Written by
Date premieredNovember 11, 1937 (1937-11-11)
Place premieredMercury Theatre, New York City, New York
Original languageEnglish

Caesar is the title of Orson Welles's innovative 1937 adaptation of William Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, a modern-dress bare-stage production that evoked comparison to contemporary Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany. Considered Welles's highest achievement in the theatre, it premiered November 11, 1937, as the first production of the Mercury Theatre, an independent repertory theatre company that presented an acclaimed series of productions on Broadway through 1941.


"I am constant as the Northern Star": Caesar (Joseph Holland, standing at center) addresses Brutus (Orson Welles, left) and the conspirators shortly before his assassination in Caesar (1937)

It would have been a fascinating experiment even if it had failed. That it succeeds so admirably is enough to blow the hinges off the dictionary.

— John Anderson, New York Journal[1]: 316 

Breaking with the Federal Theatre Project in 1937, Orson Welles and John Houseman founded their own repertory company, which they called the Mercury Theatre. The name was inspired by the title of the iconoclastic magazine, The American Mercury.[2]: 119–120  The original company included such actors as Joseph Cotten, George Coulouris, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Ruth Ford, Arlene Francis, Martin Gabel, John Hoysradt, Whitford Kane, Norman Lloyd, Vincent Price, Erskine Sanford, Stefan Schnabel and Hiram Sherman.[3]: 186–190 

The Mercury Theatre opened November 11, 1937, with Caesar[4]: 339 —Welles's modern-dress adaptation of Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar, streamlined into an anti-fascist tour de force that Joseph Cotten later described as "so vigorous, so contemporary that it set Broadway on its ear."[5]: 108  The set was completely open with no curtain, and the brick stage walls were painted dark red. Scene changes were achieved by lighting alone.[6]: 165  On the stage was a series of risers; squares were cut into one riser at intervals and lights were set beneath it, pointing straight up to evoke the "cathedral of light" at the Nuremberg Rallies. "He staged it like a political melodrama that happened the night before," said Norman Lloyd, who played the role of Cinna the Poet.[7]

In a scene that became the fulcrum of the show, Cinna the Poet dies at the hands not of a mob but of a secret police force. Lloyd called it "an extraordinary scene [that] gripped the audience in a way that the show stopped for about three minutes. The audience stopped it with applause."[7]

In addition to adapting the text, Welles directed the production and performed the role of Marcus Brutus. Music was by Marc Blitzstein; sets were by Samuel Leve; the production manager and lighting designer was Jean Rosenthal.[3]: 186 [8] Rehearsals began October 21, 1937. At the end of October, press agent Henry Senber oversaw a ceremony unveiling the new electric sign identifying the theatre as the Mercury. Ticket prices ranged from 55 cents, for seats in the top balcony, to $2.20 for front row orchestra seats.[9]: 34–35 

The production moved from the Mercury Theatre to the larger National Theatre on January 24, 1938.[4]: 341  It ran through May 28, 1938, for a total of 157 performances.[10]

Arthur Anderson (Lucius) and Orson Welles (Brutus) in the tent scene in Caesar (1937)

"Caesar was unquestionably Welles's highest achievement in the theatre," wrote critic Richard France.[3]: 106 

Evelyn Allen (Calpurnia) and Joseph Holland (Julius Caesar) in Caesar (1937)

At least two memorable incidents marked the production. Arthur Anderson, who played the role of young Lucius, found himself bored and lonely in his third-floor dressing room at the National Theatre. During the matinee performance on March 10, 1938, he stood on a chair and lifted a match to a sprinkler head—accidentally setting off the fire-sprinkler system. Water poured under a fire door down onto the main switchboard and began pooling at Welles's feet during the funeral oration. The show was delayed 15 minutes as electricians worked and stagehands mopped the floor. Anderson kept his job, but he was charged $30 for sprinkler repairs and was required to have an extra at his side for two weeks at $1 a show.[9]: 42–44  The incident is fictionalized in Robert Kaplow's novel Me and Orson Welles (2003) and its 2008 film adaptation.

