Chlorine azide
IUPAC name
Chlorine azide
3D model (JSmol)
  • [N-]=[N+]=NCl
Molar mass 77.4731 g/mol
Appearance Yellow-orange liquid; colorless gas
Melting point −100 °C (−148 °F; 173 K)
Boiling point −15 °C (5 °F; 258 K)
Solubility Soluble[vague] in butane, pentane, benzene, methanol, ethanol, diethyl ether, acetone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and carbon disulfide; slightly soluble in water
Cmc 21, No. 36[1]
Explosive data
Shock sensitivity Extreme
Friction sensitivity Extreme
Occupational safety and health (OHS/OSH):
Main hazards
Extremely sensitive explosive
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
NFPA 704 four-colored diamondHealth (blue): no hazard codeFlammability 0: Will not burn. E.g. waterInstability 4: Readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition at normal temperatures and pressures. E.g. nitroglycerinSpecial hazards (white): no code
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hydrazoic acid
Fluorine azide
Bromine azide
Iodine azide
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Chlorine azide (ClN3) is an inorganic compound that was discovered in 1908 by Friedrich Raschig.[2] Concentrated ClN3 is notoriously unstable and may spontaneously detonate at any temperature.[3]

Preparation and handling

Chlorine azide is prepared by passing chlorine gas over silver azide, or by an addition of acetic acid to a solution of sodium hypochlorite and sodium azide.[4]

Explosive characteristics

Chlorine azide is extremely sensitive. It may explode, sometimes even without apparent provocation; it is thus too sensitive to be used commercially unless first diluted in solution. Chlorine azide reacts explosively with 1,3-butadiene, ethane, ethene, methane, propane, phosphorus, silver azide, and sodium. On contact with acid, chlorine azide decomposes, evolving toxic and corrosive hydrogen chloride gas.[5]

Regulatory information

Its shipment is subject to strict reporting requirements and regulations by the US Department of Transportation.


  1. ^ Lyhs, Benjamin; Bläser, Dieter; Wölper, Christoph; Schulz, Stephan; Jansen, Georg (2012). "A Comparison of the Solid‐State Structures of Halogen Azides XN3 (X=Cl, Br, I)". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51 (51): 12859–12863. doi:10.1002/anie.201206028. PMID 23143850.
  2. ^ Frierson, W. J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide. II. Interaction of Chlorine Azide and Silver Azide. Azino Silver Chloride, N3AgCl". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (9): 1698–1700. doi:10.1021/ja01249a013.
  3. ^ Frierson, W. J.; Kronrad, J.; Browne, A. W. (1943). "Chlorine Azide, ClN3. I.". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 65 (9): 1696–1698. doi:10.1021/ja01249a012.
  4. ^ Raschig, F. (1908). "Über Chlorazid N3Cl". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft. 41 (3): 4194–4195. doi:10.1002/cber.190804103130.
  5. ^ CID 61708 from PubChem