Lindströmin pihvit ja lihapullat ovat koko kansan klassikoita". Kotiliesi.fi (in Finnish). 24 September 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  13. ^ "Biff à la Lindström—beef patties with debated origins". Swedish Spoon. 5 November 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  14. ^ SPIEGEL Online on Labskaus in Hamburg (German), Der Spiegel
  15. ^ Labskaus mit Rote-Bete-Salat (German), recipe at NDR
  16. ^ Francis, F.J. (1999). Colorants. Egan Press. ISBN 978-1-891127-00-7.
  17. ^ Making Wild Wines & Meads; Pattie Vargas & Rich Gulling; page 73
  18. ^ "Nutrient data for beetroot, raw per 100 g". United States Department of Agriculture, National Nutrient Database, release SR-28. 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  19. ^ Siervo, M; Lara, J; Ogbonmwan, I; Mathers, JC (2013). "Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of Nutrition. 143 (6): 818–26. doi:10.3945/jn.112.170233. PMID 23596162.
  20. ^ Frank, T; Stintzing, F. C.; Carle, R; et al. (2005). "Urinary pharmacokinetics of betalains following consumption of red beet juice in healthy humans". Pharmacological Research. 52 (4): 290–7. doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2005.04.005. PMID 15964200.
  21. ^ "Urine color". Mayo Clinic, Patient Care and Health Information, Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  22. ^ Kolb E, Haug M, Janzowski C, et al. (1997). "Potential nitrosamine formation and its prevention during biological denitrification of red beet juice". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 35 (2): 219–24. doi:10.1016/s0278-6915(96)00099-3. PMID 9146735.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "AGM Plants © RHS – CROPS BEETROOT" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. November 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 August 2018. Retrieved 21 November 2019.
  24. ^ "Baby Bulls Blood Beets Information". Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  25. ^ a b c Stebbings, Geoff (2010). Growing Your Own Fruit and Veg For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781119992233. Retrieved 31 July 2018 – via Google Books.
  26. ^ https://www.rareseeds.com/macgregor-s-favorite-beet/[permanent dead link]
  27. ^ "Beets - Territorial Seed Company".
  28. ^ "AAS Beet Perfected Detroit". June 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
  29. ^ "AAS Beet Ruby Queen". 17 August 2016. Retrieved 20 August 2017.