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Company typeSubsidiary
FoundedJuly 2007; 16 years ago (2007-07)
FounderDavid Steinberger, John Roberts, Peter Jaffe
DefunctDecember 4, 2023; 6 months ago (2023-12-04)
HeadquartersNew York City, U.S.
ProductsDigital comics distribution

Iconology Inc.,[1] d/b/a ComiXology (styled comiXology), was a cloud-based digital distribution platform for comics owned by Amazon, with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013.[2][3] At its height it offered a selection of more than 100,000[4] comic books, graphic novels, and manga across Android, iOS, Kindle Fire, Windows 10,[5] and the Internet.[6][7] In 2023, the ComiXology app was officially retired and the material was made available exclusively on the Amazon Kindle app.

ComiXology's digital platform with Guided View reading technology is used in the company's own branded applications, and is the engine used by most major comic book publishers in the United States, including Marvel Comics and DC Comics for their privately branded digital services.[8] With the release of the third generation iPad and its Retina Display, ComiXology released a high-definition comic format dubbed CMX-HD.[9] The company also provides tools for brick-and-mortar comic book retailers to participate in digital comic sales.[10]



The company was founded in 2007 by CEO David Steinberger, CTO John D. Roberts, and Peter Jaffe. Subsequent to winning the business plan competition at New York University, the company received seed financing from Kit McQuiston, New York Angels and Rose Tech Ventures.[12]

In late 2014, Amazon acquired ComiXology for an undisclosed sum, which The Motley Fool argued was an attempt to control the comic book market after Amazon Publishing's Jet City Comics imprint failed to achieve major market share after its July 2013 launch.[13][14]

In May 2016, the company launched ComiXology Unlimited, a subscription service that gives digital access to thousands of comics to read from most major publishers for a monthly fee of $5.99.[15] The service offers more than four thousand issues to its subscribers and launched on May 24, 2016, with available content updated on a monthly basis.[16][17] According to the company, the service offers the widest subscription selection of digital comics in the world. ComiXology Unlimited contains a selection of titles from Image Comics, Dark Horse, IDW Publishing, BOOM! Studios, Dynamite Entertainment, Kodansha Comics, Oni Press, Valiant Entertainment, Archie Comics, Fantagraphics Books, Humanoids, Action Lab Entertainment, Aspen Comics, Magnetic Press, Zenescope Entertainment and more.[15] ComiXology Unlimited is currently limited to the U.S.[18]

ComiXology's Guided View technology allows readers to read through comics in full screen or from panel-to-panel, mimicking the natural movement of the eye as though readers were experiencing reading a print comic book.[19]

In June 2018, the company announced ComiXology Originals, an initiative to publish creator-owned titles.[20]

During 2021 was to close the ComiXology website in a move to integrate ComiXology into Amazon Kindle, but was delayed to 2022, due to community feedback.[21] During February 2022, the ComiXology website updated their FAQ on their website with new information to indicate the coming changes which were brought about on February 17, 2022, to which ComiXology is only available on[22] or through their update to the ComiXology app that was done two days earlier on February 15, 2022.[citation needed]

On December 4, 2023, the ComiXology app was officially retired and all of the material was made available on mobile devices exclusively on the Amazon Kindle app.[23]

Content relationships

ComiXology Originals

In 2018, ComiXology launched the ComiXology Originals banner with four titles; Savage Game, Superfreaks, Elephantmen 2261, and Ask For Mercy.[20] New titles would follow in 2018 with the launches of Goliath Girls, Grave Danger, Hit Reblog: Comics That Caught Fire, Teenage Wasteland, The Dark, Delver and The Stone King.[27] In March 2019 they launched Stone Star[28] and picked up the second volume of the previously independent series The Pride.[29] In the build up to San Diego Comic-Con 2019 they announced Promethee 13:13 and a second season of Ask for Mercy,[30] while at the show itself they announced a second season of Delver and new series Adora and the Distance and Afterlift.[31] In September 2019 they launched four brand new titles with Breaklands, Field Tripping, The Black Ghost and Quarter Killer.[32] In November 2019 they launched the original graphic novel Liebestrasse on the platform.[33] In July 2021, writer Scott Snyder announced an eight-title digital first deal with ComiXology Originals.[34] The first three, We Have Demons, Clear, and Night of the Ghoul, were all launched in October 2021.[35]


