This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.Find sources: "Dark ride" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (August 2007) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Kyöpelinvuoren hotelli (literally "Hotel of the Phantom Mountain"), a dark ride at the Linnanmäki amusement park in Helsinki, Finland

A dark ride or ghost train is an indoor amusement ride on which passengers aboard guided vehicles travel through specially lit scenes that typically contain animation, sound, music and special effects.[1] Appearing as early as the 19th century, such exhibits include tunnels of love, scary themes and interactive stories. Dark rides are intended to tell stories with thematic elements that immerse riders. Not only does the queue tell a story, but the story unfolds throughout the attraction.

Terminology

Symbolica is the most expensive attraction in the largest amusement park in the Netherlands, the Efteling

In its most traditional form, the term dark ride refers to ride-through attractions with scenes that use black lights, whereby visible light is prevented from entering the space, and only show elements that fluoresce under ultraviolet radiation are seen by the riders. The size of each room containing a scene or scenes is thus concealed, and the set designer can use forced perspective, Pepper's ghost and other visual tricks to create the illusion of distance. Typically, these experiences also use a series of opaque doors between scenes to further control riders' views within a space-constrained building. Prominent examples include Disneyland's Snow White's Scary Adventures, Pinocchio's Daring Journey, Peter Pan's Flight, Mr. Toad's Wild Ride and Alice in Wonderland, which all rely on the use of blacklights in almost every scene.[2]

History

The first dark rides appeared in the late 19th century and were called "scenic railways" and "pleasure railways".[3] A popular type of dark ride commonly referred to as an old mill or tunnel of love used small boats to carry riders through water-filled canals. A Trip to the Moon began operation at the 1901 Pan-American Exposition. Marvin Rempfer and Leon Cassidy of the Pretzel Amusement Ride Company patented the first single-rail electric dark ride in 1928. Historically notable dark rides include Futurama at the 1939 New York World's Fair, and Pirates of the Caribbean and The Haunted Mansion at Disneyland.

Modern attractions in this genre vary widely in technical sophistication. Smaller-scale rides often feature the same sorts of simple animation and sounds used since the genre's early days, while more ambitious projects feature complex animatronics, special effects and ride vehicles utilizing cutting-edge technology.[4]

To improve the effect and give a sense of journey, passages in dark rides frequently change direction. Sudden curves give a sense of disorientation and allow new scenes to surprise the rider. The rides may also feature sudden ascents or descents to further the excitement.

Empirical research

Although ever increasing investments are made in dark rides, empirical research in this area is relatively scarce. Based on a systematic literature review, a team of researchers from the University of Liechtenstein developed a model that illustrates the underlying effect mechanism that attendees of Dark Rides experience. The model suggests that "Storytelling" in Dark Rides influences an attendee's "emotional attachment" to the ride through the mediator of "Immersion". It is assumed that a person's prior knowledge about the ride's story and a person's cultural background have moderating effects on the relationship between "storytelling" and "immersion".[5]

Variations

Dark rides have a number of variations that are not necessarily mutually exclusive.

Ghost train

Ghost train

In the United Kingdom, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, China and Australia, dark rides with a scary theme are called ghost trains.[citation needed]

The first ride to use the name "Ghost Train" was that of Blackpool Pleasure Beach.[6] The ride was imported in 1930 and originally called The Pretzel (due to the curving shape of its track layout); but as pretzels were little-known in Britain, it was soon renamed after The Ghost Train, a play which ran for a year in London, a film adaptation of which was showing in 1931.[7] It was rebuilt in 1936 and has remained unchanged since. Blackpool Pleasure Beach is also home to Valhalla, a large indoor dark ride.

In Australia, a dark ride is named The Ghost Train at Luna Park, Melbourne,[8] and a similarly-named ride was destroyed by fire in 1979 at Luna Park Sydney.

