City of Compton
The Martin Luther King Monument in front of the Compton City Hall and the Superior Court building. The monument is the logo for the city and is featured on signage.
The Martin Luther King Monument in front of the Compton City Hall and the Superior Court building. The monument is the logo for the city and is featured on signage.
Official seal of City of Compton
Nickname(s): 
CPT, The Hub City, The Shopping City
Motto: 
Birthing a New Compton
Location of Compton in Los Angeles County, California
Location of Compton in Los Angeles County, California
CountryUnited States United States
StateCalifornia California
CountyLos Angeles
IncorporatedMay 11, 1888
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • City Council [1]Mayor: Eric Perrodin
Barbara J. Calhoun
Lillie Dobson
Yvonne Arceneaux
Dr.Willie O Jones
 • City CouncilCraig J. Cornwell
 • City TreasurerDouglas Sanders
 • City ClerkAlita Godwin
Area
 • Total10.2 sq mi (26.4 km2)
 • Land10.1 sq mi (26.2 km2)
 • Water0.1 sq mi (0.2 km2)
Elevation
60−79 ft (18−24 m)
Population
 (2009)
 • Total93,962[city limits
 • Density9,229/sq mi (3,563.5/km2)
Time zoneUTC-8 (PST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-7 (PDT)
ZIP codes
90220-90224
Area code(s)310/424, 323, 562
FIPS code06-15044
GNIS feature ID1652689
Websitehttp://www.comptoncity.org

Compton is a city in southern Los Angeles County, California, United States,[2] southeast of downtown Los Angeles. The City of Compton is one of the oldest cities in the county and in 1889 was the eighth city to incorporate.[3] It is often considered part of the south side by residents of Los Angeles.[4] As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 93,493.[5] It is known as the "Hub City" because of its location in nearly the exact geographical center of Los Angeles County.[3] Neighborhoods in Compton include: Sunny Cove, Leland, Downtown Compton, and the Richland Farms.

History

Compton, 1914.

In 1784, the Spanish Crown deeded a tract of over 75,000 acres (304 km²) to Juan Jose Dominguez in this area. The tract was named Rancho San Pedro. Dominguez's name was later applied to the Dominguez Hills community south of Compton. The tree that marked the original northern boundary of the rancho still stands at the corner of Poppy and Short streets. The rancho was sub-divided and parcels were sold within the Californios of Alta California until the lands were ceded after the Mexican-American war in 1848. American immigrants acquired most of the rancho lands after 1848.

In 1867, Griffith Dickenson Compton led a group of thirty pioneers to the area. These families had traveled by wagon train south from Stockton, California in search of ways to earn a living other than in the rapid exhaustion of gold fields. Originally named Gibsonville, after one of the tract owners, it was later called Comptonville. However, to avoid confusion with the Comptonville located in Yuba County, the name was shortened to Compton.[3] Compton’s early settlers faced terrible hardships as they tilled the land in inclement weather to scratch out a paltry existence. The weather was cold and wet, and fuel was scarce. Gathering firewood required a three day-trip to the mountains near Pasadena. Confronted with such powerful forces of nature, many in the Compton party considered trying to find a better location to settle down but decided to stay. Also, in those early times, there were only two general stores in the area: one in the pueblo of Los Angeles, the other in Wilmington. Each were several miles away and required a long trip either on foot or by horseback.[3]

By 1887, the settlers sensed the necessity to improve local government. They held a series of town meetings to discuss the possibility of incorporation. Griffith D. Compton donated his land to incorporate and create the city of Compton in 1889, but he did stipulate that a certain acreage be zoned solely for agriculture and named Richland Farms [6] In January 1888, they forwarded a petition supporting the incorporation of Compton to the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, who in turn forwarded the petition to the State Legislature. The area to be incorporated included all the land one mile east and west of Wilmington Avenue (now Willowbrook Avenue), and from Greenleaf on the south to a quarter mile north of Rosecrans. The City of Compton was officially incorporated on May 11, 1888. The new city, total population of 500 people, held its first City Council meeting on May 14, 1888.[3]

The generous residential lots of Richland Farms provided residents with enough space to raise a family, build a barn, care for livestock and grow food. The farms attracted black families who began migrating from the rural South in the 1950s, and there they found their 'home away from home' in this small community. Although it didn't support large-scale agricultural business, the area did allow residents to work the land for their families and for the benefit of the new community.[6]

Aerial view of Compton, 1920.

