|President of Soka Gakkai International (SGI)|
|Assumed office |
26 January 1975
|Honorary President of Soka Gakkai|
|Assumed office |
24 April 1979
|3rd President of Soka Gakkai|
3 May 1960 – 24 April 1979
|Preceded by||Jōsei Toda|
|Succeeded by||Hiroshi Hōjō (北条浩)|
|Born||2 January 1928|
Ōta, Tokyo, Japanese Empire
|Spouse||Kaneko Ikeda (池田香峯子)|
|Children||3 (1 deceased)|
|Residence(s)||Japan, Tokyo, Shinjuku-Ku, Shinanomachi (信濃町)|
|Alma mater||Fuji Junior College (present-day Tokyo Fuji University)|
Daisaku Ikeda (池田 大作, Ikeda Daisaku, born 2 January 1928) is a Japanese Buddhist philosopher, educator, author, and nuclear disarmament advocate. He served as the third president and then honorary president of the Soka Gakkai, the largest of Japan's new religious movements.: 5 Ikeda is the founding president of the Soka Gakkai International (SGI), the world's largest Buddhist lay organization, which claims to have approximately 12 million practitioners in 192 countries and territories, more than 1.5 million of whom reside outside of Japan as of 2012.: 269
Ikeda was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1928, to a family of seaweed farmers. He survived the devastation of World War II as a teenager, which he said left an indelible mark on his life and fueled his quest to solve the fundamental causes of human conflict. At age 19, Ikeda began practicing Nichiren Buddhism and joined a youth group of the Soka Gakkai, which led to his lifelong work developing the global peace movement of SGI and founding dozens of institutions dedicated to fostering peace, culture and education.: 12  His accomplishments are honored internationally; in Japan he has been described as a "controversial figure" over several decades through the 1990s in relation to the political party Kōmeitō, which he founded, and has been the subject of libelous accusations in Japanese media.: 3 : 43 : 147 : 149
In the 1960s, Ikeda worked to reopen Japan's national relations with China and also to establish the Soka education network of schools from kindergartens through university levels, while beginning to write what would become his multi-volume historical novel, The Human Revolution, about the Soka Gakkai's development during his mentor Josei Toda's tenure. In 1975, he established the Soka Gakkai International, and throughout the 1970s initiated a series of citizen diplomacy efforts through international educational and cultural exchanges for peace. Since the 1980s, in his annual peace proposals marking the anniversary of the SGI's founding, he has increasingly called for nuclear disarmament.: 12–13, 26, 167 Ikeda's vision for the SGI was described in 2010 by Olivier Urbain, then director of the Toda Peace Institute founded by Ikeda, as a "borderless Buddhist humanism that emphasizes free thinking and personal development based on respect for all life.": 26
By 2015, Ikeda had published more than 50 dialogues with scholars, peace activists and leading world figures. In his role as SGI president, Ikeda has visited 55 nations and spoken on subjects including peace, environmentalism, economics, women's rights, interfaith dialogue and Buddhism and science.
Ikeda was born in Ōta, Tokyo, Japan, on 2 January 1928. Ikeda had four older brothers, two younger brothers, and a younger sister. His parents later adopted two more children, for a total of 10 children. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Ikeda family had successfully farmed nori, edible seaweed, in Tokyo Bay. By the turn of the twentieth century, the Ikeda family business was the largest producer of nori in Tokyo. The devastation of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake left the family's enterprise in ruins; by the time Ikeda was born, his family was financially struggling.: 13
In 1937, the Second Sino-Japanese War erupted, and Ikeda's eldest brother, Kiichi, was drafted into military service. Within a few years, Ikeda's three other elder brothers were drafted as well. In 1942, while all of his older brothers were overseas in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, Ikeda's father, Nenokichi, fell ill and was bedridden for two years. To help to support his family, at the age of 14, Ikeda began working in the Niigata Steelworks munitions factory as part of Japan's wartime youth labor corps.: 71
In May 1945, Ikeda's home was destroyed by fire during an Allied air raid, and his family was forced to move to the Ōmori area of Tokyo. In May 1947, after having received no word from his eldest brother, Kiichi, for several years, the Ikeda family, particularly his mother, was informed by the Japanese government that he had been killed in action in Burma (now Myanmar).
In August 1947, at the age of 19, Ikeda was invited by an old friend to attend a Buddhist discussion meeting. It was there that he met Josei Toda, the second president of Japan's Soka Gakkai Buddhist organization. As a result of this encounter, Ikeda began practicing Nichiren Buddhism and joined the Soka Gakkai. He regarded Toda as his spiritual mentor and became a charter member of the group's youth division, later recounting that Toda influenced him through "the profound compassion that characterized each of his interactions."
Shortly after the end of World War II, in January 1946, Ikeda gained employment with the Shobundo Printing Company in Tokyo. In March 1948, Ikeda graduated from Toyo Trade School and the following month entered the night school extension of Taisei Gakuin (present-day Tokyo Fuji University) where he majored in political science. During this time, he worked as an editor of the children's magazine Shonen Nihon (Boy's Life Japan), which was published by one of Josei Toda's companies.: f. 84  Over the next several years, between 1948 and 1953, Ikeda worked for various Toda-owned enterprises, including the Nihon Shogakkan publishing company, the Tokyo Construction Trust credit association, and the Okura Shoji trading company.: 76 
In 1953, at the age of 25, Ikeda was appointed as one of the Soka Gakkai's youth leaders. The following year, he was appointed as director of the Soka Gakkai's public relations bureau, and later became its chief of staff.: 85 : 77
In April 1957, a group of young Soka Gakkai members in Osaka were arrested for allegedly distributing money, cigarettes and candies to support the political campaign of a local electoral candidate (who was also a Soka Gakkai member). Ikeda was later arrested and detained in jail for two weeks, charged with allegedly overseeing these activities. Ikeda's arrest came at a time when Soka Gakkai Buddhist candidates were achieving success at both national and local levels. With the growing influence of this liberal grassroots movement, factions of the conservative political establishment initiated a series of media attacks on the Soka Gakkai, culminating in Ikeda's arrest. After a lengthy court case that lasted until 1962, Ikeda was cleared of all charges. The Soka Gakkai characterized this as a triumph over corrupt tyranny, which galvanized its movement.
In May 1960, two years after Toda's death, Ikeda, then 32 years old, succeeded him as president of the Soka Gakkai. Later that year, Ikeda began to travel overseas to build connections between Soka Gakkai members living abroad and expand the movement globally. This was, in Ikeda's words, "Toda's will for the future." While the Soka Gakkai saw its most dramatic growth in Japan after World War II under Toda's leadership, Ikeda led its international expansion into what became the largest, most diverse international lay Buddhist association in the world.
When he became the third Soka Gakkai president, Ikeda "continued the task begun by Soka Gakkai founder Tsunesaburo Makiguchi of fusing the ideas and principles of educational pragmatism with the elements of Buddhist doctrine." He reformed many of the organization's practices, including the aggressive conversion style known as shakubuku, for which the group had been criticized in Japan. He also worked "to improve the movement's public image.": 2658 The organization "had provoked public opprobrium because of its aggressive recruitment policies and its strongly developed political base.": 197 By the latter half of the 20th century, the Soka Gakkai had "matured into a responsible member of society" under Ikeda's leadership while "its ongoing connection with reformist political activity served to keep it in the public eye"; after 1999, "the media assault on Soka Gakkai subsequently evaporated.": 217–219
In 1979, Ikeda resigned as president of the Soka Gakkai (in Japan), accepting responsibility for the organization's purported deviation from Nichiren Shōshū priesthood doctrine and the accompanying conflict.: 56 Hiroshi Hōjō succeeded Ikeda as Soka Gakkai president, and Ikeda was made honorary president.: 55
Ikeda continues to be revered as the Soka Gakkai's spiritual leader, according to Asian studies associate professor Daniel Métraux in 1999. Métraux in 1994 wrote that "adulation of Ikeda in the Gakkai press gives some non-member readers the impression that the Gakkai is little more than an Ikeda personality cult".: 151 Sociologist Maria Immacolata Macioti noted in 2002: "President Ikeda is very much loved – and according to a few authoritative studies, too much loved". This has aroused critics for years.: 149 One reason for the excommunication of Soka Gakkai by Nichiren Shōshū in 1991 was, according to the "Nichiren Shoshu" entry in The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, "Nichiren Shōshū accusing Sōka Gakkai of forming a personality cult around their leader Ikeda" and "Soka Gakkai accusing the Nichiren Shoshu leader Abe Nikken of trying to dominate both organizations." Sociologist of religion Peter Beyer in 2006 summarizes an understanding in the context of contemporary global society: "Until the 1990s, Soka Gakkai still was related formally to the monastic organization, Nichiren Shoshu, but conflicts over authority led to their separation (Métraux 1994).": 277
Based on textual analysis of Ikeda's self-presentations as a disciple of Josei Toda and ethnographic fieldwork on the Soka Gakkai, Clark Chilson wrote in 2014 that "Ikeda is not only a charismatic leader but, more specifically, a transformational one. On the basis of Ikeda's self presentations, Gakkai members come to learn a model of the mentor-disciple relationship that is empowering and thus one that encourages them to enter a mentor-disciple relationship with Ikeda".: 66 He concludes that: "although Ikeda as a youth was in many ways ordinary, he achieved greatness as a leader as the result of his discipleship to his mentor [Josei Toda]. This holds the promise for Gakkai members that they too can achieve greatness in the mentor-disciple relationship, which in turn helps them see the self-conception of disciple as one of strength. With the self-conception of a disciple, Gakkai members are more likely to strive to achieve goals articulated by their mentor, Ikeda, that transcend their own self interests, such as the expansion of the Gakkai's membership, and the promotion of culture, education, and world peace.": 76
Further information: Soka Gakkai International
By the 1970s, Ikeda's leadership had expanded the Soka Gakkai into an international lay Buddhist movement increasingly active in peace, cultural, and educational activities.: 371–72, 376 On 26 January 1975, a world peace conference was held in Guam, where Soka Gakkai representatives from 51 countries created an umbrella organization for the growing network of members around the world. This became the Soka Gakkai International (SGI). Ikeda took a leading role in the global organization's development and became the founding president of the SGI. In his address to the assembly, Ikeda encouraged the representatives to dedicate themselves to altruistic action, stating "Please devote yourselves to planting seeds of peace throughout the world.": 128
Ikeda as Soka Gakkai president and his predecessors Tsunesaburō Makiguchi and Jōsei Toda "have been deeply political, each in different circumstances and distinct ways, which has no doubt contributed to the many controversies in the Soka Gakkai's history," according to religion professor Richard Seager.: 5 Makiguchi and Toda were persecuted for opposing Japan's wartime government.: 3 In the history of institutional relations between the religious movement Soka Gakkai and the political party Kōmeitō founded in 1964 by Ikeda as an outgrowth from Soka Gakkai, he has faced "unabated criticism against the alleged violation of the separation of religion and state": 203, 215, 216 and been accused of "far-reaching political ambitions.": 149 Associate professor of government George Ehrhardt and co-authors write that "Sōka Gakkai's entrance into the political arena [...] permanently transformed the relationship between religion and politics in Japan by dividing those who opposed the creation of a religious political party from those who accepted it.": 16
According to Asian studies professor Daniel Métraux in 1994, Ikeda is "possibly one of the more controversial figures in Japan's modern history".: 147 Ikeda's involvement through the Kōmeitō (also known as CGP) has raised controversies in Japanese politics for several decades.: 232, 233 : 43 There were some charges claiming that Ikeda controlled the Komeito.: 103 In 1969 and 1970, there was a freedom of speech controversy about the intent to prevent the publication of Hirotatsu Fujiwara's polemical book, I denounce Soka Gakkai, that vehemently criticized Ikeda, Soka Gakkai and the Komeito.: 148 : 112 : 96 In his 3 May 1970 speech, addressing, among others, Soka Gakkai members, guests and news media, Ikeda responded to the controversy by: apologizing to the nation "for the trouble...the incident caused," affirming the Soka Gakkai's commitment to free speech and religious freedom, announcing a new policy of formal separation between the Soka Gakkai religious movement and Komeito, calling for both moderation in religious conversion practices and democratizing reforms in the Soka Gakkai, and envisioning a Buddhist-inspired humanism.: 97–98 : 76–77 Some authors contend that, despite the formal separation, there are still "strong links": 363 : 170 and that the Komeito has remained to some extent the "political arm" of Soka Gakkai.: 479 : 75 In 2015, addressing the "party's understudied history," political scientist Steven Reed and his co-authors write that "the image of Kōmeitō as a mere political branch of Sōka Gakkai is clearly mistaken" and that "the separation between party and religious group announced by Ikeda Daisaku in 1970 made a real difference.": 271–272