The concept is also popular in the United States. One notable ghost train from the country is The Haunted Mansion, first opened in Disneyland in Anaheim, California, on August 9, 1969.[9]

Interactive dark ride

Interactive dark rides feature a component that allows riders to be involved in the attraction's story. The first interactive dark ride ever built is El Paso at the Belgium theme park Bobbejaanland.[10][11]

The vast majority of interactive dark rides are shooting dark rides,[12] which require riders to aim and shoot at targets throughout the ride using handheld or vehicle-mounted light guns. Successfully shooting a target usually triggers special animation, such as flashing lights or moving the target. The more targets riders hit, the higher their scores at the end of the ride. The use of light guns varies between rides, from killing aliens on Men in Black: Alien Attack at Universal Studios Florida to calling turkeys on Gobbler Getaway at Holiday World & Splashin' Safari.[13][14] The ride systems of conventional dark rides can be easily converted into shooting dark rides. Such conversions include Duel: The Haunted House Strikes Back! at Alton Towers and Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin at Disney's Magic Kingdom. The latter uses facilities that previously housed If You Had Wings, Delta Dreamflight, and Take Flight. A recent dark ride, Wonder Mountain's Guardian at Canada's Wonderland, has the world's longest interactive screen at over 500 feet (150 m).

Among non-shooting interactive dark rides, Etnaland's[15] award-winning[16] Haunted School[17] is described by Park World magazine as "one of the most idiosyncratic dark rides". It is themed to a school exam, with riders individually answering multiple-choice questions throughout it. Riders are graded on their responses, and each receives a school report at the end of the ride.[12] While technically a coaster, the Gekion Live coaster at Joypolis had elements of a dark ride. It used to have a shooting element, only for it to be refurbished with a dance element (tapping buttons on the restraints) later.

Trackless dark ride

Mystic Manor at Hong Kong Disneyland

The Walt Disney Company is the first to develop a trackless ride system for its dark ride attractions. This technological breakthrough has kept its guests consistently visiting to experience the one-of-a-kind technology. Trackless dark rides utilize automated guided vehicles that do not require guide rails, and thus are able to cross existing paths, reverse, and rotate. Some trackless dark rides, such as the Big Red Car Ride at Dreamworld, rely on a buried wire for navigation. Others, such as Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance at Disney's Hollywood Studios and Disneyland Park, Mystic Manor at Hong Kong Disneyland or Ratatouille: L’Aventure Totalement Toquée de Rémy at Disneyland Paris and Epcot, use Wi-Fi and RFID-based local positioning systems.[18]The system provides more versatility for the vehicles to move in randomized patterns.[19] The magnets in the attractions’ floor keep the vehicles “on track” with a guiding master computer system telling the vehicles where to go.[20] The earliest form of this technology existed in warehouses, where electric box lifts robotically moved across the floor to transport boxes. In addition, the technology has been used in autonomous vacuum robots that rely on motion sensors to freely roam the floor since 1996.[21] The trackless dark ride system as it is known today, debuted in 2000 at Tokyo Disneyland's “Pooh's Hunny Hunt” attraction– a dark ride based on Disney's 1977 hit animated feature film The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh. However, while Pooh's Hunny Hunt pioneered the trackless ride system, it was Hollywood Studio's Tower of Terror and Epcot's Universe of Energy attractions that first utilized the technology.[22]

The use of virtual reality in the development of trackless technology is often overlooked. The Disney VR Studio, founded in 1992, allowed the exploration of virtual reality technology for theme park rides. Before its role in the development of the trackless system, the VR Studio used virtual prototypes to model attractions such as California Screamin’ at Disney's California Adventure Park. Disney has used virtual simulations to allow designers to experience roller coasters before they are built and as a means of previewing complex new ride vehicles such as the free-ranging vehicles used in "Pooh's Hunny Hunt".[23] Moreover, this computer visualization is a powerful tool for transcending language barriers. Showing a virtual prototype of "Pooh's Hunny Hunt" to Japan was a cause of the implementation of the ride at Tokyo Disneyland due to its use of imaging over speech.[23]