The 1920' saw the opening of the Compton Airport, Compton Junior College was founded and city officials moved to a new City Hall on Alameda Street.[3] On March 10, 1933, a devastating earthquake took lives, toppled schools and caused major damage to the main business district.[3] While it would soon be home to a large number of African Americans, in 1930 there was only one black resident.[7] In the late 1940s, middle class African-Americans began moving into the area, mostly on the west side.Compton grew quickly in the 1950s. One reason for this was Compton's proximity to Watts, where a significant number of blacks lived at the time. However, the eastern side of the city remained predominantly white into the 1970s. Despite being located in the middle of a major metropolitan area, thanks to the directive of Griffith D. Compton, there remains at least one small pocket of agriculture from its early years.[6]

During the 1950s and 1960s, after the United States Federal Government declared all racially exclusive housing covenants (title deeds) unconstitutional, the first African American families moved to the area. [8] Compton's fledgling black population was still largely ignored or neglected by the city's elected officials. Centennial High School was finally built to accommodate a growing student population. [8] At one time, the City Council even discussed dismantling the Compton Police Department in favor of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department in an attempt to exclude blacks from law enforcement jobs. This slowly began to change when in 1958, the first African-American ran for a City Council seat. However, it would be another three years before an African-American would actually be elected to the City Council in 1961. [8]

Douglas Dollarhide made history in Compton in 1969 when he became California's first African-American mayor of a metropolitan city. [8] Two African-Americans and one Mexican-American were also elected to the local school board. [8] Four years later, in 1973, Doris A. Davis defeated Dollarhide's bid for re-election to become the first African-American female mayor of a metropolitan city in the United States. By the early 1970s, the city had one of the largest concentrations of African-Americans in the country with over ninety percent.[citation needed]

For many years, Compton was a much sought after neighborhood for the black middle class of Los Angeles. Now, only a few areas of Compton are still middle class communities. This past affluence is reflected in the area's appearance — Compton's streets are lined with relatively spacious and attractive single family homes. However, several factors have contributed to Compton's decline. One of the most significant factors was a steady erosion of its tax base. First by whites who fled to the newly incorporated cities of Artesia, Bellflower, Paramount and Norwalk in the late 1950s. These nearby communities remained largely white despite integration.[9] This move was even further precipitated after the Watts Riots in 1965 and in 1992.[10]

Soon, middle class blacks also found other areas more attractive to them. Some were unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County such as Ladera Heights, View Park and Windsor Hills; and others were cities such as Inglewood and, particularly, Carson. The latter was significant because it had successfully thwarted attempts at annexation by neighboring Compton. The city of Carson opted instead for incorporation in 1968, which is notable because its black population was actually more affluent than its white population. As a newer city, it also offered more favorable tax rates and lower crime.[11]

Culture

Although Compton is still often thought of as a primarily black community, Latinos are the largest ethnic group in the city. A possible reason for this misconception is, despite the shift in population, many African American professional athletes and rappers are originally from Compton. Also, African Americans continue to dominate local politics, holding most elected positions in the city. Although an inner suburb of Los Angeles, Compton has seen an increase of middle-class residents in the last few years, due to its affordable housing and the reduction of crime. With the influx of immigrants and the demographic shift in ethnic population, it was after the 2000 U.S. Census Latinos were recognized as the majority. [12]

Compton has been referenced on numerous occasions in gangsta rap and g-funk songs, especially in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and so has attained an association not only with gang violence and crime, but with hip hop music as well. The city is known as the home of many famous rappers including Eazy-E, Ice Cube, Dresta, B.G. Knocc Out, Dr. Dre and Game. [13] Compton has evolved into a younger community, the median age of people living in Compton, was 25 at the time of the last full census survey; the United States average at the time was 35.3.[14]

Some episodes of The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air took place in Compton because Will's friend Jazz lived there.[15] Many well-known NBA players are from Compton, California. DeMar DeRozan of the Toronto Raptors attended Compton High School, Detroit Pistons Small Forward, Tayshaun Prince and Charlotte forward/center Tyson Chandler attended Dominguez High School in Compton. Brandon Jennings, of the Milwaukee Bucks, attended Dominguez for two years also before transferring to Oak Hill Academy before his Junior season.[16]

Compton has a growing Pacific Islander community, as well as a number of Southeast Asians as Filipinos and Vietnamese. West Compton and unincorporated Willowbrook have more middle class African Americans than the central city (west of Alameda St.) and unincorporated East Compton where a larger percentage of Hispanics and working-class Blacks live. Lower-income subsections on Compton Blvd. have many businesses owned by Central Americans and other Latinos.