In October 1982, Ikeda had to appear in court concerning three cases.: 150 In 1996, Los Angeles Times described Ikeda as "the most powerful man in Japan - and certainly one of the most enigmatic", "condemned and praised as a devil and an angel, [...] a despot and a democrat". In 1999, The Economist reported that Ikeda has been called "the most powerful man in Japanese politics." In his assessment of these criticisms and "the changing role of the Komeito in Japanese politics in the 1990s", Daniel Métraux states that: "While it is difficult to determine his exact role, an examination of his daily itinerary would reveal that he would have very little time personally for political management and that most of the aging leader's time is devoted to religious affairs, traveling, and writing. Ikeda may well have influenced the Komeito in a macrosense, but in a microsense he is clearly not involved. The Komeito and its successes have a life of their own; they are certainly not lifeless puppets ready to react to Ikeda's or to the Soka Gakkai's every whim.": 44 Ehrhardt and co-authors attribute perpetuation of negative images of Ikeda, Komeito and the Soka Gakkai, firstly, to weekly magazines and tabloids which "tend to ignore standards of substance and veracity", with reporting that is "often biased" ; secondly, to the publications of "disgruntled former administrators and leaders of the religion or party".: 5–6 According to Morehouse College historian and professor of religion, Reverend Dr. Lawrence Carter, in 2003: "Controversy is an inevitable partner of greatness. No one who challenges the established order is free of it. Gandhi had his detractors, as did Dr. King. Dr. Ikeda is no exception.": 239
East Asian history and studies lecturer Brian Gold, in his comparative study of religious leaders Ikeda in Japan and Cho in South Korea, writes in 2005 that "answering the question of why, if so similar, Ikeda has been so much more a controversial figure in his society than Cho, when in fact Ikeda has probably been a more moderating influence", "tells us more about modern (and post-war) Japan than about Ikeda.": 19, 31 Gold writes that Ikeda and Soka Gakkai have received "seemingly endless vilification [...] from much of Japanese society over the last several decades": 24 and that "being overtly opposed to the longest-running political establishment of the post-war era, namely the LDP, has made Ikeda the constant source of attacks from the governing party", with "'smear campaigns' [...] generated by tabloid media with close connections to the LDP.": 29 When "the electoral math clearly pointed toward cooperation" between the LDP and Komeito in the late-1990s, the LDP newspaper Jiyū Shimpō printed an official apology and the LDP's press official Yosano Kaoru "apologized for having gone too far in criticizing Ikeda and declared that the research for the articles had been 'improper' (futekisetsu).": 228
Ikeda and the Soka Gakkai members had been excommunicated by Nichiren Shōshū on 28 November 1991. National University of the Arts doctoral fellow Mariano Gancedo wrote that the break with the clergy marked a greater role for Ikeda as spiritual teacher.: 202 In a scholarly historical comparison to the Protestant Reformation, a key conflict between "priestly and pragmatic forms of religion" has been to "adapt or fail" in response to "great change" in society, and in this area Ikeda is credited with democratic and other structurally modernizing reforms that both appealed favorably within the SGI membership organizations and expanded its institutional programs in the areas of peace, culture and education.: 82, 84, 85, 89, 93 : 130, 131
Ikeda's leadership "globalized the Soka Gakkai and harnessed its energy to goals that suited new generations in different cultures" and subsequently developed the SGI into a broad-based grassroots peace movement around the world. Ikeda is credited with having fostered among SGI members an ethos of social responsibility and a strong spirit of global citizenship. According to Levi McLaughlin, Associate Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies, "Ikeda last appeared in a broadcast to members in May 2010. Thereafter, his apotheosis into unquestioned authority was confirmed by his followers." Ann Mette Fisker-Nelsen cites "the global outlook of Ikeda's Buddhist humanism" as a challenge to gender stereotyping and manifested in the Soka Gakkai Buddhist community "as something not confined to priestly rituals nor to patriarchal cultural mores but in acting with existential awareness of a mutual connection between self and other, and the proclamation of the significance of understanding the interconnection between inner state and outer social structures.": 4
Ikeda's thoughts and work on a "Buddhist-based humanism" are situated within a broader tradition of east–west dialogue in search of humanistic ideals. In his biography of historian Arnold J. Toynbee, William McNeill describes the aim of the Toynbee-Ikeda dialogues as a "convergence of East and West," the significance of which would be realized by the "flourishing in the Western world" of the Soka Gakkai organization. Whether a "new religious movement" becomes "a legitimate 'new religion' in the global religious system" is "a question of how both those involved in it and those who observe it from the outside understand that movement," according to sociologist of religion Peter Beyer.: 275, 277
As of 2010, more than 40 research institutes and initiatives affiliated with universities, including Shanghai Sanda University and DePaul University, formally study Ikeda's philosophy.: 12  Bilingual-bicultural education specialist Jason Goulah's research into transformative world language learning characterizes Ikeda's Buddhist-inspired refinement of Makiguchi's Soka education philosophy as an approach engendering a "world view of dialogic resistance" that responds to the limitations of a neoliberal world view of education. In their introduction to education and cosmopolitanism in Asia, editors Fazal Rizvi and Suzanne S. Choo cite Goulah's work and write that in Ikeda's Soka educational philosophy, "cosmopolitan ideals emerged in opposition to authoritarian state policies that served to entrench narrow-minded nationalism." In a study of 30 of Ikeda's philosophical dialogues, Augusta University associate professor Nai-Cheng Kuo asserts that "Ikeda's humanism has made profound global impacts on education and human lives.": 90
Ikeda's relationship with his mentor, Jōsei Toda, and influence of Tsunesaburō Makiguchi's educational philosophy, shaped his emphasis on dialogue and education as fundamental to building trust between people and peace in society. This world view is informed by his belief that Buddhism essentially offers a spiritual dimension "where faith and human dignity intersect to promote positive change in society.": 296 He interprets the Middle Way as a path between idealism and materialism, an orientation that places "public interest, practical policy, morality and ethics at the forefront so that people can find prosperity and happiness....": 6 His emphasis on linking individual agency and empowerment with society's attainment of peace and happiness, most notably made in his multi-volume The New Human Revolution, revolves around and gives expression to the Buddhist view of life's inherent dignity.
Ikeda's use of the term ōbutsu myōgō in his 1964 book Seiji shūkyō (Politics and Religion) has been interpreted to mean "politics by people, with mercy and altruism as a Buddhist philosophy, different from the union of politics and religion (seikyo icchi).": 4 The term is also used by Ikeda in the Komeito's founding statement. In the 1969 edition of Seiji shūkyō , "he declared that obutsu myogo would not be an act of Soka Gakkai imposing its will on the Japanese state to install Nichiren Shoshu Buddhism as the national creed," and that "Soka Gakkai, through Komeito, would instead guide Japan to a new, democratic world order, a 'Buddhist democracy' (buppo minshu shugi) combining the Dharma with the best of the Euro-American philosophical tradition to focus on social welfare and humanistic socialism.": 73 Another interpretation of his views at that time was that "Buddhist democracy" could be achieved by a "religious revolution" through kōsen-rufu on the premise of achieving "social prosperity in accordance with individual happiness" for the entire society.: 233, 232 In 1970, after Ikeda announced the severing of official ties between the Soka Gakkai and Komeito, the use of "politically charged terms such as obutsu myogo" was eliminated.: 15 Since the 1970s, an understanding of the term kōsen-rufu took into account religious tolerance, which was made explicit in 1995 in the SGI Charter and, in the 2000s, interpreted by Ikeda to mean the movement based on the philosophy and teachings of Nichiren that conveys the principles of individual happiness and peace as accessible to all.: 6–7 He is credited with recasting "the idea of kosen-rufu to mean the broad dissemination of, rather than the conversion of the world to, Nichiren Buddhism.": 75
In a 2008 interview, he said : "The ideal of Mahayana Buddhism is the realization of happiness for oneself and for others. Nowhere is this more completely set out than in the Lotus Sutra, which recognizes the Buddha-nature in all people—women and men, those with formal education and those without. It declares that all people, without regard to their class, origin, personal, cultural, or social background, can attain enlightenment. Our recitation of the title of the Lotus Sutra is a way of renewing our vow to live in accord with this ideal."
Ikeda refers in several writings to the Nine Consciousness as an important conception for self-transformation, identifying the ninth one, "amala-vijñāna", with the Buddha-nature. According to him, the "transformation of the karma of one individual" can lead to the transformation of the entire society and humankind.
Central to Ikeda's activities, whether they be on an institutional level or as a private citizen, is his belief in "Buddhist principles ... rooted in our shared humanity, ... where faith and human dignity intersect to promote positive change in society.": 296 His view of a "Buddhist-based humanism," the fostering of mutual respect and dignity, emphasizes human agency in the engagement of dialogue.: 4, 6
Further information: Soka School System
Ikeda has founded a number of institutions to promote education in all its forms, cultural exchange and the exchange of ideas on peacebuilding through dialogue. They include: Soka University in Tokyo, Japan, and Soka University of America in Aliso Viejo, California; Soka kindergarten, primary and secondary schools in Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Brazil and Singapore; the Victor Hugo House of Literature, in the Île-de-France region of France; the International Committee of Artists for Peace in the United States; the Min-On Concert Association in Japan; the Tokyo Fuji Art Museum in Japan; the Institute of Oriental Philosophy in Japan with offices in France, Hong Hong, India, Russia and the United Kingdom; the Toda Peace Institute in Japan and the United States; and the Ikeda Center for Peace, Learning, and Dialogue in the United States.
From 1990, Ikeda partnered with Rabbi Abraham Cooper and the Simon Wiesenthal Center to address anti-Semitic stereotypes in Japan. In a 2001 interview, Rabbi Cooper recalled: "The only partners we found to help us bring our concerns to the Japanese public were people from Soka University under the leadership of Daisaku Ikeda. If you ask me who our best friend in Japan is, who 'gets it,' it is Ikeda. He was actually our first visitor to the Museum of Tolerance." Their friendship led to the joint development of a Japanese-language Holocaust exhibition The Courage to Remember, which was seen by more than two million people in Japan between 1994 and 2007. In 2015, a new version of the exhibit opened in Tokyo focusing on the bravery of Anne Frank and Chiune Sugihara.: 178–181 
Ikeda was an original proponent of the Earth Charter Initiative, co-founded by Mikhail Gorbachev, and Ikeda has included details of the Charter in many of his annual peace proposals since 1997. The SGI has supported the Earth Charter with production of global exhibitions including Seeds of Change in 2002 that traveled to 27 nations and Seeds of Hope in 2010, correlating with the Earth Charter-related documentary film, A Quiet Revolution, which the SGI has donated to schools and educational programs around the world.
Since 26 January 1983, Ikeda has submitted annual peace proposals to the United Nations, addressing such areas as building a culture of peace, gender equality in education, empowerment of women, youth empowerment and activism for peace, UN reform and universal human rights with a view on global civilization. In presenting a Buddhist view, he draws parallels with peace and human rights struggles throughout history and discusses the civilizational influences of international relations, political science, philosophy, literature and social theory.: 248 He also draws on what Gabriel Marcel terms a "spirit of abstraction", what Tsunesaburo Makiguchi terms "humanitarian competition" and the Buddhist concept of the inseparability of life and its environment (Jp. esho funi) to articulate his "ethics of peace, cooperation and social justice in the context of the natural environment.": 2–3 A recurrent argument in these proposals is that "humans achieve their best potentials not in isolation, but as relating and interacting members of society.": 298
Ikeda's proposals for nuclear disarmament and abolishing nuclear weapons submitted to the special session of the UN General Assembly in 1978, 1982 and 1988 built on his mentor Josei Toda's 1957 declaration condemning such weapons of mass destruction as "an absolute evil that threatens the people's right of existence." Calling for human security and sustainability in his 2012 peace proposal, he advocated for a transition away from nuclear-powered energy. In his 2015 peace proposal, he called on the international community for concerted multilateral action—"shared action"—for protecting human rights of displaced persons including refugees and migrants, ridding the world of nuclear weapons and constructing a global sustainable society. In his 2019 peace proposal, he advocated for multilateral support toward the entry into force of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons(TPNW), renewed efforts based on Article 6 of the Non-Proliferation Treaty to de-escalate tensions, and an international framework to ban lethal autonomous weapons (LAWs). In his 2020 peace proposal, "Towards Our Shared Future: Constructing an Era of Human Solidarity", Ikeda urges nations to collaborate to confront issues like natural disasters and climate change. In his 2021 peace proposal, Ikeda welcomed the entry into force of the TPNW and called for the "deterrent force" not of nuclear weapons but of "joint action and solidarity ... brought to bear against" the critical impacts of climate change and the COVID-19 pandemic. In his 2022 peace proposal, he addresses climate justice, inclusive education and nuclear disarmament, and calls for a shift away from nuclear-dependent security strategies.