Social Barriers

The Mummy Ride Warning Sign at Universal Studios

Some dark rides are intense for riders, as they contain vigorous themed elements such as flashing lights, black light effects, sudden drops, stoppages, or other turbulent movements that may be harmful to impaired riders. As more thrill rides are created, the number of attractions that limit riders with disabilities increases. Most commonly, guests who are prohibited from riding are those who are too overweight for the ride vehicle to safely hold the guest's weight or prevent the safety harness from locking in place. Other ride restrictions include those who do not meet a certain height requirement or are too tall to clear the attractions’ set pieces, or those who lack a certain number of arms and legs.[24]Ride requirements are created to ensure all guests’ safety throughout the ride and are posted throughout the attractions’ queue to prevent the companies’ liability if a rider is physically harmed. However, according to Title III of the Americans Disability Act it is illegal for amusement parks to discriminate against any persons with disabilities from equal enjoyment of goods of services in a public place of accommodation.[24] Therefore, companies such as The Walt Disney Company are required by law to accommodate any person with a physical disability who still meets the ride requirements. This often includes guests who use wheelchairs or crutches.

Services such as the Disability Access Service (DAS) at Disney theme parks instates equality between disabled and non-disabled riders in its theme parks and resorts, making these attractions largely accessible for its guests. Companies such as Universal Studios offer similar services such as the Attractions Assistance Pass (AAS). The DAS pass allows guests to reserve a spot in an attraction's line, select a time to board the attraction, and return at their scheduled time. This allows guests who cannot physically wait in a trackless dark ride queue to still ride without being present at the queue, but still wait the same amount of time as other abled guests. Many trackless dark ride queues are tight, enclosed spaces for guests to wind through, which are often difficult for people with wheelchairs or other amenities to navigate.

Moreover, as the trackless ride systems are complex and the vehicles run constantly, more ride breakdowns and stoppages occur. Due to the many elements of these attractions, breakdowns occur more frequently and take more time to address.[25] Hollywood Studio's Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance had more than 540 unplanned stoppages in 2022, breaking down more than any other attraction at Walt Disney World that year.[26] This can be frustrating for guests as trackless rides are some of the most popular, yet break down the most often. Trackless dark rides often have some of the longest wait times at theme parks. Wait time data from Walt Disney World in 2022 shows that Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance has an average wait time of 127 minutes at Disney's Hollywood Studios park, whereas the average wait time for other Disney World, non-trackless attractions is just 36 minutes.[27] Long wait times coupled with frequent ride stoppages can be vexing for guests, but may be well worth it to those who prefer trackless dark rides to other experiences.

Enclosed roller coaster

Main article: Enclosed roller coaster

While some roller coasters may be indoors, simply enclosing a roller coaster does not make it a dark ride. Dark coasters are roller coasters that feature heavily themed layouts, special effects (such as animated characters, fire, smoke, and sound/lighting effects), and a dark ride portion that abruptly transitions into a roller coaster-style layout with heavily banked turns, sharp turns, steep drops, and helices. Some of them include backward motion, and many have launch mechanisms rather than lifts. Examples include:

Test Track at Epcot, Journey to the Center of the Earth at Tokyo DisneySea, and Radiator Springs Racers at Disney California Adventure each use a slot car track rather than that of a roller coaster, but they provide a similar pairing of dark ride scenes with a high-speed thrill ride.

Saw – The Ride at Thorpe Park features an enclosed dark section with strobe lighting and special effects, before the car enters the outdoor section of the ride.

Other attractions incorporating dark ride elements

Particularly in Disney-built or -influenced parks, a number of attractions use traditional dark-ride features, such as animatronics and theatrical lighting, but are not "dark rides" in that patrons do not board vehicles. Examples include the walk-through dioramas in Disneyland's Sleeping Beauty Castle, and theater-based Disney attractions like Great Moments with Mr. Lincoln, The Hall of Presidents, The American Adventure and Walt Disney's Enchanted Tiki Room. Walt Disney's Carousel of Progress (and its now-closed Disneyland replacement America Sings) had four auditoriums that rotated audiences around a stationary core with show scenes.

The Tomorrowland Transit Authority PeopleMover in the Magic Kingdom at Walt Disney World and the Disneyland Railroad both include brief dark-ride scenes, but for the most part transport guests outdoors. Expedition Everest at Disney's Animal Kingdom, Matterhorn Bobsleds at Disneyland, Big Thunder Mountain Railroad and Space Mountain at several Disney parks, and Big Grizzly Mountain Runaway Mine Cars at Hong Kong Disneyland likewise include some dark-ride elements, but function primarily as indoor/outdoor roller coasters.