Actor Joseph Holland, who played the title role in Caesar, was accidentally stabbed by Welles during the performance on April 6, 1938.[11][12] Welles performed with a real dagger, which caught the light dramatically during the assassination scene. Holland collapsed on the stage floor and remained motionless, and in time the cast members realized that he was bleeding profusely. At the end of the scene he was taken by taxi to the hospital. During the month it took Holland to recover, the role of Caesar was played by John Hoysradt.[13][14] Holland returned to the Caesar cast on May 5, 1938.[15]


Marc Antony (George Coulouris) addresses the crowd in Caesar (1937)


Herbert Kehl's color photographs in the June 1938 issue of Coronet magazine[16] are from the production after it moved from the Mercury Theatre to the larger National Theatre in January.[4]: 341  At the National Theatre, Polly Rowles took the role of Calpurnia and Alice Frost played Portia.[17]


Cassius (Martin Gabel) and Brutus (Orson Welles) in Caesar (Act I, Scene 2)

Unable to attend on opening night, drama critic John Mason Brown asked to review the matinee preview of Caesar—"a troublesome request", wrote producer John Houseman, but one that was granted. At the end of the performance, Brown asked to be taken backstage. "Orson, sitting before his makeup table in his green military greatcoat, looked up in consternation as one of the country's leading drama critics burst into the dressing room and started to tell us such things about the production as we had not hoped to hear even in our most megalomaniacal dreams," Houseman recalled. In his New York Post review, Brown called Caesar "by all odds the most exciting, the most imaginative, the most topical, the most awesome and the most absorbing of the season's new productions. The touch of genius is upon it."[1]: 313–314 

Antony (George Coulouris) kneels over the body of Brutus (Orson Welles) at the conclusion of Caesar

"Bard Boffola" read Variety.[1]: 316  Heywood Broun called Caesar "the most exhilarating play in New York".[9]: 37  "Greatly conceived and brilliantly executed, it is the most vivid production of Shakespeare seen in New York in this generation," wrote The Nation.[1]: 316  In the New York Herald Tribune, critic Richard Watts called it "a production so exciting and imaginative, so completely fascinating in all its phases, there is nothing to do but let ourselves go and applaud it unreservedly. Here, splendidly acted and thrillingly produced is what must certainly be the great Julius Caesar of our time."[1]: 316 

Stage magazine awarded Welles the palm, its citation of excellence, and featured him (as Brutus) on the cover of its June 1938 issue:

To Orson Welles, director, man of letters, disciple of classic repertory, for the season's most outstanding contribution to the American stage—the Mercury Theatre. For founding that theatre, with John Houseman. For the vision, the courage, the executive art which accompanied its founding. For establishing a uniformly excellent repertory company. For the editing, direction, lighting, presentation scheme of Julius Caesar, which made the Mercury's bare-stage, modern-dress production of that classic one of the most exciting dramatic events of our time.[18]

Touring production

Tom Powers played Brutus in the national touring production of Caesar, then succeeded Welles in the Broadway production (1938).

In financial straits from the outset, the Mercury briefly considered exploiting the sensational success of Caesar by continuing a straight run of the play and setting aside its repertory mission. Instead, the company went into rehearsal with two new productions[1]: 319–321  and accepted a proposal for a road tour of Caesar. Producer Alex Yokel offered a $5,000 advance and 50 percent of the profits, and Welles and Houseman began casting the road company.[1]: 337  Tom Powers, a leading actor with the Theatre Guild[1]: 337  and a principal in the original production of Strange Interlude,[19] led the company as Brutus. Houseman wrote that Powers "lacked some of Orson's 'high-souled nobility' but he had sincerity and authority." Also in the cast were Lawrence Fletcher (Caesar), Vincent Donehue (Cinna the Poet), Herbert Ranson[1]: 337  (Cassius, later played by Morgan Farley), Edmond O'Brien (Marc Antony), Edgar Barrier (Casca), Helen Craig (Calpurnia), Muriel Brassler (Portia)[20] and a supporting ensemble of 60.[21]

