This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages) This article is written like a personal reflection, personal essay, or argumentative essay that states a Wikipedia editor's personal feelings or presents an original argument about a topic. Please help improve it by rewriting it in an encyclopedic style. (December 2021) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a different or consistent style of citation and footnoting. (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Critical realism is a philosophical approach to understanding science, and in particular social science, initially developed by Roy Bhaskar (1944–2014). It specifically opposes forms of empiricism and positivism by viewing science as concerned with identifying causal mechanisms. In the last decades of the twentieth century it also stood against various forms of postmodernism and poststructuralism by insisting on the reality of objective existence. In contrast to positivism's methodological foundation, and poststructuralism's epistemological foundation, critical realism insists that (social) science should be built from an explicit ontology. Critical realism is one of a range of types of philosophical realism, as well as forms of realism advocated within social science such as analytic realism[1] and subtle realism.[2][3]

Contemporary critical realism


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Critical realism" philosophy of the social sciences – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Bhaskar developed a general philosophy of science that he described as transcendental realism and a special philosophy of the human sciences that he called critical naturalism. The two terms were combined by other authors to form the umbrella term critical realism.[4]

Transcendental realism attempts to establish that in order for scientific investigation to take place, the object of that investigation must have real, manipulable, internal mechanisms that can be actualized to produce particular outcomes. This is what we do when we conduct experiments. This stands in contrast to empiricist scientists' claim that all scientists can do is observe the relationship between cause and effect and impose meaning. Whilst empiricism, and positivism more generally, locate causal relationships at the level of events, critical realism locates them at the level of the generative mechanism, arguing that causal relationships are irreducible to empirical constant conjunctions of David Hume's doctrine; in other words, a constant conjunctive relationship between events is neither sufficient nor even necessary to establish a causal relationship.[5]

The implication of this is that science should be understood as an ongoing process in which scientists improve the concepts they use to understand the mechanisms that they study. It should not, in contrast to the claim of empiricists, be about the identification of a coincidence between a postulated independent variable and dependent variable. Positivism and naive falsificationism are also rejected on the grounds that a mechanism may exist but either a) go unactivated, b) be activated, but not perceived, or c) be activated, but counteracted by other mechanisms, which results in its having unpredictable effects. Thus, non-realisation of a posited mechanism cannot (in contrast to the claim of some positivists) be taken to signify its non-existence. Falsificationism can be viewed at the statement level (naive falsificationism) or at the theorem level (more common in practice). In this way, the two approaches can be reconciled to some extent.

Critical naturalism argues that the transcendental realist model of science is equally applicable to both the physical and the human worlds. However, it argues, when we study the human world we are studying something fundamentally different from the physical world and must, therefore, adapt our strategy to studying it. Critical naturalism, therefore, prescribes social scientific methods which seek to identify the mechanisms producing social events, but with a recognition that these are in a much greater state of flux than those of the physical world (as human structures change much more readily than those of, say, a leaf). In particular, we must understand that human agency is made possible by social structures that themselves require the reproduction of certain actions/pre-conditions. Further, the individuals that inhabit these social structures are capable of consciously reflecting upon, and changing, the actions that produce them—a practice that is in part facilitated by social scientific research.

Critical realism has become an influential movement in British sociology and social science in general as a reaction to, and reconciliation of, postmodern critiques.[3]


Since Bhaskar made the first big steps in popularising the theory of critical realism in the 1970s, it has become one of the major strands of social scientific method, rivalling positivism/empiricism, and post-structuralism/relativism/interpretivism.[6][7][8]

After his development of critical realism, Bhaskar went on to develop a philosophical system he calls dialectical critical realism, which is most clearly outlined in his weighty book, Dialectic: The Pulse of Freedom.

An accessible introduction to Bhaskar's writings was written by Andrew Collier. Andrew Sayer has written accessible texts on critical realism in social science. Danermark et al. have also produced an accessible account. Margaret Archer is associated with this school, as is the ecosocialist writer Peter Dickens.

David Graeber relies on critical realism, which he understands as a form of 'heraclitean' philosophy, emphasizing flux and change over stable essences, in his anthropological book on the concept of value, Toward an anthropological theory of value: the false coin of our own dreams.

Recently, attention has turned to the challenge of implementing critical realism in applied social research. An edited volume examined the use of critical realism for studying organizations (Edwards, O'Mahoney, and Vincent 2014[9]). Other authors (Fletcher 2016,[10] Parr 2015,[11] Bunt 2018,[12] Hoddy 2018[13]) have discussed which specific research methodologies and methods are conducive (or not) to research guided by critical realism as a philosophy of science.