In a public statement addressed to the 2022 NPT Review Conference, Ikeda issued an "emergency proposal" calling on the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France and China to shift from "existing deterrence policies" and "declare their commitment to the principle of No First Use at the earliest possible date." He cites the role of NFU policy pledges in averting an escalation in the China-India border clashes of June 2020.
Ikeda's work has been described by academics as citizen diplomacy for his contributions to diplomatic as well as intercultural ties between Japan and other countries, and more broadly between peoples of the world.: 126  Ikeda's dialogues with scholars, politicians, and cultural figures have increased awareness and support of humanitarian and peace activities, have facilitated deeper international relationships, and generated support for SGI-sponsored work on global issues including the environment and nuclear disarmament.
Academic researchers have suggested the body of literature chronicling Ikeda's diplomatic efforts and his more than 7,000 international dialogues provide readers with a personalized global education and model of citizen diplomacy and, from a scholarly view, represent "a new current in interculturalism and educational philosophy."
First in 1967 then several times in 1970, Ikeda met with Austrian-Japanese politician and philosopher Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi, founder of the Paneuropean Movement. Their discussions which focused on east–west relations and the future of peace work were serialized in the Sankei Shimbun newspaper in 1971. Between 1971 and 1974, Ikeda conducted multiple dialogues with Arnold J. Toynbee in London and Tokyo. The major topics of their meetings were published as the book Choose Life. In 1974, Ikeda conducted a dialogue with French novelist and Minister of Cultural Affairs Andre Malraux.
In September 1974, Ikeda visited the Soviet Union and met with Premier Alexei Kosygin. During their dialogue, Kosygin agreed with Ikeda, saying "We must abandon the very idea of war. It is meaningless. If we stop preparing for war and prepare instead for peace, we can produce food instead of armaments." He then asked Ikeda, "What is your basic ideology?" Ikeda replied, "I believe in peace, culture and education – the underlying basis of which is humanism." Kosygin said, "I have a high regard for those values. We need to realize them here in the Soviet Union as well."
In January 1975, Ikeda met with Henry Kissinger, then United States Secretary of State, to "urge the de-escalation of nuclear tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union." The same month Ikeda met with Secretary-General of the United Nations Kurt Waldheim. Ikeda presented Waldheim with a petition containing the signatures of 10,000,000 people calling for total nuclear abolition. The petition was organized by youth groups of the Soka Gakkai International and was inspired by Ikeda's longtime anti-nuclear efforts.: 250
Ikeda's meetings with Nelson Mandela in the 1990s led to a series of SGI-sponsored anti-apartheid lectures, a traveling exhibit, and multiple student exchange programs at the university level. Their October 1990 meeting in Tokyo led to collaboration with the African National Congress and the United Nations Apartheid Center on an anti-apartheid exhibit inaugurated in Yokohama, Japan "on the 15th anniversary of the Soweto uprisings (16 June 1976).": 9
In 1991, he converted the Château des Roches, in Bièvres, into the Victor Hugo Literary House (Fr. la Maison littéraire de Victor Hugo) "for meetings and dialogues in the fields of literature and the arts, by promoting cultural exchanges."
The series of dialogues that began in 2002 between fourth Indonesian President Abdurrahman Wahid (also known as Gus Dur) and Ikeda puts forth their views that conveying the values of tolerance, peace and human rights should be central to the role of religion and belief systems. Their exchanges continued until Wahid's death in 2009 and were published in English as The Wisdom of Tolerance: A Philosophy of Generosity and Peace. "The two world leaders invite all religions and beliefs to work together towards one goal, namely peace," said The Wahid Institute's executive director Ahmad Suaedy at the book's launch in Jakarta.
Dialogues between Ikeda and Gorbachev, published in 2005 as Moral Lessons of the Twentieth Century, have been described as "perhaps the best starting point from which to examine the search for a new historicity" of the twentieth century and inform the basis of a new humanism in the twenty-first century.: 212 Ikeda's message to Ravenna on the occasion of celebrating the poet Dante Alighieri was described as an expression of spiritual resonance with the poet's life and world view, and as a contribution to intercultural dialogue that affirms the value of peaceful coexistence.
Ikeda made several visits to China and met with Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1974, though Sino-Japanese tensions remained over the brutalities of war waged by the Japanese militarists. The visits led to the establishment of cultural exchanges of art, dance and music between China and Japan and opened academic exchanges between Chinese educational institutions and Soka University. Chinese media describe Ikeda as an early proponent of normalizing diplomatic relations between China and Japan in the 1970s, citing his 1968 proposal that drew condemnation by some and the interest of others including Zhou Enlai. It was said that Zhou Enlai entrusted Ikeda with ensuring that "Sino-Japanese friendship would continue for generations to come."
Since 1975, cultural exchanges have continued between the Min-On Concert Association, founded by Ikeda, and institutions including the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries. After Ikeda's 1984 visit to China and meetings with public figures including Chinese Communist Party Leader Hu Yaobang and Deng Yingchao, observers estimated that Ikeda's 1968 proposal moved Japanese public sentiment to support closer diplomatic ties with China and his cultivation of educational and cultural ties helped strengthen state relations.
During a Turin Book Fair-hosted event concluding the 2018 five-day FIRMA-Faiths in Tune festival of religion, music and art, held in 2018 for the first time in Italy, an international jury presented a FIRMA award to Daisaku Ikeda "for his lifelong commitment to interreligious dialogue." Other international awards received by Ikeda include:
In 1999, the Martin Luther King Jr. Chapel at Atlanta, Georgia-based Morehouse College established the Gandhi, King, Ikeda Institute for Ethics and Reconciliation as one of its programs to foster peace, nonviolence and reconciliation. In 2001, the Institute inaugurated the traveling exhibition Gandhi, King, Ikeda: A Legacy of Building Peace, to illustrate parallels in twentieth-century peace activism through the examples of Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., and Daisaku Ikeda; and the Gandhi, King, Ikeda Community Builders Prize, to recognize individuals whose actions for peace transcend cultural, national and philosophical boundaries. In 2015, the Community Builders Prize went to Islamic scholar Fethullah Gülen.
In 2000, the city of Londrina, Brazil honored Ikeda by naming a 300-acre nature reserve in his name. The Dr. Daisaku Ikeda Ecological Park is open to the public and its land, waterways, fauna and wildlife are protected by Brazil's Federal Conservation Law.
In 2014, the City of Chicago named a section of Wabash Avenue in downtown Chicago "Daisaku Ikeda Way", with the Chicago City Council measure passing unanimously, 49 to 0.
The United States House of Representatives and individual states including Georgia, Missouri, and Illinois have passed resolutions honoring the service and dedication of Daisaku Ikeda as one "who has dedicated his entire life to building peace and promoting human rights through education and cultural exchange with deep conviction in the shared humanity of our entire global family." The state of Missouri praised Ikeda and his value of "education and culture as the prerequisites for the creation of true peace in which the dignity and fundamental rights of all people are respected."
The Club of Rome named Ikeda an honorary member, and, as of 2020, Ikeda has received more than 760 honorary citizenships from cities and municipalities around the world.: 12 : 90
At the International Day for Poets of Peace in February 2016, an initiative launched by the Mohammed bin Rashid World Peace Award, Daisaku Ikeda from Japan along with Kholoud Al Mulla from the UAE, K. Satchidanandan from India and Farouq Gouda from Egypt were named International Poets of Peace. In presenting the honors, Shaikh Nahyan bin Mubarak Al Nahyan described the initiative as reinforcing "the idea that poetry, and literature in general, are a universal language that plays an important role in spreading the message of peace in the world," echoing the sentiments of Dr Hamad Al Shaikh Al Shaibani, chair of the World Peace Award's board of trustees, who cited the role of poets in "promoting a culture of hope and solidarity."
In November 2010, citing his peacebuilding efforts and promotion of cultural exchange and humanist education, the University of Massachusetts Boston bestowed an honorary doctorate upon Ikeda, marking the 300th such title conferred by higher learning institutions in more than 50 countries, which Ikeda accepted, he said, on behalf of SGI members and in recognition of their contributions to peace, culture and education. He received his first honorary doctorate in 1975 from Moscow State University and, as of August 2020, some 395 such academic honors.