List of dark rides

Title Open Location Notes
Op Reis Met Bumba 2023 Plopsaland De Panne
20,000 Leagues Under the Sea: Submarine Voyage 1971−1994
2001
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo DisneySea
Adventure Thru Inner Space 1967−1985 Disneyland Replaced in 1985 by Star Tours
Alice in Wonderland 1961 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Alice in Wonderland 1958 Disneyland
Animal Crisis 2014 Quancheng Euro Park
Apiland 2000 Parc du Bocasse
Apirama 1979−1999 Meli Park 8-min. water dark ride with one drop; Transformed by new owner into Het Bos van Plop (Plopsaland)
Atlantis Adventure 2007 Europa-Park
Antarctica: Empire of the Penguin 2013 SeaWorld Orlando A first-of-its-kind motion-based trackless dark ride developed by Oceaneering International
Bermuda Triangle 1994−2010 Sea World Replaced by Storm Coaster
Big Red Car Ride 2005-2020 Dreamworld
Blå Tåget 1935 Gröna Lund Renovated 2011
Boo Blasters on Boo Hill 2010 Canada's Wonderland
Carowinds
Kings Island
Kings Dominion
Formerly a Scooby-Doo-themed ride, rebranded after the parks did not renew the licence
Bubbleworks 1990−2016 Chessington World of Adventures Water dark ride, originally Prof. Burp's Bubble Works, later called Imperial Leather Bubbleworks.
Buzz Lightyear Astro Blasters 2005
2005−2017
Disneyland
Hong Kong Disneyland
Hong Kong Disneyland version closed to make way for Ant-Man and The Wasp: Nano Battle!
Buzz Lightyear's Astro Blasters 2004 Tokyo Disneyland
Buzz Lightyear Laser Blast 2006 Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Buzz Lightyear Planet Rescue 2016 Shanghai Disneyland Park
Buzz Lightyear's Space Ranger Spin 1998 Magic Kingdom
Calico Mine Ride 1960 Knott's Berry Farm
Capitán Balas 2007 Isla Mágica
Carnaval Festival 1984 Efteling
Castillo del Terror Tivoli World
Cave Train 1961 Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk
Challenge of Mondor 2008 Enchanted Forest
Challenge of Tutankhamon 2001 Walibi Belgium
Charlie and the Chocolate Factory: The Ride 2006−2015 Alton Towers Formerly Around The World In 80 Days (1981-1993), then Toyland Tours (1994-2005). Currently closed
Chocolate Tour at Hershey's Chocolate World 1973 Hersheypark
Crush's Coaster 2007 Walt Disney Studios Park This attraction is also a roller coaster
Cueva de las Tarántulas 2006 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replacing The Old Mine 1910
Cueva del Horror Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza
The Curse at Alton Manor 1992 Alton Towers Formerly The Haunted House (1992-2003), then Duel - The Haunted House Strikes Back (2003-2023). Refurbished again in 2023 to The Curse at Alton Manor.
Curse of DarKastle 2005−2017 Busch Gardens Williamsburg
Den Flyvende Kuffert 1993 Tivoli Gardens
The Den of Lost Thieves 1998 Indiana Beach Previously opened in 1969 as the Mystery Mansion
Derren Brown's Ghost Train 2016 Thorpe Park An attraction that incorporates virtual reality headsets and motion simulation
Devil's Den 1968 Conneaut Lake Park Haunted house-style dark ride with illusions, stunts, and spooky murals. One of only five Pretzel rides still operating.
Dinolandia Tivoli World
Dinosaur 1998 Disney's Animal Kingdom
Dracula's Castle 1974 Lagoon Amusement Park Refurbished with new scenes in 2007; featured in episode 27 ("Blind Luck") of the 1987-88 television series Werewolf
Dream River 2019 Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza Formerly Río Misterioso
Droomvlucht 1993 Efteling