Critical realist meta-theories

At its core, critical realism offers a theory of being and existence (ontology), but it takes a more open position in relation to the theory of knowledge (epistemology). As a result, a wide range of approaches have developed that seek to offer a framework for social research. Because they are not theories in specific disciplines nor theories relating to specific aspects of society, these approaches are generally known as 'meta-theories'.[14] Critical realist meta-theories include: the transformational model of social activity,[15] the morphogenetic approach,[16] Cambridge social ontology,[17] critical discourse analysis,[18] cultural political economy,[19] critical realist feminism,[20] and critical realist Marxism.[21]

The morphogenetic approach

The morphogenetic approach is a critical realist framework for analysing social change originally developed by Margaret Archer in her text Social Origins of Educational Systems[22] and systematised in a trilogy of social theory texts, Culture and Agency (1988), Realist Social Theory (1995), and Being Human (2000). The approach was developed primarily as a critical realist response to the structure-agency problem in which "we are simultaneously free and constrained and we also have some awareness of it".[23] At the centre of Archer's answer to this problem is 'analytical dualism', which entails an analytical separation of structure and agency so that the interaction between them can be studied and modelled by researchers. On this basis, Archer rejects alternative approaches that 'conflate' structure and agency into the single concept of 'practice', primarily directing her critique at Giddens' structuration theory. Archer extends the notion of analytical dualism to the distinction between "the material and the ideational aspects of social life",[24] identifying 'culture' as a third fundamental aspect of society, alongside structure and agency. Therefore, the analysis of social change depends on modelling structure (S), agency (A), and culture (C), so that "social life comes in a SAC – always and everywhere".[25] These concepts form the basis for the 'morphogenetic cycle', which splits social change into three processes: [T1] conditioning → [T2-T3] interaction → [T4] elaboration.

The morphogenetic approach has also been taken forward by Douglas Porpora, whose Reconstructing Sociology sought to introduce morphogenetic critical realism into the mainstream of American sociology.[26] Before becoming explicitly aligned with the morphogenetic approach and critical realism, Porpora published two papers on the nature of culture and social structure that later had a major influence on morphogenetic critical realism.[27]

Cambridge social ontology

Cambridge social ontology is an approach to ontology that is primarily associated with the work of philosopher Tony Lawson.[28] The approach is centred around the Cambridge Social Ontology Group and its weekly Realist Workshop hosted by the University of Cambridge and led by Lawson.[29] While the group subscribes to critical realism, it identifies its aims with the study of ontology more generally rather than a necessary allegiance with the critical realist philosophy.[30] At the heart of the Cambridge approach is a theory of social positioning in which any social system creates roles (or 'places' or 'slots') that are occupied by individuals.[31] Each of these roles is attached to a series of rights and obligations; for example, one of the rights of a university lecturer is the right to use a university library and one of their obligations to deliver lectures.[32] These rights and obligations interlock to form social structures, so that the rights of an individual in one social position usually correspond with the obligations of an individual in another; for example, the rights of the lecturer might correspond to the obligations of a librarian.[33] In some cases, it is not individuals that occupy these social positions but 'communities', which are defined as "an identifiable, restricted and relatively enduring coherent grouping of people who share some set of concerns".[34] It is important to stress that these communities can exist at a wide range of scales, they are not necessarily attached to a particular geographical space, and they can overlap and nest in various complex ways. Therefore, individuals sit within social systems by occupying a role, and they sit within communities by sharing in the community's interests in some way. A final crucial concept of the Cambridge social ontology approach is the notion of 'collective practices': a collective practice is a way of proceeding that (implicitly) bears the status of being (collectively) accepted within a community.[35] In other words, collective practices are common ways of acting in any given situation that are reinforced through conformity, such as the forming of queues to pay for goods in stores or the etiquette of a particular game or sport.