|Number||Country||Institution||Title conferred||Place and date|
|1||USSR||Moscow State University||honorary doctorate||May 1975|
|2||Peru||National University of San Marcos||honorary professorship||April 1981|
|3||Bulgaria||Sofia University||honorary doctorate||May 1981|
|4||China||Peking University||honorary professorship||June 1984: 53|
|5||China||Fudan University||honorary professorship||June 1984|
|6||Dominican Republic||Autonomous University of Santo Domingo||honorary professorship||February 1987|
|7||Argentina||University of Buenos Aires||honorary doctorate||March 1990|
|8||Mexico||University of Guanajuato||honorary doctorate||March 1990|
|9||China||Wuhan University||honorary professorship||November 1990|
|10||Macau||University of Macau||honorary professorship||January 1991|
|11||Philippines||University of the Philippines||honorary doctor of laws||April 1991: 20|
|12||Argentina||University of Palermo (Buenos Aires)||honorary doctorate||May 1991|
|13||Hong Kong||Chinese University of Hong Kong||distinguished visiting professor||January 1992|
|14||Turkey||Ankara University||honorary doctorate of social science||June 1992|
|15||China||Chinese Academy of Social Sciences||honorary research professor||October 1992|
|16||Kenya||University of Nairobi||honorary doctorate of letters||December 1992|
|17||Brazil||Federal University of Rio de Janeiro||honorary doctorate||February 1993|
|18||Argentina||National University of Lomas de Zamora||honorary doctorate||February 1993|
|19||Argentina||National University of Lomas de Zamora||honorary professorship, faculty of law||February 1993|
|20||Argentina||National University of Córdoba||honorary professorship||February 1993|
|21||Paraguay||National University of Asunción||honorary doctorate of philosophy||February 1993|
|22||Brazil||University of São Paulo||honorary visiting professor[dubious ]||February 1993|
|23||Brazil||Federal University of Paraná||honorary doctorate||March 1993|
|24||Bolivia||Del Valle University||honorary doctorate||March 1993|
|25||China||Shenzhen University||honorary professorship||November 1993|
|26||China||Xinjian Uygur Autonomous Region Museum||honorary professorship||January 1994|
|27||Russia||International University in Moscow||honorary doctorate||May 1994|
|28||Italy||University of Bologna||honorary doctorate||June 1994|
|29||United Kingdom||University of Glasgow||honorary doctorate||June 1994|
|30||China||Xinjiang University||honorary professorship||August 1994|
|31||China||Xiamen University||honorary professorship||November 1994|
|32||South Africa||University of the North||honorary doctorate of education||September 1995|
|33||Nepal||Tribhuvan University||honorary doctorate of letters||November 1995|
|34||Macau||University of Macau||honorary doctorate of social sciences||November 1995|
|35||Hong Kong||University of Hong Kong||honorary doctorate of letters||March 1996|
|36||China||Xinjiang University||honorary president||April 1996|
|37||United States||University of Denver||honorary doctorate of education||June 1996|
|38||Cuba||University of Havana||honorary doctorate of letters||June 1996|
|39||Ghana||University of Ghana||honorary doctorate of law||August 1996|
|40||Russia||Far Eastern State University||honorary doctorate of international education||November 1996|
|41||China||Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) University||honorary professorship||November 1996|
|42||China||Jilin University||honorary professorship||February 1997|
|43||Philippines||De La Salle University||honorary doctorate of humane letters (international education)||March 1997|
|44||Sri Lanka||University of Kelaniya||honorary doctorate of letters||May 1997|
|45||China||Shanghai University||honorary professorship||May 1997|
|46||China||Inner Mongolia University||honorary professorship||October 1997|
|47||Mongolia||National University of Mongolia||honorary doctorate of humanities||November 1997|
|48||Philippines||University of the City of Manila||honorary doctorate of humanities||February 1998|
|49||Argentina||Universidad de Morón||honorary doctorate||March 1998|
|50||Russia||Institute for High Energy Physics||honorary doctorate||April 1998|
|51||Brazil||Rio de Janeiro State University||honorary doctorate||April 1998|
|52||Republic of Korea||Kyung Hee University||honorary doctorate of philosophy||May 1998|
|53||Republic of Korea||Chung Cheong College||honorary professorship||July 1998|
|54||Peru||Ricardo Palma University||honorary doctorate||July 1998|
|55||Peru||Association of Doctors of Education||honorary doctorate||July 1998|
|56||China||Yanbian University||honorary professorship||November 1998|
|57||China||Nankai University||honorary professorship||November 1998|
|58||Brazil||Northern Paraná University||honorary doctorate||November 1998|
|59||India||University of Delhi||honorary doctorate of letters||December 1998|
|60||Argentina||University of Flores||honorary doctorate||January 1999|
|61||China||Sichuan University||honorary professorship||April 1999|
|62||Peru||Federico Villarreal National University||honorary doctorate||April 1999|
|63||Republic of Korea||Cheju National University||honorary doctorate of Korean language and literature||May 1999|
|64||Bolivia||University of Santa Cruz de la Sierra||honorary doctorate||June 1999|
|65||China||Northeastern University||honorary professorship||July 1999|
|66||Kyrgyzstan||Institute of Oriental Languages and Cultures, Kyrgyz State Pedagogical University||honorary professorship||August 1999|
|67||Peru||National University of Central Peru||honorary doctorate||September 1999|
|68||China||Hunan Normal University||honorary professorship||September 1999|
|69||Argentina||National University of Lomas de Zamora||honorary professorship, faculty of social sciences||October 1999|
|70||Argentina||National University of Comahue||honorary doctorate||October 1999|
|71||China||Nanjing University||honorary professorship||December 1999|
|72||Russia||St. Petersburg State University||honorary doctorate||January 2000|
|73||United States||University of Delaware||honorary doctorate of humane letters||Tokyo, 16 January 2000|
|74||United States||Queens College, City University of New York||honorary doctorate of humane letters||January 2000: 20|
|75||Guam (United States)||University of Guam||honorary doctorate of humane letters||January 2000|
|76||Philippines||Angeles University Foundation||honorary doctorate of humanities||February 2000|
|77||China||Central University for Nationalities||honorary professorship||February 2000|
|78||China||Guangdong University of Foreign Studies||honorary professorship||February 2000|
|79||Argentina||National University of Nordeste||honorary doctorate||February 2000|
|80||China||Northeast Normal University||honorary doctorate||March 2000|
|81||Sakha Republic (Russia)||Yakutsk State University||honorary professorship||March 2000|
|82||El Salvador||Latin American Technical University||honorary doctorate||April 2000|
|83||China||Inner Mongolia Art Academy||preeminent honorary professor||April 2000|
|84||India||Sri Sitaramdas Omkarnath Institute of Sanskrit Learning||honorary doctorate (Mahamahopadhyaya)||April 2000|
|85||Mongolia||Mongolian Institute of Literature and Social Work||honorary rector||May 2000|
|86||China||Beijing Administrative College||honorary professorship||May 2000|
|87||China||Yunnan University||honorary professorship||June 2000|
|88||China||South China Normal University||honorary professorship||August 2000|
|89||India||Bundelkhand University||honorary doctorate of letters||August 2000|
|90||Venezuela||University of Zulia||honorary doctorate||September 2000|
|91||Panama||University of Panama||honorary doctorate||September 2000|
|92||India||Bundelkhand University||honorary lifetime professor in the Ambedhar School of Social Sciences||October 2000|
|93||Thailand||Siam University||honorary doctorate of public administration||November 2000|
|94||Tonga||Tonga Institute of Education and Tong Tonga Institute of Schinece and Technology||honorary professorship of education||November 2000|
|95||Australia||University of Sydney||honorary doctorate of letters||24 November 2000|
|96||Malaysia||Putra University, Malaysia||honorary doctorate of letters||November 2000|
|97||Hong Kong||Chinese University of Hong Kong||honorary doctorate of social science||7 December 2000|
|98||Mongolia||Mongolian University of Arts and Culture||honorary doctorate||December 2000|
|99||India||Purvanchal University||honorary doctorate of letters||January 2001|
|100||China||Guangdong Province Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professorship||February 2001|
|101||China||Northwest University||honorary professorship||April 2001|
|102||China||Anhui University||honorary professorship||April 2001|
|103||Puerto Rico||Carlos Albizu University||honorary doctorate of humane letters in behavioral sciences||May 2001|
|104||Mongolia||Kharakhorum University||honorary doctorate||May 2001|
|105||China||Fujian Normal University||honorary professorship||June 2001|
|106||China||Huaqiao University||honorary professorship||June 2001|
|107||China||Jinan University||honorary professorship||July 2001|
|108||Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (United States)||Northern Marianas College||honorary professorship||July 2001|
|109||China||Soochow University||honorary professorship||October 2001|
|110||China||Liaoning Normal University||honorary professor||October 2001|
|111||Philippines||University of Southern Philippines Foundation||honorary doctorate of humanities||October 2001|
|112||China||Guangzhou University||honorary professorship||November 2001|
|113||Republic of Korea||Kyongju University||honorary professorship||December 2001|
|114||Republic of Korea||Changwon National University||honorary doctorate of education||December 2001|
|115||Kazakhstan||International Kazakh-Turkish University||honorary professorship||December 2001|
|116||Dominican Republic||Santiago Technical University||honorary doctorate||February 2002|
|117||Uzbekistan||National Institute of Arts and Design (Uzbekistan)||honorary professorship||February 2002|
|118||China||Liaoning Academy of Social Sciences||senior research professor||March 2002|
|119||Philippines||Gregorio Araneta University Foundation||honorary doctorate of humanities||March 2002|
|120||Cambodia||Royal University of Phnom Penh||honorary professorship||March 2002|
|121||China||Liaoning University||honorary professorship||April 2002|
|122||United States||Morehouse College||honorary doctorate of humane letters||April 2002|
|123||China||Qingdao University||honorary professorship||April 2002|
|124||India||Chhatrapati Shahu Ji Maharaj University||honorary doctorate of letters||April 2002|
|125||Kenya||Kenyatta University||honorary doctorate of humane letters||May 2002|
|126||China||Heilongjiang Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professorship||May 2002|
|127||Russia||Moscow State University||honorary professorship||June 2002|
|128||China||Nanjing Normal University||honorary professorship||June 2002|
|129||Republic of Korea||Sorabol College||honorary professorship||June 2002|
|130||India||Himachal Pradesh University||honorary doctorate of literature||August 2002|
|131||China||Renmin University of China||honorary professorship||September 2002|
|132||China||University of Science and Technology of China||honorary professorship||October 2002|
|133||China||Zhejiang University||honorary professorship||November 2002|
|134||Mongolia||Shihihutung Law School||honorary doctorate||November 2002|
|135||Ukraine||Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (KNUTE)||honorary doctorate||November 2002|
|136||Republic of Korea||Dong-A University||honorary doctorate of philosophy||December 2002|
|137||China||Shanghai International Studies University||honorary professorship||December 2002|
|138||China||Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professorship||December 2002|
|139||India||Bharathidasan University||honorary doctorate of literature||January 2003|
|140||Peru||National University of Piura||honorary doctorate||February 2003|
|141||Taiwan||Chinese Culture University||honorary doctorate of philosophy||March 2003|
|142||China||Dalian University of Foreign Languages||honorary professorship||April 2003|
|143||Paraguay||Columbia University of Paraguay||honorary doctorate of sociology||April 2003|
|144||Peru||Jorge Basadre Grohmann National University||honorary doctorate||September 2003|
|145||China||Northwest Normal University||honorary professorship||October 2003|
|146||Republic of Korea||Gwangju Women's University||honorary professorship||October 2003|
|147||China||Shanghai Jiao Tong University||honorary professorship||October 2003|
|148||United States||Chapman University||honorary doctorate of humane letters||December 2003|
|149||China||Zhaoqing University||honorary professorship||December 2003|
|150||Sakha Republic (Russia)||Arctic State Institute of Culture and Arts||honorary professorship||January 2004|
|151||India||Rabindra Bharati University||honorary doctorate of literature||February 2004|
|152||United States||Mineral Area College||honorary professorship of humanities||February 2004|
|153||China||National Prosecutors College||honorary professorship||March 2004|
|154||Taiwan||National Pingtung University||honorary doctorate of agricultural sciences||March 2004|
|155||Republic of Buryatia (Russia)||Buryat State University||honorary professorship||April 2004|
|156||Brazil||Londrina State University||honorary doctorate||April 2004|
|157||Bolivia||University of San Francisco Xavier of Chuquisaca||honorary doctorate||May 2004|
|158||China||China University of Petroleum||honorary professorship||May 2004|
|159||Philippines||Capitol University||honorary doctorate of humanities||June 2004|
|160||China||Sanda University||honorary professorship||June 2004|
|161||Jordan||University of Jordan||honorary doctorate of humane letters||July 2004|
|162||Mexico||University of Guadalajara||honorary doctorate||September 2004|
|163||China||Fujian Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professorship||September 2004|
|164||China||Changchun University||honorary professorship||October 2004|
|165||China||Qufu Normal University||honorary professorship||October 2004|
|166||Kyrgyzstan||Osh State University||honorary professorship||November 2004|
|167||Republic of Korea||Paekche Institute of the Arts||honorary professorship||November 2004|
|168||Mongolia||Otgontenger University||honorary doctorate||December 2004|
|169||Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (United States)||Northern Marianas College||honorary president||January 2005|
|170||Peru||Enrique Guzman y Valle National University of Education||honorary doctorate||January 2005|