The five-month national tour of Caesar[22]: 357  began January 17, 1938, in Providence, Rhode Island. The itinerary included Hartford and New Haven, Connecticut, Boston (Colonial Theatre),[23] Washington, D.C. (National Theatre), Baltimore (Ford's Theater), Philadelphia,[24] Pittsburgh,[25] Chicago (Erlanger Theatre),[26] St. Louis (American Theatre),[21] Milwaukee (Davidson Theatre),[27] Madison (Parkway Theatre)[28] and Toronto. Welles flew to Chicago to personally supervise the production.[22]: 357 

The roadshow Caesar elicited great critical acclaim, but attendance did not meet expectations. The Mercury Theatre did not see a half-share of profits from the touring production because it never went into the black. "These financial set-backs, whose implications would eventually catch up with them in ways that could scarcely have been predicted, did nothing to daunt their high spirits," wrote biographer Simon Callow.[22]: 358 

Brutus received particular praise: "Tom Powers has been vouchsafed the opportunity to reveal, as never before, his innate soundness of spirit," wrote Florence Fisher Parry in The Pittsburgh Press.[22]: 358 [29] Powers replaced Welles in Caesar at the National Theatre when Heartbreak House got under way. "I remember his Brutus as a good, earnest performance," wrote Arthur Anderson, who played the role of young Lucius, "but he did not have half the pent-up energy or the vocal dynamics in the role as did Orson Welles."[9]: 49  In the final weeks of Caesar on Broadway, Edmond O'Brien replaced George Coulouris, who was also performing in Heartbreak House.[30]

Original cast recording

Columbia Masterworks Records M-325 (1939)

In March 1938,[31]: 340 [4]: 349  members of the original cast recorded highlights from Caesar for Columbia Masterworks Records.[32] With incidental music by Marc Blitzstein, the recording features Orson Welles (Brutus), Joseph Holland (Caesar), George Coulouris (Marcus Antonius), Martin Gabel (Cassius), Hiram Sherman (Casca), John Hoyt (Decius Brutus), and John A. Willard (Trebonius,[31]: 340  Volumnius).[33] A set of five 12" 78 rpm records (M-325) was released in 1939.[32] In 1998 the recording was released on compact disc, with Welles's Mercury Text Records recording of Twelfth Night, on the Pearl label.[33] It is also available at the Internet Archive.[34]

Cultural references

Cinna the Poet (1959), a painting by Jacob Landau created 20 years after the pivotal scene in Caesar was performed, is in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art.[35]: 49 [36]