Critical discourse analysis

Main article: Critical discourse analysis

Discourse analysis is the analysis of texts and other meaningful signs with the purpose of understanding and/or explaining social phenomena. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) is primarily concerned with analysing the relationship between discourse and social relations of power in any given context.[36] In contrast to post-structuralist and postmodernist approaches to discourse analysis (such as the Essex school), CDA relies on philosophical distinctions between discourse and other aspects of reality, especially insisting on the relative independence of power relations, material existence and individual agency.[37][38] While not all CDA explicitly ascribes to critical realism (see, for example the work of Ruth Wodak or Teun van Dijk), a critical realist ontology provides philosophical underpinnings for the social distinctions inherent to its approach to analysis.[39] The main proponent of a critical realist approach to CDA is Norman Fairclough, whose philosophical underpinnings shifted from a Foucualdian perspective in his 1992 book Discourse and Social Change[40] to an explicitly critical realist approach in his 1999 collaboration with Lillian Chouliaraki Discourse in Late Modernity.[41] Fairclough has subsequently published work developing the critical realist foundations of his version of CDA, particularly in collaboration with his Lancaster University colleagues Andrew Sayer and Bob Jessop.[42][43] Fairclough explains how the main concepts of transcendental realism underpin his approach to the analysis of texts. Firstly, there is a distinction between the knowledge (the 'transitive dimension') and that which knowledge is about (the 'intransitive dimension'); this underpins the CDA distinction between discourse and other aspects of reality. Secondly, there is the distinction between experienced events (the 'empirical'), events themselves (the 'actual'), and the underlying mechanisms that give rise to events (the 'real'); this underpins the distinction between the reading of a text (the empirical), the text itself (the actual) and the causal structures underpinning the text's social effects (the real).[44] While these critical realist distinctions are not commonly used in the empirical application of Fairlcough's CDA, they are fundamental to the underlying social theory that justifies its application. More recently, other theorists have further developed CDA's critical realist underpinnings by focusing on the distinction between structure and agency,[45] the distinction between discourse and 'non-discourse',[46] and the concept of social practices.[47]

Cultural political economy

Long-term collaborators Ngai-Ling Sum and Bob Jessop initially developed 'cultural political economy' (CPE) in a forum of the journal New Political Economy, responding to the strict disciplinarity of existing approaches to political economy.[48] CPE also has roots in Jessop's seminal collaboration with Norman Fairclough and Andrew Sayer, which outlined a critical realist approach to 'semiosis', the inter-subjective production of meaning.[49][50] CPE is most extensively outlined in Sum and Jessop's 2013 book Cultural Political Economy, where critical realism and the strategic-relational approach are identified as the twin foundations of the approach.[51] These foundations lead to a central distinction at the heart of CPE between the 'semiotic and structural aspects of social life'. The 'semiotic' entails (a) the process by which individuals come to understand, apprehend, and make sense of the natural and social world, and (b) the process by which people (individually and in groups) come to create meaning through communication and signification, especially (though not exclusively) through the formation and use of language.[51] The semiotic is held to be foundational to all social relations and causally efficacious, so that it is both a part of social relations and a causal force in its own right. For the 'structural' aspects of social life, Sum and Jessop adopt the phrase 'structuration' from Anthony Giddens, but reject his broader approach because of its atemporality and its conflation of agents and their actions.[51] In CPE, as in all critical realist meta-theories, social structure is held to be socially constructed, embedded in semiosis, but also not reducible to those semiotic processes, having its own material existence in social institutions, the actions of individuals, and the physical world.[50] Jessop explains that 'semiotic' and 'structural' aspects of social life change over time through three evolutionary mechanisms:[50] (i) variation - there is constant variation in human practices and social arrangements, but especially at times of crisis; (ii) selection - some practices, semiotic constructions, and structural arrangements are selected, especially as the possible routes to recovery from a crisis; (iii) retention - from the selected arrangements and practices, those that prove to be effective are retained, especially when they help overcome a crisis.[51] It is important to note that this process of variation-selection-retention, is not a functionalist account in which society is continuously 'improving', because the process is shaped by the strategies of individual agents and social structures of (unequal) power.

Critical realist Marxism

A development of Bhaskar's critical realism lies at the ontological root of some contemporary streams of Marxist political and economic theory.[52][53] These authors consider that realist philosophy described by Bhaskar in A Realist Theory of Science is compatible with Marx's work in that it differentiates between an intransitive reality, which exists independently of human knowledge of it, and the socially produced world of science and empirical knowledge. This dualist logic is present in the Marxian theory of ideology, according to which social reality may be very different from its empirically observable surface appearance. Notably, Alex Callinicos has argued for a 'critical realist' ontology in the philosophy of social science and explicitly acknowledges Bhaskar's influence (while also rejecting the latter's 'spiritualist turn' in his later work).[54] The relationship between critical realist philosophy and Marxism has also been discussed in an article co-authored by Bhaskar and Callinicos and published in the Journal of Critical Realism.[55]

Disciplinary applications


Heterodox economists like Tony Lawson, Lars Pålsson Syll, Frederic Lee or Geoffrey Hodgson have used the ideas of critical realism in economics, especially the dynamic idea of macro-micro interaction.