In March 2013 during SXSW, an issue arose when Marvel Comics attempted to distribute over 700 comics for free via ComiXology for the Marvel #1 promotion.[36] The ComiXology servers were unable to keep up with user demand, preventing users from obtaining the promotional comics, as well as from reading comics they had purchased. This led to a formal apology and the promotions being delayed.[37] Soon afterward, the promotion was offered again and was reported to have "worked flawlessly".[38] In the aftermath of the ensuing difficulties some users have raised concerns regarding access to their files should the platform ever shut down.[39] To respond to this concern, in July 2014 selected publishers allow for DRM-free downloads of their comics.

On April 9, 2013, writer Brian K. Vaughan issued a statement[40] on Fiona Staples's blog that Apple Inc. had prohibited the sale of Saga #12 through iOS. This statement was quickly reported by the media, the impetus for the "ban" was speculated to be in response to two panels that depicted oral sex between men in a small, inset image violated Apple's restrictions on sexual content. The issue was available through the ComiXology and Image Comics digital comics website stores. The ban was criticized by artists and writers, who pointed to similarly explicit content in previous issues and in other works sold through iTunes. William Gibson and others suggested that the restriction could have occurred specifically because the drawings at issue involved gay sex.[41] A day later, Comixology announced that it had been they, not Apple, who had chosen not to make the issue available, based on their interpretation of Apple's rules, and that after receiving clarification from Apple, the issue would be sold on iOS devices.[42] Brian K. Vaughan then issued a statement apologizing for the miscommunication.[43]

After Amazon's purchase of ComiXology, the company removed the option of purchasing comics inside the iOS app. This change resulted in immediate internet backlash from the comic book reader community, criticizing Amazon's acquisition of the distributor.[44] This change to ComiXology's structure has made readers concerned about the future of digital comic distribution.[45]

On February 17, 2022, Amazon replaced the original ComiXology website using Amazon's native online storefront, as well as updating the app, and closing ComiXology's Submit program in favor of Kindle Direct Publishing, which is also used to self-publish eBooks on Amazon Kindle. The new changes on publishing have also led to concerns about the lower amount of royalties, as well as requiring publishers to manually format their works in order to make them available on the new website.[46][47]


In September 2011, ComiXology's Comics application was the highest-grossing application in the App Store, and together with the branded applications for other comics publishers, accounted for a majority of the five top-grossing iPhone Book apps.

Having consistently ranked as one of the top-grossing iPad apps in iTunes, ComiXology was called the "iTunes of comics" by The New York Times in May 2012.[48] In 2011, comiXology ranked as number 10 in the top 20 grossing iPad apps for the year and also powered two other apps in the top 20 — Marvel and DC.[49] In 2012, comiXology was ranked as the number 3 top grossing iPad app — the only app from 2011 to stay on the top ten list.[50] After Apple reported annual iPad rankings in late 2013, it was revealed that ComiXology's Comics application had been the top non-game iPad app for three years running.[51]

Press reception for the launch of ComiXology Unlimited was mostly positive, with journalists and bloggers focusing on the low price point, the 30-day free trial and the diverse collection of independent comics, graphic novels, and manga available at launch.[52] Some critics pointed out, however, that only some trades in the series are available in the program,[53] undermining the "unlimited" aspect of the subscription.