Crime

File:ComptonPunks,1954.jpg
Teenagers arrested for hot rod racing in South Compton, 1954

In 2008, the CQ Press using data from F.B.I. "Crime in the United States 2008" Compton was the 17th most dangerous city in the country.[17] However in the same year, the FBI ranked Compton to be the fifteenth most dangerous city. The city used to be notorious for gang violence, primarily caused by the Bloods, the Crips,[4] and Sureños gangs that are allied with the Mexican drug cartels.

Compton's violent reputation was popularized in the late 1980s by the rise to prominence of local gangsta rap groups Compton's Most Wanted and especially N.W.A., who released the famous albums Straight Outta Compton and Eazy-Duz-It in 1988. Crime rates had been falling for years following the crack epidemic of the 1980s and early 1990s.

Crime, though present in lesser degrees beforehand, worsened significantly with the introduction of crack cocaine in the latter part of the 20th century. The neighborhood lost richer residents, with the worsening safety problems, and, after the 1992 riots in the Los Angeles metropolitan area, many African Americans left the city. Meanwhile, many Latino (esp. Mexicans) and other immigrant families moved into Compton, including Samoans, Tongans, Koreans, Filipinos, Belizeans and East Africans.[18]

Compton had 75 murders in 2005, which is a per capita rate significantly higher than the national average. That same year, in an effort to combat gun violence, the citizens of Compton were given the option to hand over their guns to the police and receive a $50-$100 check for various goods, called the Gifts for Guns Program.[19] People have turned in about 7,000 guns over the last few years, ABC7 reported. The programs success has prompted LACSD to expand the program county-wide.[20]

During 2006, Compton deployed twice as many sheriff deputies and the murder rate has steadily decreased in the last decade.[21] Compton's property crime levels tend to be about the same as the average California city. The same data shows violent crime, including arson, levels in Compton tend to be significantly higher than California's average level.[22]

Education

Compton High School's original building in 1912.

The city is served by Compton Unified School District. [23] The district is a participant of the FOCUS program conducted by the University of California, Irvine. The goals of the program are to improve mathematics and science achievement by uniting the efforts of mathematics, science, education and research library faculty and staff with educators of the school district.[24]

The CUSD provides public education for grades K-12. The district operates 24 elementary schools, eight middle schools, three high schools, and one adult school, which also serves as an alternative school. The district maintains five alternative learning schools.[23]

The three high schools that are part of CUSD, are Centennial High School, Dominguez High School, and Compton High School.[23]

The city is also served by El Camino College Compton Education Center, which offers community college courses for those planning to enter a four-year degree program, as well as those seeking further education in specific trade fields. [23]

Reed Christian College is a non-profit private institution, located in Compton. The program lasts for less than one year, and total enrollment is approximately 120 students.

The Compton Library offers adult, children’s and Spanish language materials; reference services; a Literacy Center and a Homework Center; public computers with Internet access and word processing capabilities; public typewriters; and a bilingual story time every Saturday at 12:00 noon.[23]

Government and infrastructure

City Government

Elected Officials: See info box.

After Lionel Cade, an accountant, assumed the mayor's office in 1977, one of the first orders of business was to conduct an audit of the city's finances. It was discovered that the city was $2 million in debt. The administration was able to eliminate the huge deficit in one year by making cuts in every department. It also aggressively sought federal funding to help pay for essential services, which was at least partially effective. However, with the passage of the property tax cutting initiative Proposition 13 by California voters, Compton was one of the cities hardest hit, since it had already eliminated most of the fat from its budget.[26]

County, state and federal representation

The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the South Health Center in Watts, Los Angeles, serving Compton.[27]

In the state legislature Compton is located in the 25th Senate District, represented by Democrat Edward Vincent, and in the 52nd Assembly District, represented by Democrat Isadore Hall, III. Federally, Compton is located in California's 37th congressional district, which has a Cook PVI of D +27[28] and is represented by Democrat Laura Richardson.