According to critical realist economists, the central aim of economic theory is to provide explanations in terms of hidden generative structures. This position combines transcendental realism with a critique of mainstream economics. It argues that mainstream economics (i) relies excessively on deductivist methodology, (ii) embraces an uncritical enthusiasm for formalism, and (iii) believes in strong conditional predictions in economics despite repeated failures.

The world that mainstream economists study is the empirical world. But according to critical realists this world is "out of phase" (Lawson) with the underlying ontology of economic regularities. The mainstream view is thus a limited reality because empirical realists presume that the objects of inquiry are solely "empirical regularities"—that is, objects and events at the level of the experienced.

The critical realist views the domain of real causal mechanisms as the appropriate object of economic science, whereas the positivist view is that the reality is exhausted in empirical, i.e. experienced reality. Tony Lawson argues that economics ought to embrace a "social ontology" to include the underlying causes of economic phenomena.

Ecological economics

The British ecological economist Clive Spash holds the opinion that critical realism offers a thorough basis—as a philosophy of science—for the theoretical foundation of ecological economics.[56][57] He therefore uses a critical realist lens for conducting research in (ecological) economics.

However, also other scholars base ecological economics on a critical realist foundation,[58] such as Leigh Price from Rhodes University.[59]

Ecology, climate change and environmental sustainability

Critical realism's implications for ecology, climate change and environmental sustainability were explored by Roy Bhaskar and others in their 2010 book Interdisciplinarity and Climate Change: Transforming Knowledge and Practice for Our Global Future.[60] Nordic ecophilosophers such as Karl Georg Høyer, Sigmund Kvaløy Setreng and Trond Gansmo Jakobsen saw the value of critical realism as a basis for the approach to ecology popularized by the Norwegian philosopher Arne Næss, versions of which are sometimes called deep ecology. Roy Bhaskar, Petter Næss, and Karl Høyer collaborated on an edited volume entitled Ecophilosophy in a World of Crisis: Critical Realism and the Nordic Contributions.[61] Zimbabwean-born ecophilosopher Leigh Price has used critical realism to develop a philosophy for ecology that she calls deep naturalism. She has argued for a common-sense approach to climate change and environmental management.[62] She also has used Bhaskar's critical realist ontology to arrive at a definition of ecological resilience as "the process by which the internal complexity of an ecosystem and its coherence as a whole – stemming from the relative 'richness' or 'modularity' of emergent structures and behaviours/growth/life-history of species – results in the inter-dependencies of its components or their binding as totalities such that the identity of the ecosystem tends to remain intact, despite intrinsic and/or extrinsic entropic forces".[63] Other academics in this field who have worked with critical realism include Jenneth Parker, Research Director at Schumaker Institute for Sustainable Systems[64] and Sarah Cornell, Associate Professor at Stockholm Resilience Centre.

International relations

Since 2000, critical realist philosophy has also been increasingly influential in the field of international relations (IR) theory. In 2011, Patrick Thaddeus Jackson called it "all the rage" in the field.[65] Bob Jessop, Colin Wight, Milja Kurki, Jonathan Joseph and Hidemi Suganami have all published major works on the utility of beginning IR research from a critical realist social ontology—an ontology they all credit Roy Bhaskar with originating.[66]


This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Critical realism" philosophy of the social sciences – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (January 2022) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Critical realism (CR) offers a framework that can be used to approach complex questions at the interface between educational theory and educational practice. Nevertheless, CR is not a theory but a philosophical approach intended to under-labour for social science research. As a meta-theory, it does not explain any social phenomenon. Instead, the processes and techniques of the discipline, in this case, education, will provide the means for translating CR principles into a substantive study. This means that for any study framed under a CR approach, there is a need to choose a social theory (that shares a realist ontology) that explains why things are the way they are rather than some other way. As in the different disciplines described above, in educational research under a CR approach, the overall aim is to explain the educational phenomena in terms of the hidden generative mechanisms that make the events we observe happen. Rebecca Eynon of the Oxford Internet Institute believes that when investigating issues in the field of educational technology it is fundamental to address the real problems that as she argues, relate to the more profound and most of the time, imperceptible structural issues that constrain technology use. In the field of educational technology, particularly when exploring how technology is used or appropriated by teachers and students, an understanding of the social world as complex and multi-layered is helpful. Clive Lawson of the Cambridge Social Ontology Group has addressed the topic of technology from a CR perspective. The book Isolation and Technology (2017) sets out a persuasive 'ontology of technology' and applies this perspective to explain the causal powers of technology, which for educational purposes is highly relevant. His main argument is that technology has the power to enlarge human capabilities but only if the technology/artefact is enrolled in the network of interdependencies in a particular system. He suggests a conception of technical activity "as that activity that harnesses the causal capacities and powers of material artefacts in order to extend human capabilities" (p. 109).