Richard Linklater's 2008 film Me and Orson Welles is a romantic comedy set during the days before the opening of Caesar at the Mercury Theatre. Christian McKay received numerous accolades for his portrayal of Welles,[37] and Me and Orson Welles was named one of the top ten independent films of 2009 by the National Board of Review.[38] Wall Street Journal drama critic Terry Teachout reserved special praise for the film's recreation of Caesar: "What makes Me and Orson Welles uniquely interesting to scholars of American drama is that Mr. Linklater's design team found the Gaiety Theatre on the Isle of Man. This house closely resembles the old Comedy Theatre on 41st Street, which was torn down five years after Julius Caesar opened there. Using Samuel Leve's original designs, they reconstructed the set for Julius Caesar on the Gaiety's stage. Then Mr. Linklater filmed some 15 minutes' worth of scenes from the play, lit according to Jean Rosenthal's plot, accompanied by Marc Blitzstein's original incidental music and staged in a style as close to that of the 1937 production as is now possible." Teachout wrote that he "was floored by the verisimilitude of the results".[39]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Houseman, John (1972). Run-Through: A Memoir. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-21034-3.
  2. ^ Brady, Frank (1989). Citizen Welles: A Biography of Orson Welles. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-18982-8.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u France, Richard (1977). The Theatre of Orson Welles. Lewisburg, Pennsylvania: Bucknell University Press. ISBN 0-8387-1972-4.
  4. ^ a b c d Welles, Orson; Bogdanovich, Peter; Rosenbaum, Jonathan (1992). This is Orson Welles. New York: HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-016616-9.
  5. ^ Cotten, Joseph (1987). Vanity Will Get You Somewhere. San Francisco: Mercury House. ISBN 0-916515-17-6.
  6. ^ France, Richard (2001). Orson Welles on Shakespeare: The W.P.A. and Mercury Theatre Playscripts. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415937269.
  7. ^ a b Lattanzio, Ryan (2014). "Orson Welles' World, and We're Just Living in It: A Conversation with Norman Lloyd". Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  8. ^ Fippin, Carol. "Jean Rosenthal". Jewish Women's Archive. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d Anderson, Arthur (2010). An Actor's Odyssey. Albany, Georgia: BearManor Media. ISBN 9781593935221.
  10. ^ "News of the Stage; 'Julius Caesar' Closes Tonight". The New York Times. 28 May 1938. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
  11. ^ "'Jitters' Opening Now Due on May 2". The New York Times. 8 April 1938. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  12. ^ "Stage Stabbing". The Chicago Sunday Tribune. 10 April 1938. Retrieved 3 August 2017.
  13. ^ McGilligan, Patrick (2015). Young Orson. New York: Harper. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-06-211248-4.
  14. ^ Matthew Dewald (10 January 2018). "Then fall, Caesar". University of Richmond Magazine. Retrieved 24 April 2024.
  15. ^ "News of the Stage". The New York Times. 5 May 1938. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  16. ^ "The Man from Mercury". Coronet. 4 (5). Esquire-Coronet, Inc.: 98–102.
  17. ^ The Playbill for the National Theatre production beginning Monday, March 14, 1938 (pp. 16–17)
  18. ^ Sedgwick, Ruth Woodbury (June 1938). "Stage Awards the Palm". Stage. 15 (9): 5.
  19. ^ "Tom Powers Dies; Stage, Film Actor". The New York Times. 10 November 1955. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  20. ^ "New 'Julius Caesar' is Unusual, Exciting". Wisconsin State Journal. 17 April 1938.
  21. ^ a b "Modern Julius Caesar at American Theatre, St. Louis, on April 4". Troy Call. Troy, Illinois. 1 April 1938.
  22. ^ a b c d Callow, Simon (1996). Orson Welles: The Road to Xanadu. New York: Viking. ISBN 9780670867226.
  23. ^ "News of the Stage". The New York Times. 29 December 1937. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  24. ^ "Amusements Billed for the Coming Week". Hanover Evening Sun. Hanover, Pennsylvania. 19 February 1938.
  25. ^ "Mercury Theater's Vital Productions Win Praise". Pittsburgh Press. 22 February 1938. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  26. ^ Collins, Charles (6 March 1938). "'Julius Caesar' Comes to Chicago as Staged by Orson Welles". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  27. ^ "Brutus and Portia, 1938". Herald Times. 12 April 1938.
  28. ^ "'Caesar' Tells Modern Story of Dictatorship". Wisconsin State Journal. 10 April 1938.
  29. ^ Parry, Florence Fisher (1 March 1938). "Nixon's Production Is 'Spot News' Drama". The Pittsburgh Press. p. 10.
  30. ^ "News of the Stage". The New York Times. 9 May 1938. Retrieved 5 November 2015.
  31. ^ a b Higham, Charles; Kreuger, Miles (discography) (1985). Orson Welles: The Rise and Fall of an American Genius. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 339–344. ISBN 0-312-31280-6.
  32. ^ a b Columbia 'M' Sets 301-325. Hopper Columbia Discography. ISBN 978-1-4478-4414-3. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
  33. ^ a b Twelfth Night. E. Sussex, England: Pearl (GEMS 0020), Pavilion Records Ltd. 1998. ISBN 1899644172. OCLC 40967681.
  34. ^ "Orson Welles Shakespeare Collection; Mar 38 The Tragedy of Julius Caesar". Internet Archive. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  35. ^ Lloyd, Norman (1993) [1990]. Stages of Life in Theatre, Film and Television. New York: Limelight Editions. ISBN 9780879101664.
  36. ^ "Jacob Landau. Cinna the Poet". Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  37. ^ "Awards, Me and Orson Welles". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  38. ^ "2009 Award Winners". National Board of Review. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
  39. ^ Teachout, Terry (29 October 2010). "Relishing a Lost Production". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 September 2015.