The United States Postal Service operates the Compton Post Office at 701 South Santa Fe Avenue[29] the Hub City Post Office at 101 South Willowbrook Avenue,[30] and the Fashion Square Post Office at 2100 North Long Beach Boulevard.[31]

LACSD

The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Compton Station in Compton.[32] When the LASD replaced the Compton Police Department in 2000, they increased patrol service hours from 127,410, to 141, 692. Compton Station is centrally located in the Los Angeles area. The station is easily accessible from the (105) Century freeway to the north, the (91) Riverside/Artesia freeway to the south, the (110) Harbor freeway to the west, and the (710) Long Beach freeway to the east. Diane Walker, a 30-year veteran of the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, was promoted to the rank of Captain by Sheriff Lee Baca, and is now Commander of Compton Station.[33] There is also a LAUSD substation located in the Gateway Towne Center. [20]

East Compton

East Compton, also known as East Rancho Dominguez, is a mostly industrial unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP). The population was 9,286 at the 2000 census. East Rancho Dominguez is an accepted city name according to the USPS, and shared the 90221 ZIP Code with Compton.[39] Its sphere of influence is the city of Compton, which has tried to annex East Rancho Dominguez, but business and property owners in the area have opposed the annexation.[40][41]

Gateway Towne Center

This major project represents the new wave of investing in inner cities. The center, opened in October, 2007, and brought over 1,000 local jobs to Compton. It brought much needed local services, and tax revenues to the city are up 30%, enabling economic investment throughout the city.

City government controversies

Civic corruption has also been a widespread problem in Compton.[citation needed] In the early 1990s, United States Attorney Joey Chin conducted a series of investigations, centered on a phony waste-to-energy scheme, that ultimately ensnared a number of prominent elected officials.

In 2000, the Compton Police Department was disbanded amidst controversy and charges of corruption. The police department claims it was disbanded after investigations of gang activity led to then-Compton Mayor Omar Bradley. Once this became public, the mayor charged it was the police who were themselves corrupt, and he disbanded the police department. Omar Bradley has since faced serious corruption charges.[34] Regardless of the situation, an alternative form of law enforcement was sought. Compton's policing needs are currently served by the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department.

Eric J. Perrodin, the city's current mayor, was investigated in 2007 by the California State Bar for threatening to violate a local newspaper's first amendment rights after the paper printed an investigative report relative to a contract granted to one of Perrodin's associates. Following the report, Perrodin threatened to yank the city's advertising contract with the paper[35] A Times review of city records shows Mayor Eric Perrodin was absent from city board and commission meetings nearly two-thirds of the time between July 2009 and this July. [36]

Current recall efforts are a direct response from residents of the accusations of corruption of the city's mayor and council. Some of the accusations involve the issuing of city contracts to personal donors and friends. One particular accusation involved the trash and recycling contract of the city to Pacific Coast Waste and Recycling LLC in 2007,[37] whose leadership donated large amounts of money to Eric Perrodin's political coffers.

Notices of intent to circulate recall petitions against four Compton city officials are expected to be filed in August, 2010, by a group of citizens who claim corruption in Compton is being ignored by the same authorities who were shocked by the recent salary controversy in the city of Bell.[38]

Compton has discharged its city manager for the second time in three years. The Los Angeles Times says the City Council voted in a closed meeting, September 9, 2010, to fire Charles Evans. The Times says council members refused to discuss the reasons for their decision. Evans took office in 2007, after the dismissal of previous City Manager Barbara Kilroy. City Controller Willie Norfleet will take over until a permanent manager can be named. [36]

Geography

Compton is located at 33°53′48″N 118°13′30″W / 33.89667°N 118.22500°W / 33.89667; -118.22500 (33.896715, -118.225078).Template:GR According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 26.4 km² (10.2 mi²). 26.2 km² (10.1 mi²) of it is land and 0.2 km² (0.1 mi²) of it (0.69%) is water.

It is bordered by the unincorporated Willowbrook on the north and northwest, the unincorporated West Compton on the west, the city of Carson on the southwest, the unincorporated Rancho Dominguez on the south, the city of Long Beach on the southeast, the city of Paramount and the unincorporated East Compton on the east, and by the city of Lynwood on the northeast.