David Scott has written extensively about CR and education. In his book Education, Epistemology and Critical Realism (2010), he argues for a need to pay greater attention to the meta-theories which underpin educational research. An important issue for educational research, Scott argues, is the relationship between structure and agency. The work of Margaret Archer[67] uses the morphogenetic cycle (explained in one of the sections above) as an analytical tool that allows the researcher to explore the interplay between structure and agency at any given moment in time. She uses analytical dualism, a methodological manoeuvre that helps, only for the sake of analysis, to separate structure from agency to explore their interplay at a particular moment in time. The latter was utilised by Robert Archer in his book Education Policy and Realist Social Theory (2002).[68]


Critical realism has been used widely within health research in several different ways including informing methodological decisions, understanding the causes of health and illness, and informing ways of improving health—whether in healthcare programmes or public health promotion.

Many researchers working within health and illness have used critical realism to orient their methodological decisions. In a similar pattern to that seen in other fields, critical realism has been argued to represent a philosophical approach for health sciences that is alternative and preferable to the empirical emphasis within positivism and the relativist emphasis within constructivism (Cruikshank, 2012). Comparable arguments are made in a range of fields such as the sociology of health and illness (Williams, 1999;2003), mental health research (Pilgrim, 2013) and nursing (Clark et al., 2008). Indeed, it has been argued that using critical realism to orient methodological decision helps to encourage interdisciplinary health research by disrupting long-standing qualitative-quantitative divides between disciplinary traditions (Wiltshire, 2018). Critical realism has also been discussed in comparison to alternatives within health and rehabilitation science with DeForge and Shaw (2011) concluding that, "critical realists tend to forefront ontological considerations and focus on the hidden, taken-for-granted structures from 'the domain of the real'." One significant methodological implication within health research has been the introduction of evaluation frameworks that are underpinned by critical realist ideas (see McEvoy and Richards, 2002; Costa and Magalhães, 2019). Evaluation research is important for healthcare research in particular because new health-related interventions and programmes need to be assessed for effectiveness. Alex Clark and colleagues summarise the contribution of critical realism in this domain by claiming that it is useful for "(1) understanding complex outcomes, (2) optimizing interventions, and (3) researching biopsychosocial pathways. Such questions are central to evidence-based practice, chronic disease management, and population health." Priscilla Alderson's 2021 book 'Critical Realism for Health and Illness Research: A Practical Introduction' positions critical realism as a toolkit of practical ideas that helps researchers to extend and clarify their analyses.

Research that has tried to better understand the causes of health and illness have also turned to critical realism. Graham Scambler has been a leading author in this area, applying sociology to the understanding of medicine, health and illness. His Sociology, Health and the Fractured Society: A Critical Realist Account is one key text, along with several other works (with colleagues) related to the role of class relations and political power in reproducing and exacerbating health inequalities (Scambler, 2001; Scambler and Scambler, 2013). Other research into the social determinants of health has drawn on critical realism in, for example, the understanding of inequalities (Costa and Magalhães, 2020), the rural determinants of health (Reid, 2019) and the non-determinant causal relationship between poor housing and illness (Allen, 2000). For Collins and colleagues (2015) critical realism was found to be useful in seeking an appropriate social theory of health determination through the complex pathways and mechanisms that come to impact health and illness. Critical realism was also used by Pilgrim and Rogers (1997) to put forward an account of the causes of mental ill-health.

Critical realism has also been used in health research to inform ways of improving health – whether in healthcare programmes or public health promotion. Alex Clark and colleagues (2007) explain how critical realism can help to understand and evaluate heart health programmes, noting that their approach "embraces measurement of objective effectiveness but also examines the mechanisms, organizational and contextual-related factors causing these outcomes." Harwood and Clark (2012) then used critical realism to understanding health decisions such as the use of home-dialysis for patients with chronic kidney disease. Williams and colleagues (2016) provide another useful example in the context of nursing practice arguing that critical realism offers a philosophy that is a natural fit with human and health science enquiry, including nursing. Thinking at the level of public health, Connelly (2001) strongly advocated for critical realist ideas, concluding that "for health promotion theory and practice to make a difference an engagement with critical realism is now long overdue." This support for critical realism plays out in empirical studies, such as Oladele and colleagues' (2012) ethnographic study in Nigeria which argues that understanding the underlying mechanisms associated with smoking in different societies will enable a platform for effective implementation of tobacco control policies that work in various settings.