Dwarf City 1975 Europa-Park
El Laberinto del Minotauro 2000 Terra Mítica
El Rescate de Ulises 2001 Terra Mítica Boat ride. The longest dark ride in Europe[citation needed]
El Rio del Tiempo 1982−2007 Epcot Changed to Gran Fiesta Tour Starring The Three Caballeros
El Último Minuto 2006 Dinópolis
Elf Ride 1979 Europa-Park
Escape from Pompeii 1996 Busch Gardens Williamsburg
E.T. Adventure 1990
1991−2003
2001−2009
Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Hollywood
Universal Studios Japan
Fantasía 1999−2016 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid
Fata Morgana 1986 Efteling
Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage 2007 Disneyland Re-theming of the Submarine Voyage
Fire in the Hole 1972 Silver Dollar City The original Fire in the Hole is closing permanently at the end of 2023. A new Fire in the Hole will debut at the park in 2024.
Frozen Ever After 2016 Epcot Replaced Maelstrom
Ghost Train 1930 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Ghostwood Estate 2008 Kennywood
Gobbler Getaway 2006 Holiday World
Gran Fiesta Tour Starring The Three Caballeros 2007 Epcot Formerly El Rio del Tiempo dark ride (1982)
The Great Movie Ride 1989−2017 Disney's Hollywood Studios
The Great Pistolero Roundup 1999 Family Kingdom Amusement Park
Harry Potter and the Forbidden Journey 2010
2014
2016
Universal Islands of Adventure
Universal Studios Japan
Universal Studios Hollywood
The Haunted Mansion 1969
1971
1983
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Haunted Mansion 1973 Knoebels Amusement Park
Het Bos van Plop 1999 Plopsaland 8-minute boat dark ride with one drop, on track of former Apirama
High Dive 1994 Wakayama Marina City | Porto Europa Arrow Dynamics flume ride
I Corsari: la Vendetta del Fantasma 1992 Gardaland Opened as I Corsari in 1992, in 2018 was renovated and changed the name
If You Had Wings 1972−1989 Magic Kingdom
Indiana Jones Adventure: Temple of the Crystal Skull 2001 Tokyo DisneySea
Indiana Jones Adventure: Temple of the Forbidden Eye 1995 Disneyland
It's a Small World 1964
1966
1971
1983
1992
2008
1964 New York World's Fair
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Hong Kong Disneyland
Jocco's Mardi Gras Madness 2000−2005 Six Flags New Orleans
Journey to Atlantis 1998
2004
2007
SeaWorld Orlando
SeaWorld San Diego
Refurbished in Orlando in 2017; elevator segment in San Diego version
Jumanji - The Adventure 2022 Gardaland
Justice League: Alien Invasion 3D 2012 Warner Bros. Movie World
Justice League: Battle for Metropolis 2015
2015
2016
2017
2017
2017
Six Flags Over Texas
Six Flags St. Louis
Six Flags Great America
Six Flags Over Georgia
Six Flags Great Adventure
Six Flags Magic Mountain
Six Flags Over Texas installation replaced Adventure Theater; Six Flags St. Louis installation replaced Scooby-Doo! Ghostblasters: The Mystery of the Scary Swamp; Six Flags Great America installation replaced Southwest Amphitheater and was converted into a 2D interactive ride in the 2020s
Kärlekstunneln 1917 Gröna Lund Refurbished in 1987
Kingdom of the Dinosaurs 1987−2004 Knott's Berry Farm Replaced by Voyage to the Iron Reef
Knott's Bear-y Tales 1975−1987 Knott's Berry Farm Replaced by Kingdom of the Dinosaurs, revived in 2021 as Knott's Bear-y Tales: Return to the Fair
Kosmikar Mount Igueldo Amusement Park
Kyöpelinvuoren Hotelli 2013 Linnanmäki
La Aventura de Scooby-Doo 2005 Parque Warner Madrid
La Furia de los Dioses 1999−2010 Isla Mágica
The Little Mermaid ~ Ariel's Undersea Adventure 2011