After Comixology became integrated under Amazon's native store front as well with the new app to replace its original store and reader in February 2022, it received massive negative criticism by both readers and its creators. Many criticized the new storefront as well as using the Kindle app as to read comic books which were considered unreadable by many readers.[46][54]


  1. ^ "Privacy Policy - Comics by comiXology". Archived from the original on August 27, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2018.
  2. ^ Flamm, Matthew (September 25, 2013). "'iTunes of comics' passes 200M downloads". Crain's New York Business.
  3. ^ Greg Kumparak (April 10, 2014). "Amazon Acquires Digital Comic Book Store Comixology". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  4. ^ Gustines, George Gene (October 4, 2016). "ComiXology Joining the Original Programming Party With Exclusive Comics". The New York Times.
  5. ^ "New Comixology app a high point for digital comics". Chicago Sun Times. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
  6. ^ "Comixology Celebrates 100M Downloads with FREE comics". Comic Book Daily. October 4, 2012. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  7. ^ "COMIXOLOGY CELEBRATES MEGA ANNIVERSARY AT SAN DIEGO COMIC CON 2012". Archived from the original on January 13, 2018. Retrieved July 2, 2012.
  8. ^ "Marvel Comixology iPad App Revealed". April 1, 2010. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  9. ^ "ComiXology Reveals New Hi-Res CMX-HD Digital Comics Format!". Retrieved March 20, 2012.
  10. ^ "So... Who IS COMIXOLOGY, The Digital Comics Leader?". Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  11. ^ Tom Cheredar, Venture Beat. "ComiXology starts offering DRM-free downloads on (some) digital comic book purchases." July 24, 2014. Retrieved July 24, 2014.
  12. ^ "CITIA Angel Investing - ComiXology, excerpt from David S. Rose's book Angel Investing: The Gust Guide to Making Money & Having Fun Investing in Startups". Wiley. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
  13. ^ McMillan, Graeme. "Amazon Buys Digital Comics Company ComiXology". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  14. ^ Casteele, John (April 23, 2014). "Why Amazon Acquired ComiXology". The Motley Fool. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  15. ^ a b Johnston, Rich (May 24, 2016). "ComiXology Launches Its "All-You-Can-Eat" Service with Image, Dark Horse, IDW, Boom And More". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  16. ^ "Comixology Unlimited: Amazon Launches Digital Comic Subscription Service". Slashfilm. May 24, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  17. ^ "ComiXology Unlimited Announces Comings and Goings for September". September 6, 2016. Retrieved July 28, 2022.
  18. ^ Salkowitz, Rob. "Amazon's ComiXology Aims To Rekindle Digital Comics Market With 'Unlimited' Plan". Forbes. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  19. ^ "Digital Comics Pioneer comiXology Discusses Its Past and Future at Comic Book News, Reviews, and Previews – The Blog From Another World". January 24, 2011. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  20. ^ a b McMillan, Graeme (June 1, 2018). "Amazon Unveils New Comic Line Through Digital ComiXology Platform". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved June 3, 2018.
  21. ^ Arrant, Chris (November 18, 2021). "Amazon and Comixology delay their planned integration due to community feedback". GamesRadar. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  22. ^ Johnston, Rich (February 2, 2022). "ComiXology Disappears From Web On February 17th? App & Amazon Only". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved February 3, 2022.
  23. ^ "Important Changes to the Comixology app starting December 4, 2023". Amazon. Retrieved January 15, 2024.
  24. ^ "ComiXology Gets ROB LIEFELD Creator-Owned Work Exclusively". Retrieved August 7, 2011.
  25. ^ "Comixology Announces Highly Anticipated Sequel to 'Box 13' | Hypergeek" (Press release). ComiXology. June 17, 2010. Retrieved August 7, 2011 – via Hypergeek.
  26. ^ Parkin, JK (January 19, 2010). ""Moon Girl" Exclusive to comiXology". Comic Book Resources. Retrieved June 23, 2010.