See also


  1. ^ Altheide, D. L., and Johnson, J. M.(1994). Criteria for assessing interpretive validity in qualitative research. In: N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research First edition, (pp. 485–499).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  2. ^ Hammersley, M. (1992). Ethnography and realism. In What's Wrong with Ethnography? (pp. 43–56). London: Routledge.
  3. ^ a b Madill, Anna (2012) 'Realism', in Lisa M. Given (ed.) The SAGE Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods, Thousand Oaks NJ, Sage.
  4. ^ Bhaskar, Roy (2010). Reclaiming reality : a critical introduction to contemporary philosophy. London: Routledge. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-203-84331-4. OCLC 712652144.
  5. ^ Creswell, John W.; Creswell, J. David (2 January 2018). Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (Fifth ed.). Thousand Oaks, California. ISBN 9781506386706. OCLC 1004576152.
  6. ^ "The Impact of Roy Bhaskar and Critical Realism on International Relations". E-International Relations. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  7. ^ "Roy Bhaskar: Philosopher whose school of critical realism challenged". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  8. ^ Graeber, David (2014-12-04). "Roy Bhaskar obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  9. ^ Edwards, Paul K.; O'Mahoney, Joe; Vincent, Steve (2014). Studying Organizations Using Critical Realism: A Practical Guide. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-966553-2.
  10. ^ Fletcher, Amber J. (2016). "Applying critical realism in qualitative research: methodology meets method". International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 20 (2): 181–194. doi:10.1080/13645579.2016.1144401. S2CID 147258771.
  11. ^ Parr, Sadie (2015). "Integrating critical realist and feminist methodologies: ethical and analytical dilemmas" (PDF). International Journal of Social Research Methodology (Submitted manuscript). 8 (2): 193–207. doi:10.1080/13645579.2013.868572. S2CID 53051718.
  12. ^ Bunt, Sarah (2018). "Critical realism and grounded theory: Analysing the adoption outcomes for disabled children using the retroduction framework". Qualitative Social Work. 17 (2): 176–194. doi:10.1177/1473325016664572. S2CID 151878799.
  13. ^ Hoddy, Eric (2018). "Critical realism in empirical research: employing techniques from Grounded theory methodology" (PDF). International Journal of Social Research Methodology. 22: 111–124. doi:10.1080/13645579.2018.1503400. S2CID 149952268.
  14. ^ Archer, Margaret, ed. (2013). Social Morphogenesis. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-94-007-6127-8.
  15. ^ Bhaskar, Roy (2015). The possibility of naturalism : a philosophical critique of the contemporary human sciences (Fourth ed.). London. ISBN 978-1-138-79889-2. OCLC 872522672.
  16. ^ Archer, Margaret, ed. (2013). Social Morphogenesis. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-94-007-6127-8.
  17. ^ Pratten, Stephen, ed. (2015). Social Ontology and Modern Economics. New York: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-70390-7. OCLC 891449934.
  18. ^ Chouliaraki, Lilie; Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity: rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1082-0. OCLC 44013742.
  19. ^ Sum, Ngai-Ling; Jessop, Bob (2005). Towards a cultural political economy: putting culture in its place in political economy. Cheltenham, UK. ISBN 1-84542-036-5. OCLC 58454749.
  20. ^ van Ingen, Michiel; Grohmann, Steph; Gunnarsson, Lena (2020). Critical realism, feminism, and gender: a reader. Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 978-1-315-11213-8. OCLC 1135913463.
  21. ^ Brown, Andrew; Fleetwood, Steve; Roberts, John Michael, eds. (2002). Critical realism and Marxism. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-203-29922-1. OCLC 56566655.
  22. ^ Archer, Margaret (2013-03-05). Social Origins of Educational Systems. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203584002. ISBN 978-0-203-58400-2.
  23. ^ Archer, Margaret S. (1995). Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-48176-2.
  24. ^ Archer, Margaret S. (1996). Culture and Agency: The Place of Culture in Social Theory (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-56441-0.