2012
Disney California Adventure Park
Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom installation opened as "Under the Sea ~ Journey of the Little Mermaid".
Living with the Land 1982 Epcot
Looney Tunes River Ride 1991−2011
1996−2004
Warner Bros. Movie World
Warner Bros. Movie World Germany
Los Piratas 1984−1996 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by The Old Mine 1910
Madame Freudenreich Curiosités 2018 Europa-Park Replaced Universe of Energy, being a retheme of that ride
Maelstrom 1988−2014 Epcot Closed for conversion to Frozen Ever After
Magical Powder 2002 Lagunasia
The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh 1999
2003
2005
Magic Kingdom
Disneyland
Hong Kong Disneyland
Magic Kingdom installation replaced Mr. Toad's Wild Ride, Disneyland installation replaced Country Bear Jamboree
Monsters, Inc. Mike & Sulley to the Rescue! 2006 Disney California Adventure Park
Monsters, Inc. Ride & Go Seek 2009 Tokyo Disneyland
Men in Black: Alien Attack 2000 Universal Studios Florida
Mickey & Minnie's Runaway Railway 2020
2022
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Disneyland
The Mine of Lost Souls 1985 Canobie Lake Park Refurbished in 1992 by the Sally Corporation
Minen 2003 Tivoli Gardens
Monster Mansion 2009 Six Flags Over Georgia Tales of the Okefenokee 1967-1980; Monster Plantation 1981-2009
Mr. Toad's Wild Ride 1955
1971−1998
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Magic Kingdom installation replaced by The Many Adventures of Winnie the Pooh
Mysterious River Monte Igueldo Amusement Park
Mystic Manor 2013 Hong Kong Disneyland
Mystic Motel 2013 Ladera Ranch Notable for being homemade, Mystic Motel contains a small walkthrough section as well as the 60-ft ride
The Old Mine 1910 1997−2004 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by Cueva de las Tarántulas
Peter Pan's Flight 1955
1971
1983
1992
2016
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Shanghai Disneyland Park
Phantasmagoria 1973−2007 Bell's Amusement Park Was one of the largest and longest haunted amusements in the country with a two-story track and 27 tricks and surprises, ride was demolished June 19, 2007 when Bell's Amusement Park was permanently closed
Phantom Fantasia 1983−2000 Thorpe Park Later Wicked Witches Haunt; closed in 2000 by fire.
Phantom Manor 1992 Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Phantom Theater 1972−2002 Kings Island Replaced with Scooby-Doo's Haunted Mansion and later with Boo Blasters on Boo Hill
Piccolo Mondo 1982 Europa-Park Before 2011 refurbishment was called Ciao Bambini
Pinocchio Tivoli World
Pinocchio's Daring Journey 1983
1983
1992
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Pirates in Batavia 1987−2018 Europa-Park Boat ride with one big drop
Pirates Cove 1972 Waldameer Park
Pirates of the Caribbean 1967
1973
1983
1992
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Pooh's Hunny Hunt 2000 Tokyo Disneyland
Popcorn Revenge 2019 Walibi Belgium
Puppet Boat Ride 1992 Europa-Park
Ratatouille: L'Aventure Totalement Toquée de Rémy 2014
2020
Walt Disney Studios Park
Epcot
Reese's Xtreme Cup Challenge 2006-2018 Hersheypark
Río Misterioso 1978-2018 Parque de Atracciones de Zaragoza Reopened as Dream River
River Caves 1905 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Rock 'n' Roller Coaster Starring Aerosmith 1999
2002—2019
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Walt Disney Studios Park

