A typical summer beam with slender joists in the ceiling of a cafe in the Netherlands. Image: Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands.
A typical summer beam with slender joists in the ceiling of a cafe in the Netherlands. Image: Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands.

A bressummer, breastsummer, summer beam (somier, sommier, sommer, somer, cross-somer, summer, summier,[1] summer-tree,[2] or dorman, dormant tree) is a load-bearing beam in a timber-framed building. The word summer derived from sumpter or French sommier, "a pack horse", meaning "bearing great burden or weight". "To support a superincumbent wall", "any beast of burden", and in this way is similar to a wall plate.

The use and definition of these terms vary but generally a bressummer is a jetty sill and a summer is an interior beam supporting ceiling joists, see below:

References

  1. ^ A Dictionary of the Old English Language
  2. ^ Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, 1913.
  3. ^ Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChambers, Ephraim, ed. (1728). "Bressummer". Cyclopædia, or an Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (1st ed.). James and John Knapton, et al.
  4. ^ Alcock, N. W. Recording timber-framed buildings: an illustrated glossary. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1989. G4, 14h, 15b. ISBN 1872414729
  5. ^ Harris, Richard. Discovering Timber-Framed Buildings. 2d ed. Aylesbury: Shire Publications, 1979. p.94. ISBN 0747802157.
  6. ^ "Breastsummer" def. 1. Oxford English Dictionary Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009
  7. ^ Bailey; Kennett, 1695
  8. ^ Palmer, Abram Smythe. Folk-Etymology: A Dictionary of Verbal Corruptions or Words Perverted in Form or Meaning, by False Derivation or Mistaken Analogy (1882), quoting Parker's Glossary of Architecture.
  9. ^ Sobon, Jack. Build a Classic Timber-Framed House: Planning & Design/Traditional Materials/Affordable Methods. Pownal, Vt.: Storey Communications, 1994. p.191.ISBN 0882668412
  10. ^ Ensminger, Robert F. The Pennsylvania barn: its origin, evolution, and distribution in North America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992. p.392.