  25. ^ Archer, Margaret, ed. (2013). Social Morphogenesis. Springer Netherlands. ISBN 978-94-007-6127-8.
  26. ^ Archer, Margaret S. (2016-08-07). "Reconstructing Sociology: The Critical Realist Approach". Journal of Critical Realism. 15 (4): 425–431. doi:10.1080/14767430.2016.1191809. ISSN 1476-7430. S2CID 147762206.
  27. ^ Porpora, Douglas V.; Morgan, Jamie (2020-10-19). "American sociology, realism, structure and truth: an interview with Douglas V. Porpora". Journal of Critical Realism. 19 (5): 522–544. doi:10.1080/14767430.2020.1782708. ISSN 1476-7430.
  28. ^ Porpora, Douglas (2016). "Response to Tony Lawson: Sociology Versus Economics and Philosophy". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 46 (4): 420–425. doi:10.1111/jtsb.12130. ISSN 1468-5914.
  29. ^ "Cambridge Social Ontology". Retrieved 2021-01-22.
  30. ^ Lawson, Tony (2009-09-13). "Cambridge social ontology: an interview with Tony Lawson". Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics. 2 (1): 100–122. doi:10.23941/ejpe.v2i1.26. ISSN 1876-9098.
  31. ^ "The Nature of Social Reality: Issues in Social Ontology". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
  32. ^ Lawson, Tony (2016). "Comparing Conceptions of Social Ontology: Emergent Social Entities and/or Institutional Facts?". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 46 (4): 359–399. doi:10.1111/jtsb.12126. ISSN 1468-5914.
  33. ^ Lawson, Tony (2016). "Comparing Conceptions of Social Ontology: Emergent Social Entities and/or Institutional Facts?". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 46 (4): 359–399. doi:10.1111/jtsb.12126. ISSN 1468-5914.
  34. ^ "The Nature of Social Reality: Issues in Social Ontology". Routledge & CRC Press. Retrieved 2021-01-22.
  35. ^ "Cambridge Social Ontology - Conception of Social Ontology" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2021-01-29.
  36. ^ Fairclough, Norman (2005-06-01). "Peripheral Vision: Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies: The Case for Critical Realism". Organization Studies. 26 (6): 915–939. doi:10.1177/0170840605054610. ISSN 0170-8406. S2CID 144219030.
  37. ^ Newman, Jack (2020-10-19). "Critical realism, critical discourse analysis, and the morphogenetic approach". Journal of Critical Realism. 19 (5): 433–455. doi:10.1080/14767430.2020.1758986. ISSN 1476-7430. S2CID 219481489. Archived from the original on 20 May 2020.
  38. ^ Laclau, Ernesto; Bhaskar, Roy (1998-07-12). "Discourse Theory vs Critical Realism". Alethia. 1 (2): 9–14. doi:10.1558/aleth.v1i2.9. ISSN 0711-3625.
  39. ^ Fairclough, Norman (2005-06-01). "Peripheral Vision: Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies: The Case for Critical Realism". Organization Studies. 26 (6): 915–939. doi:10.1177/0170840605054610. ISSN 0170-8406. S2CID 144219030.
  40. ^ "Discourse and Social Change | Wiley". Retrieved 2021-01-28.
  41. ^ Chouliaraki, Lilie; Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity : rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1082-0. OCLC 44013742.
  42. ^ Fairclough, Norman; Jessop, Bob; Sayer, Andrew (2002-07-15). "Critical Realism and Semiosis". Alethia. 5 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1558/aleth.v5i1.2. ISSN 0711-3625. S2CID 8535904.
  43. ^ Fairclough, Norman (2005-06-01). "Peripheral Vision: Discourse Analysis in Organization Studies: The Case for Critical Realism". Organization Studies. 26 (6): 915–939. doi:10.1177/0170840605054610. ISSN 0170-8406. S2CID 144219030.
  44. ^ Chouliaraki, Lilie; Fairclough, Norman (1999). Discourse in late modernity : rethinking critical discourse analysis. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-7486-1082-0. OCLC 44013742.
  45. ^ Flatschart, Elmar (2016-01-01). "Critical Realist Critical Discourse Analysis: A Necessary Alternative to Post-marxist Discourse Theory". Journal of Critical Realism. 15 (1): 21–52. doi:10.1080/14767430.2015.1118588. ISSN 1476-7430. S2CID 146508384.
  46. ^ Banta, Benjamin (2012-04-23). "Analysing discourse as a causal mechanism". European Journal of International Relations. 19 (2): 379–402. doi:10.1177/1354066111428970. S2CID 146918607.
