Corn dog
Place of originUnited States
Created byDisputed (in current form, circa late 1930s – early 1940s)
Main ingredientsWiener, cornmeal batter
Variations100+
Food energy
(per serving)
263 kcal (1101 kJ)

A corn dog (also spelled corndog and also known by several other names) is a sausage (usually a wiener) on a stick that has been coated in a thick layer of cornmeal batter and deep fried. It originated in the United States and is commonly found in American cuisine.

Names

While the name "corn dog" is used in the United States, there are many different regional variations of the food's name.

In Australia, where they have become a popular food at agricultural shows and carnivals, they are known as either "pluto pups", "dagwood dogs", "dippy dogs" or (historically) "pronto pups".[1] The name "pluto pup" likely derives from the Disney character Pluto, who is a dog.[1] "Dagwood dog" is derived from the name of a character from the American comic strip Blondie, which was created in 1930. In the comic strip, Dagwood, Blondie's husband, has a dog named Daisy.[1] Historically, the name "pronto pup" was used, although this name had become obsolete as early as 1949 and was replaced by name "pluto pup".[1] Some have suggested that pluto pups are made in factories, while dagwood dogs are prepared on site.[1]

In Canada, they are known in most provinces as "corn dogs".[2] However, in New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Ontario and Québec, they are known as "pogos".[1][2]

In France, the term beignet de saucisse is used, which literally translates to "sausage donut".[3]

In Japanese, the most common name for them is "American dog" (アメリカンドッグ, amerikan doggu).[4]

In Korean, they are referred to as hasdogeu (핫도그), which literally translates to "hot dog". This has caused some confusion, however, especially for English speakers.[citation needed]

In Mexico, the name banderilla is used, which literally translates to "small flag".[citation needed]

In New Zealand, the name "hot dog" or "mini hot dog" is often used.[5]

In South Africa, they are often referred to as yankees in Afrikaans.

History

Corn dogs, with cross-section

Newly arrived German immigrants in Texas, who were sausage-makers finding resistance to the sausages they used to make, have been credited with introducing the corn dog to the United States, though the serving stick came later.[6] A US patent filed in 1927, granted in 1929, for a Combined Dipping, Cooking, and Article Holding Apparatus, describes corn dogs, among other fried food impaled on a stick; it reads in part:[7][8]

I have discovered that articles of food such, for instance, as wieners, boiled ham, hard boiled eggs, cheese, sliced peaches, pineapples, bananas and like fruit, and cherries, dates, figs, strawberries, etc., when impaled on sticks and dipped in batter, which includes in its ingredients a self rising flour, and then deep fried in a vegetable oil at a temperature of about 390 °F [200 °C], the resultant food product on a stick for a handle is a clean, wholesome and tasty refreshment.

A "Krusty Korn Dog" baker machine appeared in the 1926 Albert Pick-Barth wholesale catalog of hotel and restaurant supplies.[9] The 'korn dogs' were baked in a corn batter and resembled ears of corn when cooked.[10]

A number of current corn dog vendors claim responsibility for the invention and/or popularization of the corn dog. Carl and Neil Fletcher lay such a claim, having introduced their "Corny Dogs" at the State Fair of Texas sometime between 1938 and 1942.[10] Pronto Pup of Rockaway Beach, Oregon, claims to have invented the corn dog in 1939.[10][11] Cozy Dog Drive-in, in Springfield, Illinois, claims to have been the first to serve corn dogs on sticks, on June 16, 1946.[12] Also in 1946, Dave Barham opened the first location of Hot Dog on a Stick at Muscle Beach in Santa Monica, California.[13]

Preparation

Corn dogs are often served as street food or as fast food. For the best and freshest preparation, some vendors or restaurateurs dip and fry their corn dogs just before serving.[14] Some corn dog purveyors sell pre-made frozen corn dogs, which are then thawed and fried again, or browned in an oven.

Corn dogs can also be found at almost any supermarket and convenience store store in North America as frozen foods as well as served hot and ready to eat. Pre-made frozen corn dogs can also be heated in a microwave oven, but the cornbread coating will lack texture.[15][16]

Variations

One cheesy variation is prepared either with melted cheese between the hot dog and the breading or by using a cheese-filled hot dog.