Demographics

As of the censusTemplate:GR of 2000, there were 93,493 people, (A 2006 city census showed a growth to 95,701 people), 22,327 households, and 18,620 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,563.5/km² (9,225.6/mi²). There were 23,795 housing units at an average density of 906.9/km² (2,348.0/mi²). As of 2000, the racial makeup of the city was 40.0% Black or African American, 16.70% White, 1.0% Pacific Islander, 56.8% of the population are Hispanic or Latino and 1.3% listed as Other. [42]

There were 22,327 households out of which 50.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 27.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 16.6% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.16 and the average family size was 4.45.[43]

In the city the population was spread out with 38.5% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 14.4% from 45 to 64, and 6.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females there were 96.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.2 males.[43] The median income for a household in the city was $33,021, and the median income for a family was $40,021. Males had a median income of $22,698 versus $24,692 for females. The per capita income for the city was $10,389. About 31.5% of families and 83.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 35.6% of those under age 18 and 14.7% of those age 65 or over.[43]

Economy

Compton was recently designated as an “Entrepreneurial Hot Spot” by Cognetics, Inc., an independent economic research firm. Compton made the national list for best places to start and grow a business, and ranked #2 in Los Angeles County out of a field of 88 cities.[44] The city's Planning and Economic Development department provides a business assistance program consisting of a comprehensive mix of resources to small business owners and entrepreneurs. Ralphs, a subsidiary of Kroger, is headquartered at 1100 West Artesia Boulevard in Compton.[45]

Compton is surrounded by multiple freeways which provide access to destinations throughout the region. The Long Beach and Los Angeles Ports are less than 20 minutes from downtown Compton, providing access to international destinations for customers and suppliers. The Alameda Corridor, a passageway for 25% of all U.S. waterborne international trade, runs directly through Compton from north to south.{[46]

Historical landmarks

""Angeles Abbey Cemetery"" contains examples of Byzantine, Moorish and Spanish architectural style. The cemetery was built in 1923 and survived the 1933 Long Beach Earthquake.[47]

The "Compton Airport" opened on May 10, 1924. Located on Alondra Boulevard, the airport offers flight training, has accommodations for more than 200 planes, and is home to several aviation clubs.[47]

"Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial": This Civic Center monument is dedicated to the memory of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It is surrounded by the Civic Center, Compton Court House, Compton City Hall, and Compton Public Library.[47]

The "Eagle Tree" is a natural boundary marker of Rancho San Pedro dating back to 1858. It contains an historic marker and plaque placed by the Daughters of the Golden West in 1947.[47]

The "'Heritage House'" was built in 1869 and is a State Historic Landmark. The oldest house in Compton, it was restored as a tribute to early settlers. It serves as an important landmark of Compton's rich history. Located at the corner of Myrrh and Willowbrook near the Civic Center Plaza, the Heritage House is a rustic-looking home that will eventually house a museum detailing early life in Compton. For now it demarks the stark difference between the simple life of the 1800s and the fast-paced urban environment of the 21st century.[47]

"Woodlawn Cemetery" is the final resting place of 18 Civil War Veterans. It has been a Los Angeles County Historic Landmark since 1946.[47]

Transportation

Four freeways are near the city's boundaries and provide access to destinations throughout the region. These include Interstate Highways 105, 110, 710, and State Route 91.

The Metro Blue Line light rail runs north-south through the city; Compton Station is in the heart of the city, adjacent to the Renaissance Shopping Center. The Blue Line connects Compton to downtown Los Angeles and downtown Long Beach.

There is also a Compton Renaissance Transit System that serves the local community.

Compton/Woodley Airport is a small general aviation airport located in the city. The airport lies within busy airspace, as it is situated within a few miles of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport.

Greyhound Lines operates the Compton Station.[48]

Collectively, these multi–faceted transportation links lend justification to the city's familiar name of "the Hub City."[46]

City cites

Famous people

Main article: List of people from Compton, California

Further reading

  1. Adams, Emily, "Bush's Compton Roots Raise Thorny Issue", Los Angeles Times, August 3, 1992, page B-1
  2. Miller, Gary J., Cities by Contract: The Politics of Municipal Incorporation, The MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 1981
  3. Gould, Lewis L. (editor), American First Ladies: Their Lives and Their Legacy, Garland Publishing, New York and London, 1996. See pages 612-613 regarding the Bush family's "nomadic" existence in the cities of Huntington Park, Bakersfield, Whittier, Ventura and Compton, California.
  4. The George Bush Presidential Library web site states that during the period from 1948 to 1951, "Bush and his family moved several times, living successively in Odessa, Texas; Ventura, Bakersfield, and Compton, California; and Midland, Texas." ref>http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/image.php?id=2175</ref> The web site also includes a photograph of George W. Bush in Compton, dated 1949.