|171||Belarus||Minsk State Linguistic University||honorary professorship||February 2005|
|172||Philippines||Batangas State University||honorary doctorate of pedagogy||March 2005|
|173||China||Shanghai University of Finance and Economics||professor emeritus of humanities||April 2005|
|174||Paraguay||National University of Itapua||honorary doctorate||April 2005|
|175||China||Beijing Language and Culture University||honorary professorship||May 2005|
|176||Brazil||Cornélio Procópio College of Philosophy, Science, and Letters||honorary doctorate||May 2005|
|177||China||Huazhong Normal University||honorary professorship||June 2005|
|178||China||Guangxi Normal University||honorary professorship||July 2005|
|179||Mongolia||Mongolian Academy of Sciences Institute of Philosophy, Sociology and Law||honorary professorship, philosophy||September 2005|
|180||Vietnam||Vietnam National University, Hanoi||honorary doctorate||September 2005|
|181||China||East China University of Science and Technology||honorary professorship||October 2005|
|182||Serbia and Montenegro||Braca Karic University||honorary doctorate||October 2005|
|183||Russia||Academy of Security, Defense, and Law Enforcement||honorary professorship||December 2005|
|184||India||Symbiosis International Educational Centre (Deemed University)||honorary doctorate of literature||December 2005|
|185||Russia||Ural State University||honorary doctorate||January 2006|
|186||Laos||National University of Laos||honorary professorship of humanities||February 2006|
|187||Philippines||Pampanga Agricultural College||honorary doctorate of humanities||March 2006|
|188||China||Hunan University||honorary professorship||April 2006|
|189||Ukraine||National Technical University of Ukraine ("KPI")||honorary doctorate||April 2006|
|190||China||East China Normal University||honorary professorship||May 2006|
|191||China||Nanjing Arts Institute||honorary professorship||May 2006|
|192||India||Visva-Bharati||honorary doctorate of literature||May 2006|
|193||China||Southwest University of Political Science and Law||honorary professor||June 2006|
|194||United States||Southern Illinois University Carbondale||honorary doctorate of humane letters||June 2006|
|195||United States||Los Angeles Southwest College||honorary professorship||June 2006|
|196||China||Shaoguan University||honorary professorship||June 2006|
|197||Republic of Korea||Dong Shin University||honorary doctorate of public administration||June 2006|
|198||Thailand||Maejo University||honorary doctorate of administration||July 2006|
|199||Brazil||Catholic College of Economic Science of Bahia||honorary doctorate||September 2006|
|200||China||Beijing Normal University||honorary professorship||October 2006|
|201||Philippines||University of Rizal System||honorary doctorate of humanities||24 November 2006|
|202||China||Dalian University of Technology||honorary professorship||8 December 2006|
|203||Republic of Korea||Dongju College||honorary professorship||6 February 2007|
|204||China||Guizhou University||honorary professor||26 February 2007|
|205||Russia||Baikal National University of Economics and Law||honorary professorship||13 March 2007|
|206||Venezuela||Rafael Belloso Chacin University||honorary doctorate||20 March 2007|
|207||Venezuela||Santa María University||honorary doctorate of law||20 March 2007|
|208||Italy||University of Palermo||honorary doctorate in communication sciences||23 March 2007|
|209||Brazil||Brazilian Academy of Philosophy||honorary doctorate||2 April 2007|
|210||United States||University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee||honorary doctorate of humane letters||17 April 2007|
|211||China||Harbin Engineering University||honorary professorship||18 April 2007|
|212||Brazil||Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul||honorary doctorate||29 April 2007|
|213||China||Tianjin Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professor||5 May 2007|
|214||Taiwan||Southern Taiwan University of Technology||honorary doctorate of engineering||28 May 2007|
|215||Russia||Russian State University for the Humanities||honorary doctorate||31 May 2007|
|216||Peru||National University of Santa (La Universidad Nacional del Santa)||honorary doctorate||23 June 2007|
|217||Sakha Republic (Russia)||The Yakut State Agricultural Academy||honorary professorship||4 July 2007|
|218||Russia||Far Eastern State Technical University||honorary professorship||9 July 2007|
|219||Philippines||University of Southeastern Philippines||honorary doctorate of education||13 September 2007|
|220||China||Shaanxi Normal University||honorary professor||6 October 2007 |
|221||Mexico||University of Humanistic Integration||honorary doctorate of human sciences||8 October 2007|
|222||Brazil||Ingá University (UNINGÁ)||honorary professorship||10 October 2007|
|223||China||China Youth University for Political Sciences||honorary professorship||21 October 2007|
|224||Mongolia||Mongolian State University of Education||honorary doctorate||24 October 2007|
|225||China||Wenzhou Medical College||honorary professor||30 January 2008|
|226||China||Shanghai Normal University||honorary professorship||17 December 2007|
|227||Dominican Republic||Autonomous University of Santo Domingo||honorary doctorate||19 January 2008|
|228||Taiwan||National Yunlin University of Science and Technology||honorary doctorate of management||21 January 2008|
|229||Philippines||Laguna State Polytechnic University||honorary doctorate of philosophy in humanities||26 January 2008|
|230||China||Hunan University of Science and Technology||honorary professorship||1 March 2008|
|231||Kyrgyz Republic||I. Arabaev Kyrgyz State University||honorary doctorate||21 March 2008|
|232||China||Jiaying University||honorary professorship||31 March 2008|
|233||Russia||Tula Lev Tolstoy State Pedagogical University||honorary professorship||2 April 2008|
|234||China||Hebei University||honorary professor||16 April 2008|
|235||China||Yan'an University||honorary professorship||4 May 2008|
|236||China||Liaodong University||lifetime honorary professor||30 May 2008|
|237||China||Changchun University of Technology||honorary professor||2 June 2008|
|238||Brazil||Centro Universitário de Goiás||honorary doctorate||17 June 2008|
|239||Brazil||Centro Universitário Ítalo Brasileiro||honorary doctorate||20 June 2008|
|240||Philippines||Benguet State University||honorary doctorate of humanities||10 July 2008|
|241||Taiwan||Chongyou Institute of Technology||honorary professor||22 July 2008|
|242||Taiwan||Tainan University of Technology||honorary professor||24 July 2008|
|243||Philippines||Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry||hon doc of education in ancient learning, culture and world peace||Sep 2008|
|244||Philippines||Universidad de Manila||hon doc of humanities||Oct 2008|
|245||Mongolia||Mongolian University of Science and Technology||honorary doctor||Oct 2008|
|246||China||Dalian University||hon prof||Dec 2008|
|247||Uzbekistan||Uzbekistan State Institute of Arts||hon prof||Jan 2009|
|248||Malaysia||Open University Malaysia||hon doc of arts (humanities)||Feb 2009|
|249||Santa Cruz, Bolivia||University of Aquino-Bolivia (Udabol)||hon doc||Mar 2009|
|250||Denmark||University College South||honorary doctorate||21 March 2009|
|251||Republic of Korea||Korea Maritime University||University Professor||2 April 2009|
|252||Kyrgyzstan||Issyk-Kul State University||hon prof||Apr 2009|
|253||China||Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University||honorary professor||17 April 2009|
|254||China||Henan Normal University||honorary professor||April 2009|
|255||Northern Ireland, UK||Queen's University Belfast||hon doc of laws||May 2009|
|256||China||Xinjiang University of Finance and Economics||honorary professor||May 2009|
|257||Philippines||Southern Luzon State University||hon doc of humanities||Jun 2009|
|258||Brazil||Federal University of Rondônia||hon doc||Jul 2009|
|259||Republic of Korea||Hongik University||hon doc of literature||Sep 2009|
|260||Macau, China||Asia International Open University (Macau)||honorary doctorate of philosophy||Sep 2009|
|261||Brazil||Maranhão School of Government||honorary professorship||Sep 2009|
|262||Brazil||Silva e Souza Integrated College||honorary doctorate of architecture and urban engineering||Sep 2009|
|263||Indonesia||Universitas Indonesia||Honorary Doctorate in Philosophy and Peace||Soka University, 10 October 2009|
|264||China||Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering||hon prof||Oct 2009|
|265||China||Dalian Polytechnic University||honorary professorship||Oct 2009|
|266||Sakha Republic, Russia||Yakutsk Teacher-training College No.1||hon prof||Oct 2009|
|267||China||Southwest Jiaotong University||honorary professor||Nov 2009|
|268||China||Xi'an University of Technology||honorary professor||Nov 2009|
|269||China||Ningxia University||lifetime honorary professor||Nov 2009|
|270||Taiwan||Yu Da University||honorary professor||Dec 2009|
|271||Mexico||Enrique Díaz de León University||hon doc||Dec 2009|
|272||China||Xi'an Peihua University||honorary professor||Dec 2009|
|273||Guam, US||Guam Community College||honorary professor||January 2010|
|274||China||Anhui University of Science and Technology||honorary professor||January 2010|
|275||Uzbekistan||Institute of Fine Arts, Uzbeki Academy of Sciences||hon doc||Feb 2010|
|276||China||Xi'an International University||honorary professor||Feb 2010|
|277||China||Guangdong University of Business Studies||honorary professor||Mar 2010|
|278||Aragua, Venezuela||Bicentennial University of Aragua||hon doc of education||Mar 2010|
|279||Aragua, Venezuela||Bicentennial University of Aragua||hon prof||Mar 2010|
|280||China||Xi'an Jiaotong University||honorary professor||Mar 2010|
|281||Philippines||Ramon Magsaysay Technological University||centennial hon prof||Mar 2010|
|282||Armenia||Yerevan State Academy of Fine Arts and Artists||honorary doctorate||Japan, 2 April 2010|
|283||Sichuan, China||Sichuan Academy of Social Sciences||honorary professor||Apr 2010|
|284||Xinjiang, China||Xinjiang Medical University||honorary professor||Apr 2010|
|285||Guangxi, China||Guangxi Arts Institute||lifetime honorary professor||Apr 2010|
|286||Zhejiang, China||Shaoxing University||honorary professor||Apr 2010|
|287||Canada||Université Laval||honorary doctorate of education||4 May 2010|
|288||Beijing, China||Tsinghua University||honorary professor||May 2010|
|289||Beijing, China||Beijing City University||honorary professor||May 2010|
|290||Zhejiang, China||Ningbo University||honorary professor||June 2010|
|291||Zhejiang, China||Zhejiang Ocean University||honorary professor||June 2010|
|292||Virginia, US||George Mason University||hon doc of humane letters||July 2010|
|293||New Taipei, Taiwan||National Taiwan University of Arts||honorary professor||July 2010|
|294||Kaohsiung, Taiwan||National University of Kaohsiung||honorary professor||July 2010|
|295||Malaysia||University of Malaya||honorary doctorate of humanities||2 August 2010|
|296||Osh, Kyrgyzstan||Osh Humanitarian Pedagogical Institute||hon prof||August 2010|
|297||Osh, Kyrgyzstan||Osh Agricultural Institute||hon prof||August 2010|
|298||Chile||Universidad Pedro de Valdivia||honorary doctorate||Soka University, 30 August 2010|
|299||Philippines||University of Southern Mindanao||honorary doctorate of humanities||9 October 2010|
|300||United States||University of Massachusetts Boston||honorary degree||Shinjuku, Tokyo, 18 November 2010|
|301||Amazonas, Brazil||Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Amazonas||hon doc||November 2010|
|302||Liaoning, China||Dalian Maritime University||honorary professor||December 2010|
|303||São_Paulo, Brazil||São Paulo Metropolitan University||hon prof||December 2010|
|304||Mato Grosso, Brazil||Federal University of Mato Grosso||hon doc||December 2010|
|305||Yunlin County, Taiwan||National Huwei University of Science and Technology||honorary doctor of engineering||December 2010|
|306||South Chungcheong, Republic of Korea||Konyang University||hon doc of business administration||December 2010|
|307||Macau||Macao Polytechnic Institute||honorary professor||January 2011|
|308||Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan||Kyrgyz-Russian Academy of Education||hon prof||March 2011|
|309||Taipa, Macau||Macau University of Science and Technology||honorary professor||May 2011|
|310||Hainan, China||Hainan Normal University||honorary professor||May 2011|
|311||North Chungcheong, Republic of Korea||Chungju National University||hon doc of business administration||July 2011|
|312||Pangasinan, Philippines||Pangasinan State University||hon doc of humanities||July 2011|
|313||Busan, Republic of Korea||Pukyong National University||hon doc of international and area studies||September 2011|
|314||Lusaka, Zambia||University of Zambia||honorary doctor of laws||September 2011|
|315||Nueva Ecija, Philippines||Central Luzon State University||hon lifetime prof||October 2011|
|316||Jiangxi, China||Jinggangshan University||honorary professor||October 2011|
|317||UK||University of Buckingham||Honorary Doctorate of Literature||25 October 2011|
|318||Xiamen, Fujian, China||Jimei University||Honorary Professor||9 November 2011|
|319||Moscow, Russia||Russian State University of Trade and Economics||hon doc||November 2011|
|320||Tashkent, Uzbekistan||Termez State University||hon prof||December 2011|
|321||Beijing, China||Central University of Finance and Economics||honorary professor||January 2012|
|322||Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan||Bishkek Humanities University||hon doc||March 2012|
|323||Bataan, Philippines||Bataan Peninsula State University||honorary doctor||March 2012|
|324||Santa Cruz, Bolivia||Private Technological University of Santa Cruz (Utepsa)||hon doc||March 2012|
|325||Taipei, Taiwan||Taipei College of Maritime Technology||honorary professor||April 2012|
|326||Lima, Peru||Technological University of Peru||hon doc||May 2012|
|327||Lima, Peru||Technological University of Peru||professor emeritus, Faculty of Law, Political Science and International Relations||May 2012|
|328||Guizhou, China||Guizhou Normal University||honorary professor||May 2012|
|329||Taipei, Taiwan||National Taiwan Normal University, College of Fine Arts||honorary professor||June 2012|
|330||Liaoning, China||Bohai University||honorary professor||June 2012|
|331||Ontario, Canada||University of Guelph||hon doc of laws||September 2012|
|332||Paraná, Brazil||Dom Bosco College of Higher Education||hon doc||September 2012|
|333||Almaty, Kazakhstan||Al-Farabi Kazakh National University||hon prof||October 2012|
|334||Táchira, Venezuela||National Experimental University of Táchira||hon doc||28 November 2012|
|335||Pando, Bolivia||La Universidad Amazónica de Pando (Amazonian University of Pando)||honorary doctorate||February 2013|