  47. ^ Newman, Jack (2020-10-19). "Critical realism, critical discourse analysis, and the morphogenetic approach". Journal of Critical Realism. 19 (5): 433–455. doi:10.1080/14767430.2020.1758986. ISSN 1476-7430. S2CID 219481489.
  48. ^ Jessop, Bob; Sum, Ngai-Ling (2001-03-01). "Pre-disciplinary and Post-disciplinary Perspectives". New Political Economy. 6 (1): 89–101. doi:10.1080/13563460020027777. ISSN 1356-3467. S2CID 58930932.
  49. ^ Fairclough, Norman; Jessop, Bob; Sayer, Andrew (2002-07-15). "Critical Realism and Semiosis". Alethia. 5 (1): 2–10. doi:10.1558/aleth.v5i1.2. ISSN 0711-3625. S2CID 8535904.
  50. ^ a b c JESSOP *, BOB (2004-10-01). "Critical semiotic analysis and cultural political economy". Critical Discourse Studies. 1 (2): 159–174. doi:10.1080/17405900410001674506. ISSN 1740-5904. S2CID 218547365.
  51. ^ a b c d Sum, Ngai-Ling; Jessop, Bob (2005). Towards a cultural political economy : putting culture in its place in political economy. Cheltenham, UK. ISBN 1-84542-036-5. OCLC 58454749.
  52. ^ Marsh, D. (2002), "Marxism", in Marsh D. Stoker, G. (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
  53. ^ Marsh, D, & Furlong, P. (2002), "Ontology and Epistemology in Political Science", in Marsh D. Stoker, G. (Eds.), Theory and Methods in Political Science, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan.
  54. ^ Callinicos, A. (2006), The Resources of Critique, Cambridge, Polity, pp.155-158
  55. ^ Bhaskar, R. Callinicos, A. (2003), 'Marxism and Critical Realism: A Debate', in Journal of Critical Realism, 1.2
  56. ^ Spash, Clive L. (2012-05-26). "New foundations for ecological economics". Ecological Economics. 77: 36–47. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.ecolecon.2012.02.004. ISSN 0921-8009.
  57. ^ Spash, Clive (2017-01-31), "Soziales, ökologisches und ökonomisches Wissen zum Synthetisierungspotenzial des Critical Realism", in Lindner, Urs; Mader, Dimitri (eds.), Critical Realism meets kritische Sozialtheorie, transcript Verlag, doi:10.14361/9783839427255-008, ISBN 9783839427255
  58. ^ Spash, Clive L. (2017-04-07). Routledge handbook of ecological economics: nature and society. Abingdon, Oxon. ISBN 9781317395096. OCLC 982187453.
  59. ^ Price, Leigh; Lotz-Sistka, Heila (2015-12-14). Critical realism, environmental learning, and social-ecological change. Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Price, Leigh. London. ISBN 9781317338475. OCLC 932622677.
  60. ^ Bhaskar, Roy, ed. (2010). Interdisciplinarity and Climate Change. London: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203855317. ISBN 9781136996702.
  61. ^ Bhaskar, R., Naess, P. and Høyer, K.G. eds., 2011. Ecophilosophy in a World of Crisis: Critical Realism and the Nordic Contributions. Routledge.
  62. ^ Price, L., 2019. "A return to common-sense: why ecology needs transcendental realism". Journal of Critical Realism, 18(1), pp. 31–44. doi:10.1080/14767430.2019.1580178
  63. ^ Price, L., 2019. "The possibility of deep naturalism: a philosophy for ecology". Journal of Critical Realism, 18(4), pp. 352–367. doi:10.1080/14767430.2019.1667169
  64. ^ Parker, Jenneth (2014-03-21). Critiquing Sustainability, Changing Philosophy. Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203095577. ISBN 978-0-203-09557-7.
  65. ^ Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus (2011) The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations, Routledge p. xiv.
  66. ^ See:
    • Jessop, Bob (2007) State Power, Cambridge: Polity.
    • Kurki, Milja (2008), Causation in International Relations: Reclaiming Causal Analysis, Cambridge: CUP.
    • Wight, Colin (2006) Agents, Structures and International Relations: Politics as Ontology, Cambridge: CUP.
    • Joseph, Jonathan (2012) The Social in the Global, Cambridge: CUP.
  67. ^ Archer, Margaret S. (1995-10-19). Realist Social Theory: The Morphogenetic Approach (1 ed.). Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/cbo9780511557675. ISBN 978-0-521-48442-8.
  68. ^ Archer, Robert (2002). Education Policy and Realist Social Theory: Primary Teachers, Child-Centred Philosophy and the New Managerialism (First ed.). Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203166536. ISBN 9780203166536.

Further reading