Cloud-based quantum computing is the invocation of quantum emulators, simulators or processors through the cloud. Increasingly, cloud services are being looked on as the method for providing access to quantum processing. Quantum computers achieve their massive computing power by initiating quantum physics into processing power and when users are allowed access to these quantum-powered computers through the internet it is known as quantum computing within the cloud.

In 2016, IBM connected a small quantum computer to the cloud and it allows for simple programs to be built and executed on the cloud.[1] In early 2017, researchers from Rigetti Computing demonstrated the first programmable cloud access using the pyQuil Python library.[2] Many people from academic researchers and professors to schoolkids, have already built programs that run many different quantum algorithms using the program tools. Some consumers hoped to use the fast computing to model financial markets or to build more advanced AI systems. These use methods allow people outside a professional lab or institution to experience and learn more about such a phenomenal technology.[3]


Cloud-based quantum computing is used in several contexts:

Existing platforms

Next to the quantum chips, the platform gives access to QX, a quantum emulator backend. Two instances of the QX emulator are available, emulating up to 26 qubits on a commodity cloud-based server and up to 31 qubits using one 'fat' nodes on Cartesius, the Dutch national supercomputer of SurfSara. Circuit based quantum algorithms can be created through a graphical user interface or through the Python-based Quantum Inspire SDK, providing a backend for the projectQ framework, the Qiskit framework. Quantum Inspire provides a knowledge base[20] with user guides and some example algorithms written in cQASM.


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  2. ^ "Rigetti Computing Software Demo:Forest". YouTube. Retrieved 2021-02-03.
  3. ^ "NASA/ADS". Bibcode:2018arXiv180807375C. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ "Undergraduates on a cloud using IBM Quantum Experience". 9 June 2016.
  5. ^ Fedortchenko, Serguei (8 July 2016). "A quantum teleportation experiment for undergraduate students". arXiv:1607.02398 [quant-ph].
  6. ^ Alsina, Daniel; Latorre, José Ignacio (11 July 2016). "Experimental test of Mermin inequalities on a five-qubit quantum computer". Physical Review A. 94 (1): 012314. arXiv:1605.04220. Bibcode:2016PhRvA..94a2314A. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.012314. S2CID 119189277.
  7. ^ Devitt, Simon J. (29 September 2016). "Performing quantum computing experiments in the cloud". Physical Review A. 94 (3): 032329. arXiv:1605.05709. Bibcode:2016PhRvA..94c2329D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.94.032329. S2CID 119217150.
  8. ^ Linke, Norbert M.; Maslov, Dmitri; Roetteler, Martin; Debnath, Shantanu; Figgatt, Caroline; Landsman, Kevin A.; Wright, Kenneth; Monroe, Christopher (28 March 2017). "Experimental comparison of two quantum computing architectures". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114 (13): 3305–3310. arXiv:1702.01852. doi:10.1073/pnas.1618020114. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 5380037. PMID 28325879.
  9. ^ Wootton, James (12 March 2017). "Why we need to make quantum games".
  10. ^ "First Photonic Quantum Computer on the Cloud". 9 September 2020.
  11. ^ Smith, Robert S.; Curtis, Michael J.; Zeng, William J. (2016-08-10). "A Practical Quantum Instruction Set Architecture". arXiv:1608.03355 [quant-ph].
  12. ^ "IBM Q Homepage". 2 April 2009.
  13. ^ "IBM Quantum Experience". 2 April 2009.
  14. ^ "IBM Q Experience tutorial".
  15. ^ "Quantum devices and simulators". 2 April 2009.
  16. ^ "IBM Q Network". 2 April 2009.
  17. ^ "Quantum in the Cloud". Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  18. ^ "Quantum Computing Playground". Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  19. ^ "QuTech Announces Quantum Inspire, Europe's First Public Quantum Computing Platform". Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  20. ^ "The basics of Quantum Computing". Quantum Inspire. Retrieved 15 Nov 2018.
  21. ^ Lardinois, Frederic. "QC Ware Forge will give developers access to quantum hardware and simulators across vendors". TechCrunch. Retrieved 29 October 2019.