|336||Osh, Kyrgyzstan||Kyrgyz-Chinese Humanitarian Economic Institute||hon prof||February 2013|
|337||Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines||Nueva Vizcaya State University||hon doc of humanities||March 2013|
|338||South Africa||University of KwaZulu-Natal||Doctor of Social Science honoris causa||Apr 2013|
|339||Bangkok, Thailand||Thammasat University||hon doc of philosophy||August 2013|
|340||Armenia||Yerevan State University||honorary doctor||September 2013|
|341||Aklan, Philippines||Aklan State University||hon doc of humanities||October 2013|
|342||Liaoning, China||Dalian Art College||honorary professor||October 2013|
|343||Peru||Universidad Peruana de las Americas/Peruvian University of the Americas||hon doc||November 2013|
|344||Ulan Bator, Mongolia||University of the Humanities||hon doc of humanities||November 2013|
|345||Moscow, Russia||Pushkin State Russian Language Institute||hon doc||November 2013|
|346||Córdoba, Argentina||National University of Villa María||honorary professor extraordinaire||February 2014|
|347||Jharkhand, India||Satyendra Narayan Sinha Institute of Business Management||hon prof||March 2014|
|348||Isabel, Philippines||Isabela State University||hon doc of humanities||April 2014|
|349||Tianjin, China||Tianjin Foreign Studies University||honorary professor||May 2014|
|350||Lima, Peru||National University of Engineering||hon doc||May 2014|
|351||Heilongjiang, China||Harbin Normal University||honorary professor||July 2014|
|352||Sakha Republic, Russia||Yakutsk Teacher-training College||hon prof||September 2014|
|353||Manila, The Philippines||University of the East||hon doc of humanities||September 2014|
|354||China||Nanjing University of Science and Technology||honorary professorship||October 2014|
|355||Russia||People's Friendship University of Russia||honorary doctorate||November 2014|
|356||Kyrgyzstan||Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University||honorary doctorate||February 2015|
|357||India||Madurai Institute of Social Sciences||honorary professor, Social Sciences||April 2015|
|358||South Korea (Republic of Korea)||University of North Korean Studies||honorary chair professor||May 2015|
|359||China||Foshan University||honorary professor||May 2015|
|360||Bolivia||Autonomous University of Beni (Universidad Autónoma del Beni)||honorary doctorate||June 2015|
|361||Brazil||Castelo Branco University||honorary doctorate||June 2015|
|362||South Korea (Republic of Korea)||Kyungnam University||honorary doctorate of philosophy in education||September 2015|
|363||Taiwan (Republic of China)||Chienkuo Technology University||honorary lifetime professor||November 2015|
|364||India||Jagran Lakecity University||honorary doctorate of humane letters||November 2015|
|365||Bhopal, India||Barkatullah University||honorary doctorate of letters||January 2016|
|366||Kyrgyzstan||Uzgen Institute of Technology and Education, Osh Technological University (Uzgen)||honorary doctorate||March 2016|
|367||Argentina||National University of Tucumán||honorary doctorate||August 2016|
|368||United States||DePaul University||honorary doctorate of Humane Letters||December 2016|
|369||Brazil||Universidade Federal do Acre||"honoris causa"||March 2017|
|370||China||Hunan University of Technology||honorary professor||22 June 2017|
|371||Peru||National University of San Marcos||honorary doctorate||21 August 2017|
|372||Brazil||Valença College of Higher Education (Centro de Ensino Superior de Valença)||honorary doctorate||24 August 2017|
|373||Paraguay||Nihon Gakko University||honorary doctorate of education||10 October 2017|
|374||China||Hubei University||honorary professor||9 November 2017|
|375||Spain||University of Alcalá||honorary doctorate of education||25 January 2018|
|376||Argentina||University of Cuenca del Plata||honorary doctorate||24 February 2018/17 November 2017|
|377||Taiwan (Republic of China)||Chihlee University of Technology||honorary professor||1 March 2018|
|378||Brazil||Integrated College of Jacarepaguá||honorary professor||3 March 2018|
|379||Argentina||National University of Tierra del Fuego||honorary doctorate||18 April 2018|
|380||Brazil||Federal University of Paraíba||honorary doctorate||13 June 2018|
|381||Philippines||Cagayan State University||honorary doctorate of humane letters||7 Feb 2018: 20|
|382||Taiwan (China)||Chung Hua University||honorary professor||30 July 2018|
|383||China||Beijing Film Academy||honorary professor||23 October 2018|
|384||China||Huaiyin Normal University||honorary professor||29 October 2018|
|385||Argentina||University of Este||honorary doctorate||31 October 2018|
|386||Venezuela||Central University of Venezuela||honorary doctorate||11 June 2019|
|387||Brazil||Federal University of Sergipe||honorary doctorate||August 2019|
|388||Brazil||Federal University of Amazonas||honorary doctorate||21 August 2019|
|389||Brazil||Federal Rural University of Pernambuco||honorary doctorate||23 August 2019|
|390||Argentina||National University of Jujuy (UNJu)||honorary professor in the Faculty of Humanities||15 September 2019 |
|391||India||Manav Rachna University||honorary doctorate in philosophy||23 September 2019|
|392||Uzbekistan||National University of Uzbekistan||honorary doctorate||8 November 2019|
|393||China||Changchun Normal University||honorary professor||7 November 2019|
|394||India||Jaipur National University||honorary doctorate||21 November 2019|
|395||India||Xavier University, Bhubaneswar, Xavier School of Sustainability||honorary doctorate||22 November 2019|
|396||The Philippines||Central Mindanao University||honorary doctorate||27 February 2020|
|397||Brazil||Federal University of Piauí||honorary doctorate of philosophy||17 November 2020|
|398||Brazil||Federal University of Pernambuco||honorary doctorate||4 December 2021|
|399||India||Birsa Agricultural University||honorary professorship||21 April 2022|
|400||Republic of Korea||Chungbuk National University||honorary doctor of education||28 April 2022|
|401||USA||University of Minnesota||honorary doctor of humane letters||14 May 2022|
|402||India||Maharaja Surajmal Brij University||honorary doctor of humane letters||April 2023|
|403||Argentina||National University of Misiones||honorary doctor with special mention of merit||June 2023|
|404||Argentina||University of Salta||honorary doctor||June 2023|
|405||Heibei, China||Hebei Foreign Studies University||lifetime honorary professor||July 2023|
Ikeda lives in Tokyo with his wife, Kaneko Ikeda (née Kaneko Shiraki), whom he married on 3 May 1952. The couple had three sons, Hiromasa (vice president of Soka Gakkai), Shirohisa (died 1984), and Takahiro.
Ikeda is a prolific writer, peace activist, and interpreter of Nichiren Buddhism.: 67 His interests in photography, art, philosophy, poetry and music are reflected in his published works. In his essay collections and dialogues with political, cultural, and educational figures he discusses, among other topics: the transformative value of religion, the universal sanctity of life, social responsibility, and sustainable progress and development.
The 1976 publication of Choose Life: A Dialogue (in Japanese, Nijusseiki e no taiga) is the published record of dialogues and correspondences that began in 1971 between Ikeda and British historian Arnold J. Toynbee about the "convergence of East and West" on contemporary as well as perennial topics ranging from the human condition to the role of religion and the future of human civilization. Toynbee's 12-volume A Study of History had been translated into Japanese, which along with his lecture tours and periodical articles about social, moral and religious issues gained him popularity in Japan. However, Toynbee being "paid well" for the interviews with Ikeda raised criticism, and questioning arose about an attempt to use Toynbee's reputation. To an expat's letter critical of Toynbee's association with Ikeda and Soka Gakkai, Toynbee wrote back: "I agree with Soka Gakkai on religion as the most important thing in human life, and on opposition to militarism and war." To another letter critical of Ikeda, Toynbee responded: "Mr. Ikeda's personality is strong and dynamic and such characters are often controversial. My own feeling for Mr. Ikeda is one of great respect and sympathy." As of 2012, the book had been translated and published in twenty-six languages.
In their 1984 book Before It Is Too Late, Ikeda and Aurelio Peccei discuss the human link in the ecological consequences of industrialization, calling for a reform in understanding human agency to effect harmonious relationships both between humans and with nature. They see a pivotal role in environmental education and a broadly curricular emphasis on developing global-scale thinking and a more humane society. On the basis of Ikeda's view of unity and Peccei's view of ecological interdependence, their dialogue attests to a convergence between European ecological, pacifist and humanitarian movements and Eastern religious thought. The book is credited as summarizing Peccei's insights into the multifaceted challenges of post-WWII global society.
In Life—An Enigma, a Precious Jewel (1982), Unlocking the Mysteries of Birth and Death (1984) and the environmental education proposal "The Challenge of Global Empowerment" (2002), Ikeda's discussions of a Buddhist ontology offer an alternative to anthropocentric and biocentric approaches to wildlife conservation.
Ikeda's children's stories are "widely read and acclaimed," according to The Hindu, which reported that an anime series of 14 of the stories was to be shown on the National Geographic Channel. In the Philippines, DVD sets of 17 of the animated stories called Animazing Tales were donated by Anak TV to a large school, as part of a nationwide literacy effort. "Hope and perseverance in times of difficulty" describes the theme that runs through such stories as The Cherry Tree and The Snow Country Prince.
In 2003, Japan's largest English-language newspaper, The Japan Times, began carrying Ikeda's contributed commentaries on global issues including peacebuilding, nuclear disarmament, and compassion. By 2015, The Japan Times had published 26 of them, 15 of which the newspaper also published in a bilingual Japanese-English book titled Embracing the Future.
The sixteen conversations between Lou Marinoff and Ikeda in their book The Inner Philosopher (2012) introduce classic Eastern and Western philosophers in making the case that philosophy can be personally accessible and broadly applicable to daily life, and that "philosophy and psychology both can provide a source of robust optimism." A reviewer of the Italian edition, Qualunque fiore tu sia sboccerai, states that the two authors agree on a fundamental point: that the meaning and realization of oneself and one's existence are not found outside of oneself but, rather, as Marinoff points out, cultivated through dialogue, through a philosophy that becomes practical."
Ikeda's most well-known publication is the novel The Human Revolution (Ningen Kakumei), which was serialized in the Soka Gakkai's daily newspaper, the Seikyo Shimbun. Its book publication in English includes a foreword by British philosopher and historian Arnold J. Toynbee and has been translated into English, Chinese, French, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Korean and Dutch editions. In the preface to The Human Revolution, the author describes the book as a "novelized biography of my mentor, Josei Toda.": vii The author's official website describes the book as an "historical novel [that] portrays the development of the Soka Gakkai in Japan, from its rebirth in the post-World War II era to the last years of its second president, Josei Toda." In the preface to the 2004 edition, the author stated the narrative was edited to bring it in line with recent developments in the history of Nichiren Buddhism, and that he hoped "such revisions will help readers to better appreciate the original message of the book.": x
Often described as a roman à clef, this autobiographical work "fosters an interpretation of Ikeda as being an exemplary disciple to his own mentor, Toda Josei," and offers "a model of the mentor-disciple relationship that is empowering" and portrays "the virtues of discipleship.": 66, 70 This dramatic narrative helps readers "identify with him as someone not very different from themselves," presents "the mentor-disciple relationship as an attractive one that can enormously benefit the disciple," and "holds the promise for Gakkai members that they too can achieve greatness in the mentor-disciple relationship, which in turn helps them see the self-conception of disciple as one of strength.": 76 Chilson concludes that: "With the self-conception of a disciple, Gakkai members are more likely to strive to achieve goals articulated by their mentor, Ikeda, that transcend their own self interests, such as the expansion of the Gakkai's membership, and the promotion of culture, education, and world peace.": 76
Today, the group has a self-declared membership of 8.27 million households in Japan and more than 1.5 million adherents in 192 countries abroad under its overseas umbrella organization Soka Gakkai International, or SGI. Recent scholarship challenges theses figures and points to a figure in the neighborhood of two percent of the Japanese population.
While Ikeda has been the subject of what Gamble and Watanabe (2004) argue is libelous and unfounded derision in Japanese media, he is recipient of, among numerous other awards, the United Nations Peace Prize (1983), the Rosa Parks Humanitarian Award (1993), the Simon Wiesenthal Center International Tolerance Award (1993), and the Education as Transformation Award (2001).
(p43:) The actual role of Soka Gakkai's spiritual leader Ikeda Daisaku has been a matter of some controversy in Japanese politics for several decades. As the self-proclaimed founder and avid supporter of the Komeito, he potentially wields considerable influence in the political world. Some journalists and conservative politicians as former Komeito president Takeiri Yoshikatsu have claimed that Ikeda plays an active role in Komeito affairs.... (p44:) While it is difficult to determine his exact role, an examination of his daily itinerary would reveal that he would have very little time personally for political management and that most of the aging leader's time is devoted to religious affairs, traveling, and writing. Ikeda may well have influenced the Komeito in a macrosense, but in a microsense he is clearly not involved. The Komeito and its successes have a life of their own; they are certainly not lifeless puppets ready to react to Ikeda's or to the Soka Gakkai's every whim.