  27. ^ "SDCC '18: ComiXology Originals Official Announcement and Graphics". The Beat. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  28. ^ "Jim Zub and Max Dunbar Kirkman-Drop New Comic Stone Star on ComiXology". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  29. ^ "Joe Glass Relaunches The Pride for ComiXology Originals, and Pride Month". Bleeding Cool. Retrieved August 25, 2019.
  30. ^ "COMIXOLOGY COMING TO COMIC-CON 2019 WITH ORIGINALS, TRENDS, MORE". Cosmic Book. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  31. ^ "San Diego Comic-Con 2019: Comixology Originals, IDW Buys Sunday Press". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  32. ^ "ComiXology Originals to release four new titles this September". Comic List. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  33. ^ "ComiXology Originals launches Liebestrasse available today". Major Spoilers. Retrieved June 28, 2020.
  34. ^ Couch, Aaron (July 26, 2021). "Writer Scott Snyder Inks Sweeping Deal With Amazon's ComiXology". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  35. ^ Brooke, David (September 30, 2013). "ComiXology announces "Scottober" with three Scott Snyder lead comics". AIPT. Retrieved December 3, 2021.
  36. ^ "SXSW 2013: Marvel #1". March 10, 2013. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  37. ^ "A Message From The CEO". March 11, 2013. Archived from the original on March 13, 2013. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
  38. ^ Comixology's Marvel #1s Promotion works like a charm Archived September 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
  39. ^ Blake, Corey (March 13, 2013). "The lesson of the comiXology blackout". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  40. ^ APPLE vs. SAGA #12: ComiXology blocks sale of Image comic over 'images of gay sex'; artist Staples reacts. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  41. ^ Robertson, Adi (April 9, 2013). "Apple bans 'Y: The Last Man' creator's new comic from Comixology over sexual content: The distinction between app and art breaks down". The Verge. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
  42. ^ Kovach, Steve (April 10, 2013). "Comic Book App Comixology Holds Off On Publishing Comic Depicting Graphic Gay Sex Fearing Apple Would Ban It (AAPL)". San Francisco Chronicle. Archived from the original on April 11, 2013. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
  43. ^ Brian K. Vaughan apologizes for saying Apple banned 'Saga' after ComiXology confusion Archived October 14, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved July 16, 2014.
  44. ^ Upbin, Bruce (April 30, 2014). "The ComiXology Outrage". Forbes. Retrieved May 1, 2014.
  45. ^ Hickey, Matt (April 11, 2014). "Amazon's ComiXology Acquisition Has Some Readers Concerned". Forbes.
  46. ^ a b Miller, Leon (February 17, 202). "Amazon's overhaul of Comixology ignites concern from comic creators and readers". Polygon. Vox Media.
  47. ^ MacDonald, Heidi (September 3, 2021). "ComiXology Submit will transition into Kindle Direct Publishing". The Beat. Superlime Media.
  48. ^ Gustines, George Gene (May 30, 2012). "In New Digital Comics, Each Tap Holds a Surprise". The New York Times. Retrieved May 30, 2012.
  49. ^ "Get "The Walking Dead" Vol. 1 Free at the ComiXology Booth During WonderCon 2012" (Press release). ComiXology. March 12, 2012. Retrieved March 12, 2012 – via Comic Book Resources.
  50. ^ MacDonald, Heidi (December 17, 2012). "More on Comixology". The Beat. Superlime Media. Retrieved December 17, 2012.
  51. ^ McMillan, Graeme Gene (January 13, 2014). "ComiXology Tops Apple's 2013 iPad Highest-Grossing Non-Game App Chart". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved November 15, 2022.
  52. ^ "ComiXology's New Service is "Netflix for Comics"". Archived from the original on August 29, 2016. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  53. ^ Terror, Jude. "comiXology Launches Digital Comics Unlimited Service, Forgets to Actually Make it Unlimited". The Outhouse - The Journalism the Comics Industry Deserves. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  54. ^ Beltran, Cy (February 14, 2022). "The Amazon "comics shopping experience" is a major step back for comiXology users". The Beat. Superlime Media.