See also

References

  1. ^ City of Compton Website - Elected Officials
  2. ^ "Home". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g History of the City | About Compton
  4. ^ a b "Gang Maps - Gang Territory Map - South Central Los Angeles". Streetgangs.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  5. ^ Compton (city) QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau
  6. ^ a b c "1 The Past | Departures". KCET. 2010-07-23. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  7. ^ Horne, Gerald (1997). Fire This Time: The Watts Uprising and the 1960s. New York, New York: Da Capo Press. p. 27. ISBN 0-306-80792-0. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coauthors= (help)
  8. ^ a b c d e "History of the City | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. 1933-03-10. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  9. ^ Scott, Allen John and Edward Soja (1996). The City: Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century Berkeley: University of California Press. 10.
  10. ^ Post Store. "Outlook: The Negative Impact of the Watts Riots". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  11. ^ "Growing Pains of a Young City - City of Carson, CA". Ci.carson.ca.us. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  12. ^ "History of the City | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. 1933-03-10. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  13. ^ "List of people from Compton, California - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  14. ^ "Compton California (CA) Census and detailed community profile". AmericanTowns.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  15. ^ "The Fresh Prince of Bel-Air: Information from". Answers.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  16. ^ "American Experience, George H. W. Bush, PBS". pbs.org. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  17. ^ City Crime 2008
  18. ^ "Demographic Information | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. 1991-12-03. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  19. ^ "Residents turn in guns in Compton - Los Angeles Times". Articles.latimes.com. 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2010-08-12.
  20. ^ a b Compton Sheriff's Station 2009 Year in review publication
  21. ^ http://www.idcide.com/citydata/ca/compton.htm
  22. ^ Compton Profile | Compton CA | Population, Crime, Map
  23. ^ a b c d e "Education System | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  24. ^ FOCUS Progam Participants. FOCUS at UCI
  25. ^ "Home". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  26. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~wfischel/Papers/Martin%20comment%20feb09.pdf
  27. ^ "South Health Center." Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. Retrieved on March 18, 2010.
  28. ^ "Will Gerrymandered Districts Stem the Wave of Voter Unrest?". Campaign Legal Center Blog. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
  29. ^ "Post Office Location - COMPTON." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  30. ^ "Post Office Location - HUB CITY." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  31. ^ "Post Office Location - FASHION SQUARE." United States Postal Service. Retrieved on December 6, 2008.
  32. ^ "Compton Station." Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department. Retrieved on January 21, 2010.
  33. ^ "Los Angeles County Sheriff's Dept. - Compton Station". La-sheriff.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  34. ^ Former Compton Mayor among Five Officials Arrested after Probe. BlackPressUSA
  35. ^ (District Attorney’s Office Probing Prosecutor Over Alleged Threats. "Metropolitan News-Enterprise".
  36. ^ a b http://www.cbs47.tv/news/state/story/Compton-council-fires-city-manager-again/4Nq3ekEo_0OkZND1KLIGAw.cspx?rss=154
  37. ^ The Compton Bulletin Online - LOCAL NEWS
  38. ^ By BETTY PLEASANT, Contributing Editor (2010-08-18). "Bottom Line: In Compton, recall paperwork soon to land on the desks of top city officials | Los Angeles Wave - Community News, Sports & Entertainment | Opinion". Wavenewspapers.com. Retrieved 2010-08-30. ((cite web)): |author= has generic name (help)
  39. ^ http://zip4.usps.com/zip4/zcl_3_results.jsp zip4.usps.com
  40. ^ http://www.thecomptonbulletin.com/news04_012506/index.html thecomptonbulletin.com
  41. ^ http://www.lalafco.org/Agendas/2006/030806a.pdf#search=%22%22East%20Rancho%20Dominguez%22%20Compton%22 lalatco.org
  42. ^ http://www.laalmanac.com/population/po38.htm
  43. ^ a b c http://www.laalmanac.com/population/po09a.htm
  44. ^ "Compton Jobs (CA)". Simply Hired. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  45. ^ "Contact Us." Kroger. Retrieved on April 30, 2009.
  46. ^ a b "Hub City | About Compton". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
  47. ^ a b c d e f "Heritage House | Historical Landmarks". Comptoncity.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29.
  48. ^ "Compton Greyhound Station," Greyhound Lines
  49. ^ "Major League Baseball Urban Youth Academy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia". En.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2010-08-29.