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Calcium Phosphate nanowires seen in SEM
Calcium Phosphate nanowires seen in SEM

The term calcium phosphate refers to a family of materials and minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with inorganic phosphate anions. Some so-called calcium phosphates contain oxide and hydroxide as well. Calcium phosphates are white solids of nutritious value[1] and are found in many living organisms, e.g., bone mineral and tooth enamel.[2] In milk, it exists in a colloidal form in micelles bound to casein protein with magnesium, zinc, and citrate–collectively referred to as colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP).[3] Various calcium phosphate minerals are used in the production of phosphoric acid and fertilizers. Overuse of certain forms of calcium phosphate can lead to nutrient-containing surface runoff and subsequent adverse effects upon receiving waters such as algal blooms and eutrophication (over-enrichment with nutrients and minerals).[citation needed]

Orthophosphates, di- and monohydrogen phosphates

These materials contain Ca2+ combined with PO3−
4
, HPO2−
4
, or H
2
PO
4
:

Di- and polyphosphates

These materials contain Ca2+ combined with the polyphosphates, such as P
2
O4−
7
and triphosphate P
3
O5−
10
:

Hydroxy- and oxo-phosphates

These materials contain other anions in addition to phosphate:

References

  1. ^ Klaus Schrödter; Gerhard Bettermann; Thomas Staffel; Friedrich Wahl; Thomas Klein; Thomas Hofmann (2008). "Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_465.pub3. ISBN 978-3527306732.
  2. ^ "What Substances Make Up Your Teeth? – Affordable Dental Care". www.towncaredental.com. 2015-07-15. Retrieved 2021-01-29.
  3. ^ A. Y. Tamime, ed. (2006). Brined cheeses - The Society of Dairy Technology (SDT). Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4051-2460-7.