Bethylidae
Temporal range: Barremian–Recent
Sierola gilbertae
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Hymenoptera
Superfamily: Chrysidoidea
Family: Bethylidae
Forster, 1856
Subgroups

See text

The Bethylidae are a family of aculeate wasps in the superfamily Chrysidoidea. As a family, their biology ranges between parasitoid wasps and hunting wasps.

Overview

Like most of the Chrysidoidea, the Bethylidae are stinging Hymenoptera and most are parasitoids. Some of them, however, have developed their parasitoidal biology along predatory lines and they sting and malaxate their victims into paralysis. Then they hide the prey and lay their eggs on them.

Sierola gilbertae dorsal
Sierola gilbertae dorsal

According to Azevedo et al. (2018) eight subfamilies of the Bethylidae are recognized:[1]

Genera

According to Azevedo et. al. (2018) there are 96 genera belong to the family Bethylidae. Some are listed here:

Data sources: i = ITIS,[2] c = Catalogue of Life,[3] g = GBIF,[4] b = Bugguide.net[5]

Evolution

The oldest known records of the group are from the Barremian aged Lebanese amber.[6][7]

Sclerodermus
Sclerodermus

References

  1. ^ Alencar, I.D.; Azevedo, C.O. (2013). "Reclassification of Epyrini (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae): a tribal approach with commentary on their genera". Systematic Entomology. 38 (1): 45–80. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3113.2012.00648.x.
    Azevedo, C.O.; Azar, D. (2012). "A new fossil subfamily of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber and its phylogenetic position". Zoologia (Curitiba). 29 (3): 210–8. doi:10.1590/S1984-46702012000300004.
  2. ^ "Bethylidae Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  3. ^ "Browse Bethylidae". Catalogue of Life. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  4. ^ "Bethylidae". GBIF. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  5. ^ "Bethylidae Family Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2018-05-06.
  6. ^ M. S. Engel, J. Ortega-Blanco, and C. O. Ozevedo. 2016. A new bethylid wasp in Lebanese Early Cretaceous amber (Hymenoptera: Chrysidoidea), with comments on other Mesozoic taxa. American Museum Novitates 3855:1-14
  7. ^ Azevedo, Celso O.; Azar, Dany (June 2012). "A new fossil subfamily of Bethylidae (Hymenoptera) from the Early Cretaceous Lebanese amber and its phylogenetic position". Zoologia (Curitiba). 29 (3): 210–218. doi:10.1590/s1984-46702012000300004. ISSN 1984-4689.