Ikeda, possibly one of the more controversial figures in Japan's modern history, is the Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde of contemporary Japanese society—how one sees him depends on one's vantage point.
(p149:)Despite this lack of formal higher education, Ikeda has been prominent in international peace forums, addressing the United Nations General Assembly and keeping a high profile in his frequent exchanges with prominent statesmen and academics. In his numerous proposals on peace and disarmament, Ikeda makes continued reference to the ideal of universal disarmament and resolution of conflict through negotiation. Ikeda has been a controversial figure in Japan [...]. His critics accuse him of far-reaching political ambitions, and the tabloid press has played up unsubstantiated reports of sexual and financial scandals. Prefiguring the split with Nichiren Shoshu in 1991, Ikeda resigned as president of Soka Gakkai in 1979, in an attempt to repair the already strained relationship with the Shoshu monks over his power and the personality cult built around him. His continuing paramount role within the group, as well as the cult surrounding his figure, is evident, however, in the treatment afforded him by the Seikyo Shimbun, Soka Gakkai's daily newspaper, where the front page is commonly devoted to reports on his activities.
The huge growth and power of the Soka Gakkai has drawn harsh criticism over the years, especially in Japan because of its aggressive proselytization in its early years, its decision to play an active role in politics, and what critics call a personality cult around leader Ikeda Daisaku. Soka Gakkai's practice of shakubuku contributed to their rapid growth but alienated many in Japanese society who decried such confrontational methods.
Although Ikeda and his successor Einosuke Akiya, have gone to great lengths to improve the movement's public image, suspicion remains.
The movement was persecuted for its opposition to the wartime government's militarism but it is now the largest religious organization in Japan. Soka Gakkai, more than almost any other movement prior to Aum, had provoked public opprobrium because of its aggressive recruitment policies and its strongly developed political base. These developments had caused concern that Soka Gakkai might threaten the post-war constitutional separation of religion and state.
(p217:) For over half a century, one of the most controversial new religions in Japan has been Soka Gakkai. Although this group has matured into a responsible member of society, its ongoing connection with reformist political activity served to keep it in the public eye. Until relatively recently, it also had a high profile as the result of sensationalist and often irresponsible media coverage. Apparently as a direct consequence of the social consensus against this religion, some scholars have felt free to pen harsh critiques of Soka Gakkai—critiques in which the goal of promoting understanding has been eclipsed by efforts to delegitimate Soka Gakkai by portraying it as deluded, wrong, and/or socially dangerous. This body of 'scholarship' presents a useful case study for the paradigmatic manner in which it exemplifies inappropriate approaches to the study of religious bodies. ... [T]he present chapter will undertake to analyze a selection of such publications, discussing the various ways in which these writings reveal more about the polemical agendas of the authors than about the phenomena they purport to examine. (p218:) After the war, Josei Toda (1900–1958) took over as president and built Soka Gakkai into a major religion. This period of rapid growth was accompanied by negative media attention. The group matured under the presidency of Daisaku Ikeda, who became the third president of the Soka Gakkai after the passing of Toda. (p219:) Throughout the latter half of the twentieth century, Soka Gakkai was attacked in Japan because of its support of political activity that challenged the ruling coalition. Exploiting the distrust of organized religion, distrust that characterized the public reaction to AUM Shinrikyo—the Japanese religious group responsible for the 1995 poison gas attack in the Tokyo subway system—the LDP (the Liberal Democratic Party, which was the dominant party in the ruling coalition) attempted to weaken its principal political rival, which Soka Gakkai supported. In particular, the LDP engaged in a campaign to portray religion in general, and Soka Gakkai in particular, as being incompatible with the principles of democracy. In 1999, however, the LDP underwent a sudden change of opinion and allied itself with the New Komeito Party, the party supported by Soka Gakkai. Unsurprisingly, the media assault on Soka Gakkai subsequently evaporated.
Ikeda quit because the Nichiren Shoshu saw him as an obvious threat to its existence. Ikeda and the Soka Gakkai had grown so big and powerful that it threatened to devour its parent. The Nichiren Shoshu priesthood felt that it was on the verge of being overwhelmed. It had to reassert its authority to make its presence felt, and Ikeda's resignation is the clear end-result of this drive.
Although Ikeda formally resigned his position as president of the Soka Gakkai in 1979, he is still revered as the movement's spiritual leader and spokesman
Every Soka Gakkai publication features of Ikeda and stories about his speeches, trips, and meetings. .... This adulation of Ikeda in the Gakkai press gives some non-member readers the impression that the Gakkai is little more than an Ikeda personality cult.
President Ikeda is very much loved – and according to a few authoritative studies, too much loved – so much so, in fact, that he risks a personality cult.
In 1991, after a long period of conflict, the Nichiren Shōshū officially excommunicated Soka Gakkai. As an independent organization, the SGI continues to grow, although its present leader, Daisaku Ikeda, and his organization have been severely criticized as a personality cult.
The founder, Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871–1944), was an educator who was arrested as a "thought criminal" in the pre-war period for rejecting the compulsory worship of the emperor and State Shinto as well as criticizing the Japanese militarist regime. He died in 1944, still imprisoned, having refused to compromise his ideals. After the war, Josei Toda (1900–1958) took over as president and built Soka Gakkai into a major religion. This period of rapid growth was accompanied by negative media attention. The group matured under the presidency of Daisaku Ikeda, who became the third president of Soka Gakkai after the passing of Toda.
The third president, Daisaku Ikeda (b. 1928), took over leadership in 1960; the founder of an affiliated political party, the Komei Party, and numerous educational and cultural bodies, he has further overseen the Soka Gakkai's international expansion.
Also, when Ikeda founded the Komeito Party in 1964, he suggested including in the Party's program the political issue of normalizing relations with China.
The chapter then delves into the party's history, detailing its origins in 1964 as an outgrowth from Sōka Gakkai, an influential Japanese lay Buddhist organization.
(p203:) ...Japan at that time under authoritarian military rule was in close cooperation with Shinto shrines and Shinto imperial ideology. ...[I]n 1942 all households were ordered to display Shinto-ofuda (amulets) to keep away evil from their houses. Soka Gakkai refused to show the ofuda at the headquarters' entrance which caused the observation of Soka Gakkai's inner circle and led to the imprisonment of 22 leaders on 6 July 1943, on the charge of an offence against state security and blasphemy. Makiguchi had called the emperor a human being. The organization was disbanded by the government. In November 1944, Makiguchi died of undernourishment; following his death, most of the imprisoned Soka Gakkai leaders, except for Toda Josei and Yajima, withdrew their Soka Gakkai membership and were released.(p215:) In 1964, Soka Gakkai launched its political party Komeito after already in 1955 independent deputies had been elected through Soka Gakkai support into both houses of parliament. (p216:)There has been unabated criticism against the alleged violation of the separation of religion and state and the alleged ambitions of SGI president (and former Soka Gakkai president) Ikeda to gain supreme political power in the country.
Over time, and especially in the aftermath of a bitter dispute between the Soka Gakkai and the main temple of the Nichiren Shoshu sect that led to a breaking of relations in 1991, the Soka Gakkai increasingly became an organization devoted to propagating the ideals of its leader, Daisaku Ikeda. The Komeito, for its part, found itself in the position of having to defend itself against charges that Ikeda controlled the party.
As a result of the fallout from this attack on free speech, Soka Gakkai and Komeito were forced to separate, and both renounced their goal of converting the population to Nichiren Buddhism. Although weakened, strong links between the two remained, and Gakkai voters continue to supporter Komeito politicians. Ikeda stepped down from leadership of the organisation in 1979 but remains its honorary president and its spiritual leader to this day. The Economist called him "the most powerful man in Japanese politics" as late as 1999.
The strong link between Soka Gakkai and Komeito (since 1998, Shin Komeito or New Komeito) however still remains and the support for candidates by the religious group continues. Such a situation is made possible because Article 20 does not deny the possibility of a religious organisation forming a political party, which is seen as an expression of religious freedom by those religious groups involved in politics
He has been called the most powerful man in Japanese politics, yet he is not even a politician. Daisaku Ikeda is the spiritual leader of the Soka Gakkai, a lay Buddhist group that can muster nearly 7m votes—a tenth of Japan's voting population (and a fifth of those who turn out in most elections). The Soka Gakkai's political arm, the New Komeito, is the second-largest opposition party in the Diet (parliament) and is notably influential in the upper house. That is a measure of Mr Ikeda's power.
footnote 37: The Komeito severed its organizational ties to SG in 1970, but has nonetheless remained the political arm of Sokka Gakkai in Japan. The party has gone through several mergers and divisions with other parties, but is presently a separate party again, known as 'New Komeito' (see Dobbelaere, Soka Gakkai, pp. 60–73).
In addition to forging coalitions with and even absorbing different conservative mini-parties, the LDP has since 1999 developed a partnership with the Komeito, the political arm of the religious group Sokagakkai with a strong base in Japanese cities.
Like other parties originating from a religious organization, Kōmeitō grew increasingly independent and turned into a self-contained, self-interested party with a distinct agenda that is not always compatible with that of Sōka Gakkai. While many aspects of the relationship between the organizations are still unclear, the image of Kōmeitō as a mere political branch of Sōka Gakkai is clearly mistaken. Concerns regarding Kōmeitō's link to religion remain, yet our findings indicate clearly that the separation between party and religious group announced by Ikeda Daisaku in 1970 made a real difference. Kōmeitō has matured into an organization that, in terms of policy and institutional behavior, has shifted both its strategies and policies in a politically rational manner. In the 1970s, Kōmeitō cooperated with opposition parties. When these attempts failed, the party responded positively to LDP approaches, leading eventually to the coalition government in 1999. Finally, as we detailed in chapter 10, none of the dire predictions about what would happen if Kōmeitō ever gained power have come to pass. First, Kōmeitō in power has not proven a threat to democracy. ... Second, Kōmeitō in power has not threatened other religious groups or tried to get special privileges for Sōka Gakkai relative to other religious groups. Indeed, Kōmeitō has acted to protect the interests of religious groups in general. ... A major motivation for producing this volume was our conviction that Kōmeitō is one of the most understudied aspects of Japanese politics.
October 1982 was an especially bad month for Soka Gakkai leader Ikeda Daisaku, who appeared in court three times to deny having affairs with Komeito Dietmembers, to testify the Yamazaki blackmail case, and to acknowledge that Soka Gakkai members had wiretapped the house of JCP leader Miyamoto Kenji.
Ikeda's use of ōbutsu myōgō in Komeito's founding statement reaffirmed Toda's goal, and members continued to be inspired by this millenarian aim as they worked for Komeito campaigns.
During his long tenure, Ikeda has reshaped Soka Gakkai into a more moderate and avowedly humanistic Buddhist movement through a process that seems to have been largely trial and error. From the start, he continued to emphasize the importance of shakubuku, although he gradually modified both the tone and techniques of proselytization. He recast the idea of kosen-rufu to mean the broad dissemination of, rather than the conversion of the world to, Nichiren Buddhism. During this time, Ikeda also transformed Soka Gakkai from a domestic new religion, a term generally used to refer to postwar religious movements in Japan, into a worldwide movement with national organizations on every continent.
(p4:) Over the past several years I have sought in these proposals to shed light on the outlines of a Buddhist-based humanism. (p6:) There are, I believe, three crucial aspects to the practice and norms of a humanism that is rooted in Buddhism: (1) A gradualist approach; (2) An emphasis on dialogue; and (3) A focus on personal character or integrity as a pivotal value. This is something I have stressed for years and which I addressed in a January 1993 speech at Claremont McKenna College in the United States.
To summarize these proposals to the United Nations, Ikeda strongly advocated for 'relatedness,' that humanity must maintain constant relationships. His position is that humans achieve their best potentials not in isolation, but as relating and interacting members of society.
For thirty-one years as a global citizen diplomat, Ikeda has instructed the United Nations, which he calls the 'parliament of humanity,' through his annual peace proposals on how to build flexible frameworks for world governnance allowing different cultures to cooperate, creating starting points toward inclusive nonviolent global civilization.
However, his meetings with Count Coudenhove-Kalergi that took place in 1967 and 1970 were of a different nature. These meetings covered subjects such as a comparison of the cultures of East and West and discussions on the future direction the world ought to take. This may be considered Ikeda's first full-fledged exchange of views with the international intelligentsia.
In 1972, I suggested the initiation of a youth movement to devent the sanctity of life, and its dignity. ... First, a campaign to collect signatures for petitions seeking the abolition of nuclear weapons and an end to war was carried out across Japan. Ten million signatures were collected; ten million people announced their wish for peace and a nuclear-free world. In 1975, I passed these petitions to Kurt Waldheim, then secretary-general of the United Nations.