Another version is the "cornbrat" (or "corn brat"), which is a corn dog made with bratwurst instead of a wiener or hot dog.[17][18]

Small corn dogs, known as "corn puppies", "mini corn dogs", or "corn dog nuggets", are a variation served in some restaurants, generally on the children's menu or at fast food establishments. A serving includes multiple pieces, usually 10.[19] In contrast to their larger counterparts, corn puppies are normally served stickless as finger food.

A breakfast version of the corn dog features a breakfast sausage in place of the hot dog, and pancake batter in place of the cornmeal. This variation is commonly called a "pancake on a stick". It was formerly served by the drive-in restaurant Sonic,[20] but it is now made by companies such as Jimmy Dean.[21]

Both vegetarian corn dogs and corn dog nuggets[clarification needed] are made as meatless alternatives by many of the same companies that produce vegetarian hot dogs.[22]

By country

Argentina

Panchukers in Argentina
A French fry–encrusted corn dog, as sold at the Heunginjimun in South Korea

In Argentina, a panchuker (or panchuque, pancho chino) is a hot snack that can be bought near some train stations and in some places of heavy pedestrian transit. They are more popular in the inner country cities. A panchuker consists of a sausage covered with a waffle-like pastry, and has a stick in it (like a corn dog) so that it can be easily consumed. Some versions contain cheese, and sauces may be served to accompany them. Some variations may be found in Uruguay and other South American countries. Generally, panchukers are offered as a low-price fast food and can only be seen at certain provinces of the inner country—like La Plata, Belgrano, Villa Albertina, and Cipoletti—and, in Buenos Aires, they can be found in Barrio Chino. They are particularly popular in the province of Tucumán.[23]

Australia

In Australia, a hot dog sausage on a stick, deep-fried in batter, is known as a Dagwood Dog, Pluto Pup, or Dippy Dog, depending on region.[24] Variants use wheat-based or corn-based batters.[25][citation needed] These are not to be confused with the Australian battered sav, a saveloy deep fried in a wheat flour-based batter, as used for fish and chips, which generally does not contain cornmeal.[26]

They are popular at agricultural shows and carnivals, such as the Sydney Royal Easter Show.

Canada

In Quebec, Ontario, New Brunswick, and Newfoundland and Labrador, a battered hot dog on a stick is called a "pogo" and is traditionally eaten with ordinary yellow mustard, sometimes referred to as "ballpark mustard". The rest of Canada refers to them by the non-trademarked term "corn dog"[2][27][28] It is named after the trademarked name of a Conagra inc. frozen product available in all of the country since the 1960s but whose main market is the province of Quebec.[2]

Japan

In Japan, the equivalent food is usually called an "American dog" (アメリカンドッグ) based on the idea of where the food is believed to originate. It is also called "French Dog" in certain parts of Japan including Hokkaido.

New Zealand

A New Zealand Hot Dog is invariably a deep-fried battered saveloy or pre-cooked sausage on a stick that is then usually dipped in tomato sauce (ketchup). The saveloy or sausage used is thicker than a frankfurter, and is coated in a thinner batter layer than American Corndogs. The batter can be cornmeal based or corn flour based. The distinction is not particularly important.[29] The sausage in a bun that is called a hot dog in other countries is known as an "American Hot Dog" and is usually available at the same locations. If a further descriptor is needed to avoid confusion between the two, the New Zealand standard hot dog can be described as a hot dog on a stick.

South Africa

In South Africa, a corn dog is a popular cafe/fair food. A corn dog is usually called "Yankee" in the Afrikaans language. It is usually served with a sweet pink sauce made from a mixture of mayonnaise, tomato sauce and condensed milk.

South Korea

In South Korea, a corn dog is one of the most popular street foods. A corn dog is usually called "hot dog" in the Korean language (핫도그), creating confusion with a genuine hot dog. A French fry–encrusted corn dog, or "Kogo," has especially attracted the attention of Western visitors,[30] including vegans (using vegan hot dogs).[31]

Annual celebration

National Corndog Day is a celebration of the corn dog, tater tots, and American beer that occurs on the first Saturday of March Madness (NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Championship) of every year.[32][33]

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Dagwood Dog vs Pronto Pup - Australian food history timeline". 18 September 1940.
  2. ^ a b c d "Ad campaign leaves a bad aftertaste". The Globe and Mail.
  3. ^ Gallimard Loisirs, ed. (2019-06-28). GEOguide Californie (in French). Éditions Gallimard Loisirs. ISBN 978-2-7424-4235-5. Dans la découverte de la junk food ou des traditions so american, tentez le corndog, une monstruosité calorique consistant en un beignet de saucisse, le Reuben sandwich, du pain de seigle garni de fines tranches de bœuf fumé, [...]
  4. ^ "American Dog (アメリカンドッグ : Corn Dog)".
  5. ^ "Mini hot dogs - Eat Well Recipe". 25 June 2023.
  6. ^ Neal, Rome (October 4, 2002). "The Science Of Corn Dogs". CBS News. Retrieved 2014-01-05. Corn dogs are a food that we know from fall festivals, carnivals and tailgating. It actually got its start when German immigrants moved into Texas. Some of these new German immigrants were sausage-makers by trade, but had a hard time selling their wares in Texas. So, as a ploy, they took sausages, rolled them in a cornbread batter and fried them. The sticks came later.
  7. ^ Jenkins, Stanley S. (March 26, 1929). "Combined Dipping, Cooking, and Article Holding Apparatus". Abstract of Patent Number 1,706,491. United States Patent & Trademark Office. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  8. ^ "The Oregon Pedigree of the Corndog". Dave Knows Portland. 1 March 2013. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  9. ^ Soda Fountains & Supplies. Albert Pick & Company and L. Barth & Company, Inc. 1926.
  10. ^ a b c "Corndogs & Pronto Pups". Lynne Olver. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  11. ^ Schlueter, Roger (2006-09-10). "Deep-fried Coke sounds ... interesting". Belleville News-Democrat, Ill.
  12. ^ "History of Cozy Dog Drive In". Ed Waldmire — Cozy Dog Drive In. Archived from the original on 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  13. ^ "Hot Dog On A Stick". HDOS Enterprises. Archived from the original on 2011-01-26. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  14. ^ Kessler, Rachel (2001). "The Social Life of Street Food — Seattle — Corn Dog". Index Newspapers. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  15. ^ "Corn dog fryer - United States Patent Number: 5431092" (PDF). 1995. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  16. ^ Niesenbaum, Charlie (2007-10-24). "Month-Old Onion Rings and Frozen Corn Dogs — Adventures in Snacking". Cornell Daily Sun. Archived from the original on 2012-04-04. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  17. ^ "Cooking Cheap - Battered Brats". cooking.mvmanila.com. 2005-08-04. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  18. ^ MrsCorrie. "corn brats". recipes.sparkpeople.com. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  19. ^ BobbiJoAZ (2008-06-25). "Corn Puppies (recipe)". Taste of Home. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  20. ^ "Sonic Breakfast Menu". dfwsonic.com. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
  21. ^ "Original Pancakes & Sausage on a Stick". jimmydean.com. Jimmy Dean. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
  22. ^ "Are they nuts? No, they're vegans The strictest vegetarians shun honey, leather and dairy products". The Buffalo News (Buffalo, NY). 9 March 1999. Archived from the original on 11 June 2014. (Partial story rendition from HighBeam.com)
  23. ^ Se venden unos 8.500 panchuques por día. La Gaceta. May 3, 2005 (Spanish)
  24. ^ GegeMac (August 22, 2010). "Festival Food in Australia: Dagwood Dogs". seriouseats.com. Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  25. ^ Adams, Alison (September 2007). "Beer Battered Pluto Pups (recipe)". Taste.com.au. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  26. ^ "Battered Sav — Recipe & Taste Test Demo". Batteredsav.com. Archived from the original on February 7, 2006. Retrieved 2014-04-21.
  27. ^ Bennett, Andrea (2018). Montréal (1st ed.). Berkeley, CA. ISBN 978-1-64049-314-8. OCLC 1030438212.((cite book)): CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  28. ^ "Calgary Stampede prepares for summer event with 18,000 pound order of corn dog batter - 660 NEWS". www.660citynews.com. Retrieved 2021-07-09.
  29. ^ "Mini hot dogs". www.bite.co.nz. 25 June 2023.
  30. ^ Korea's Kogo is the ultimate French-fry-encrusted corn dog. SoraNews24. Oct 28, 2014
  31. ^ People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals ("PETA") (25 May 2016). "French Fry Corn Dog (Korean Street Food, 'Veganized')". peta.org. Retrieved 2017-11-02.
  32. ^ "National Corndog Day". corndogday.com. Retrieved 2012-04-28.
  33. ^ Ann Treistman (2014). Foodie Facts: A Food Lover's Guide to America's Favorite Dishes from Apple Pie to Corn on the Cob. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 9781629149561.