En 1991, Daisaku Ikeda fait de ce château, qui se situe à Bièvres (91), « La Maison Littéraire de Victor Hugo », dans l'intention de rendre hommage au rayonnement universel et humaniste de cet auteur illustre. La Maison Littéraire de Victor Hugo se veut ainsi un lieu de rencontres et de dialogues, dans les domaines de la littérature et des arts, en promouvant les échanges culturels.
At that time, Premier Zhou met with the great scholar and peace advocate, Mr. Daisaku Ikeda. His heart was still in pain, because of the campaign of the Japanese militarists against China, and the war between the two peoples was still fresh with the memory of enormous pain and suffering. But Premier Zhou Enlai of China received Dr. Ikeda with dignity and compassion; their conversation is of historic significance and bore great fruit. It set the stage for breaking the deadlock with the US and China, through the visit of Mr. Kissinger and President Nixon to China, and signalled the beginning of a move toward the normalization of relations.
Além do título, Doutor Honoris Causa, foi agraciado com a Medalha Dom André Arcoverde, criada com a finalidade de homenagear brasileiros e estrangeiros que prestaram relevantes serviços às causas maiores da Humanidade. [In addition to the title honoris causa, he was awarded the Dom André Arcoverde Medal, created to honor Brazilians and foreigners who provided relevant services to the greatest causes of humanity.]
The Award, comprising a letter of commendation from the Secretary-General accompanied by the United Nations Peace Medal, will be presented to Mr. Ikeda by the United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Public Information, Yasushi Akashi, in a brief ceremony at 15.00 hours at the International House of Friendship in Shibuya.
The award ceremony took place in the evening of Thursday, April 9, 2015 at the MLK Int'l Chapel Crown Nave. The recipient of this prestigious award was Mr. Fethullah Gulen due to his "interfaith and cross-cultural dialogue about science, democracy and spirituality and opposition to violence and the misuses of religion as political ideology [which] made [him] the humanizing face of Islam."
Более 200 университетов и учебных институтов присвоили ему звание почётного профессора и доктора наук, в том числе Московский государственный университет им. Это событие происходило в начале мая 1975 года.[More than 200 universities and educational institutions awarded him the title of honorary professor and doctor of science, including Moscow State University named after MV Lomonosov. This event took place in early May 1975.]
...Daisaku Ikeda, promotor de actividades globales por la paz, la cultura y la educación, quien recibió la distinción de Doctor Honoris Causa de la UNMSM, por su destacada labor en favor de la educación y la paz entre los pueblos. ...El rector Orestes Cachay Boza, quien presidió el acto protocolar, se encargó de otorgar dicha distinción, que será posteriormente entregada al flamante honoris causa, quien, además, en 1981, fue nombrado como profesor honorario de esta cuatricentenaria universidad en un evento celebrado en el campus de la emblemática Escuela Soka de Tokio, en Kodaira (Japón), durante el rectorado del doctor Gastón Pons Muzzo.
En 1981, es nombrado profesor honorario de la UNMSM y, en 1984, volvió a visitar esta universidad para hacer la mencionada donación de libros. [In 1981, he was appointed honorary professor of the UNMSM and, in 1984, he returned to visit this university to make the aforementioned donation of books.]
During his visit to Bulgaria in May 1981, President Ikeda was conferred an honorary doctorate by Sofia University.
1984年，池田先生再一次访问复旦大学，以"人才创造历史"为题做演讲，被授予复旦大学名誉教授称号。 [In 1984, Mr. Ikeda once again visited Fudan University and gave a speech titled Value Creation History and was awarded the title of Honorary Professor of Fudan University.]
Durante su visita a la República en el 1987, el doctor DaisakuIkeda recibió diferentes distinciones del país, como la Orden Heráldica de Cristóbal Colón, en el Grado de Gran Cruz; Ciudadano Distinguido y la Llave de la Ciudad de Santo Domingo; y el Profesorado Honorario de la Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo (UASD). [During his visit to the Republic in 1987, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda received different distinctions from the country, such as the Heraldic Order of Christopher Columbus, in the Grand Cross Degree; Distinguished Citizen and the Key of the City of Santo Domingo; and the Honorary Teaching Staff of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo (UASD).]
Daisaku Ikeda, quien en 1993 ya había sido galardonado por el Congreso Nacional, cuenta con casi un centenar de distinciones otorgadas por instituciones de nuestro país. Entre ellas, pueden destacarse: la Orden de Mayo al Mérito en el Grado de Gran Cruz", y los títulos de "Visitante Ilustre de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires" y "Honoris Causa de la Universidad de Buenos Aires". [Daisaku Ikeda, who in 1993 had already been awarded by the National Congress, has almost a hundred distinctions granted by institutions in our country. Among them, we can highlight: the Order of May for Merit in the Degree of Great Cross", and the titles of "Illustrious Visitor of the City of Buenos Aires" and "Honoris Causa of the University of Buenos Aires".]
De igual forma, destacó la labor del Presidente fundador de la Universidad Soka, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, a quien la UG reconoció con el grado de Doctor Honoris Causa en 1990, por sus aportaciones a la paz mundial, al entendimiento entre naciones, así como a la literatura y al arte fotográfico. [Similarly, he highlighted the work of the founding President of the Soka University, Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, whom the UG recognized with the degree of Doctor Honoris Causa in 1990, for his contributions to world peace, to understanding between nations, as well as to literature and photographic art.]
1990 年 11 月，武汉大学为池田大作颁发了名誉教授称号.... [In November 1990, Wuhan University awarded the honorary professor title to Daisaku Ikeda....]
Recognized worldwide, he has received Honorary Doctorates from the University of the Philippines (Doctor of Laws) in 1991, Doctor of Humanities from the University of Nairobi in 1992, University of Sydney and Queens College of the City of [N]ew York in 2000.
In 2003 the delegation of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics, headed by the rector A. Mazaraki, visited the Soka Gakkai and handed solemnly to Daisaku Ikeda the Diploma of "Honorary Doctor of KNUTE", university certificate "Respect decent ", and also on behalf of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine the award of "An honored worker of education in Ukraine".
El japonés fue en 2004 galardonado con el Doctorado Honoris Causa de la Universidad de Guadalajara por su labor como poeta, educador, pensador budista, filósofo, además de su incansable lucha por la paz y los derechos humanos. (In 2004, the Japanese was awarded the Honoris Causa Doctorate from the University of Guadalajara for his work as a poet, educator, Buddhist thinker, philosopher, in addition to his tireless struggle for peace and human rights.)
At the awarding ceremony, Vice President Wang said in his speech: 'In 1968, Mr. Ikeda put forward a historic proposal in order to promote the normalization of Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations. From this incident, we can see that Mr. Ikeda made a historic proposal. He is a person with outstanding vision. After the normalization of Sino-Japanese diplomatic relations, Soka University was the first to officially accept the first batch of international students from China. Since then, he has also cultivated many talents for the development of China-Japan friendship, which are well known. Today, we came to your school to confer the 188th honorary title on Mr. Ikeda....'
...the badge and the mantle of Honorary Doctor "KPI" Daisaku Ikeda - President of the International Association "Soka Gakkai International", philosopher, humanist, teacher and poet - for merits in strengthening peace, a significant contribution to world science and education sphere, development of ideas of humanism, friendship and mutual understanding between Ukraine and Japan.
On May 5th (Friday), at the Soka Alumni Association General Meeting, East China Normal University awarded the founder, Mr. Daisaku Ikeda, the title of 'Honorary Professor'. This is the founder's 190th honorary title.
Con esta ceremonia, la UNS ha investido a siete personalidades destacadas de la región y el país. La primera distinción se confirió en junio del 2007 y se dio al Dr. Daisaku Ikeda, filósofo, educador, activista por la paz, escritor, poeta y presidente fundador de la Asociacióm Soka Gakkai Internacional.
A seguidas, la señora Patricia Reyna, hija del profesor Roberto Reyna, ex-rector de la Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo, transmitió las palabras de su padre quien visitó a Ikeda en 2008, en Japón, en ocasión de entregarle el título de Doctor Honoris Causa de la institución académica. [Next, Mrs. Patricia Reyna, daughter of Professor Roberto Reyna, former rector of the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, conveyed the words of her father who visited Ikeda in 2008, in Japan, on the occasion of giving him the academic institution's title of Doctor Honoris Causa.]
为了赞扬池田先生多年来为中日友好、世界和平和青年教育作出的贡献，位于中国辽宁省丹东市的综合性大学辽东学院授予创价大学创办人池田先生"终身名誉教授"称号。[In order to commend Mr. Ikeda for his contributions to China-Japan friendship, world peace and youth education over the years, Liaodong College, a comprehensive university located in Dandong, Liaoning Province, China, awarded Mr. Ikeda, the founder of Soka University, the title of "Lifetime Honorary Professor".]
中国著名学府"长春工业大学"授予创价大学创办人池田先生"名誉教授"称号。同时，长春工业大学外国语学院也授予池田香峰子夫人"名誉教授"的称号。 [The famous Chinese university "Changchun University of Technology" awarded the title of "Honorary Professor" to Mr. Ikeda, the founder of Soka University. At the same time, the School of Foreign Languages of Changchun University of Technology also awarded Mrs. Ikeda Xiangfengzi the title of "Honorary Professor".]
Que, la candidata propuesta, es esposa del Doctor Daisaku IKEDA, Presidente de la Soka Gakkai Internacional, quien fuera designado Profesor Extraordinario Honorario de la Universidad Nacional de Villa María mediante Resolución N° 076/2013 de este Consejo Superior [That the proposed candidate is the wife of Daisaku IKEDA, President of the Soka Gakkai International, who was appointed Honorary Professor Extraordinaire from the National University of Villa María through Resolution No. 076/2013 of this Superior Council]
O Centro de Ensino Superior de Valença – CESVA/FAA conferiu, no dia 24 de Agosto, em São Paulo, o título de Doutor Honoris Causa ao Mestre Daisaku Ikeda, presidente da SGI (Soka Gakkai International), por sua contribuição a favor da educação e da paz mundial.
No início deste mês, Ikeda recebeu também o título de Doutor Honoris Causa da Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS). [Earlier this month, Ikeda also received the title of Honorary Doctor from the Federal University of Sergipe (UFS).]
A criação da Rede U.TecSocial ocorreu neste sábado (24), no Campus Dois Irmãos da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), durante a Conferência Internacional que teve como tema "Ensino Superior em prol do Bem-Estar da Humanidade". Na ocasião, a reitora da UFRPE, Maria José de Sena, outorgou o título de Doutor Honoris Causa a Daisaku Ikeda, fundador da Universidade Soka. [The creation of the U.TecSocial Network took place this Saturday (24), at Campus Dois Irmãos of the Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE), during the International Conference that had as its theme "Higher Education for the Welfare of Humanity". At the time, the UFRPE Rector, Maria José de Sena, awarded the title of Doctor Honoris causa to Daisaku Ikeda, founder of Soka University.]
MRU also bestowed Honorary Doctorate Degrees in Philosophy upon Sh. Rakeysh Om Prakash Mehra and Sh. Daisaku Ikeda (in absentia).
Manav Rachna University (MRU), a leading Indian private university, conferred an honorary doctorate to Soka Gakkai International (SGI) President Daisaku Ikeda, on Monday at New Delhi's Dr Ambedkar International Centre.
En tanto, el sábado 10 de junio, la Universidad Nacional de Salta entregó el mismo título honorífico al Dr. Ikeda, y el día 12 de junio en Córdoba, celebraron 30 años del reconocimiento otorgado al filósofo y educador. (Meanwhile, on Saturday, June 10, the National University of Salta gave the same honorary title to Dr. Ikeda, and on June 12 in Córdoba, they celebrated 30 years of recognition given to the philosopher and educator.)
Toynbee "was paid well for six days of extended interviews [...]. The Toynbee-Ikeda dialogue was the final book in Toynbee's prolific career, which meant that his career ended on a controversial note. In some ways this dialogue played into the hands of Toynbee's critics who disliked his obsession with money. Just as his reputation had suffered in the US from his obsession with accepting lucrative lecturing engagements without much concern about the quality of the institutions he was addressing, so it can be argued that he accepted the dialogue with the controversial Ikeda primarily for the money. [...] The controversial Ikeda/Soka Gakkai attempt to use Toynbee's name and reputation needs to be seen in a wider context.