This attraction is also a roller coaster. This attraction also existed at Walt Disney Studios Park, in Paris. The roller coaster closed for the construction of the new Marvel theme area Avengers Campus
Roger Rabbit's Car Toon Spin 1994
1996
Disneyland
Tokyo Disneyland
Scooby-Doo's Haunted Mansion 2000−2009
2001−2009
2002−2018
2003−2014
2004−2009
2005−2009
Canada's Wonderland*
Carowinds*
Six Flags Fiesta Texas***
Six Flags St. Louis**
Kings Island*
Kings Dominion*
* indicates replaced by Boo Blasters on Boo Hill
** indicates replaced by Justice League: Battle for Metropolis
*** indicates replaced by Pirates of the Deep Sea
Shootout at the Flooded Mine 1968 Silver Dollar City
Sinbad's Storybook Voyage 2001 Tokyo DisneySea
Snow White's Scary Adventures 1955
1971−2012
1983
1992
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Disneyland Park (Disneyland Paris)
Magic Kingdom installation replaced by Princess Fairytale Hall
Snowflake Sleigh Ride 1998 Europa-Park
Spaceship Earth (Epcot) 1982 Epcot
Spectacolo 2005 Wiener Prater Free-fall dark ride
Splash Mountain 1989-2023
1992-2023
1992
Disneyland
Magic Kingdom
Tokyo Disneyland
Star Wars: Rise of the Resistance 2019
2020
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Disneyland
Submarine Voyage 1959−1998 Disneyland Reopened as Finding Nemo Submarine Voyage in 2007
The Swiss Chocolate Adventure[28] 2014 Swiss Museum of Transport (Verkehrshaus), Lucerne Covers an area of 700 square metres (7,500 sq ft)
Symbolica 2017 Efteling Dark ride about Efteling's mascot, Pardoes; system delivered by Dutch company ETF, developed from cancelled project Hartenhof
Terroride 1967 Lagoon Amusement Park Refurbished with all-new scenes and updated animatronics in 2017. Temporarily renamed Terroride: A Classic Reimagined for its 50th season operating.
Timber Mountain Log Ride 1969 Knott's Berry Farm
Tomb Blaster 2002 Chessington World of Adventures Formerly Terror Tomb, refurbished in 2002 with new scenes and laser-gun game system; replaced The 5th Dimension in 1994
Toy Story Midway Mania! 2008
2008
2012
Disney California Adventure Park
Disney's Hollywood Studios
Tokyo DisneySea
Transformers: The Ride 3D 2011
2012
2013
2021
Universal Studios Singapore
Universal Studios Hollywood
Universal Studios Florida
Universal Studios Beijing
TV's Family Favourites 1995−1998 Crinkley Bottom at Cricket St Thomas
The Twilight Zone Tower of Terror 1994 Disney's Hollywood Studios
Universe of Energy 1994−2017 Europa-Park Rethemed as Madame Freudenreich Curiosités
Valhalla 2000 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
Viaje al Centro de la Tierra 1970−1979 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid
Viaje en el Tiempo 2001 Dinópolis
Viaje Galáctico 1970−1986 Parque de Atracciones de Madrid Replaced by Los Piratas
Volkanu: Quest for the Golden Idol 2022 Lost Island Theme Park
Voyage to the Iron Reef 2015-2020 Knott's Berry Farm Replaced by Knott's Bear-y Tales: Return to the Fair
Wacky Factory 2010 Lake Winnepesaukah Formerly Castle
Wallace & Gromit's Thrill-O-Matic 2013 Blackpool Pleasure Beach
The Whacky Shack 1982 Joyland Amusement Park
The Whacky Shack 1970 Waldameer Park
Wild West Adventure 2000 Attractiepark Slagharen
Wonder Mountain's Guardian 2014 Canada's Wonderland

See also

References

  1. ^ "Shining a Light on Dark Rides". Entertainment Designer. February 9, 2015. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  2. ^ Acorn, S. (2010). Theme park design: Behind the scenes with an engineer. Orlando, FL: Theme Perks Press.
  3. ^ Baker, Graeme S. "Archaeology of a Dark Ride". academia.edu.
  4. ^ MacDonald, Brady (October 19, 2015). "25 best theme park dark rides in the world". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 29, 2017.
  5. ^ Langhof, J. G. & Güldenberg, S. (2019). Pirates, ghosts and customer loyalty – Reviewing the dark ride experience. Tourism Management Perspectives, 31, 398-420.
  6. ^ "Ghost train". blackpoolpleasurebeach.com.
  7. ^ "Ghost Train". ukrides.info.
  8. ^ "Ghost Train (Luna Park)". Parkz. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  9. ^ Finn, Alan (8 August 2014). "13 Facts About Disney's Haunted Mansion". Mental Floss. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Bobbejaanland - El Paso". 27 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Parkplanet". 13 January 2021.
  12. ^ a b "The School". Park World Magazine: 38. August 2013.
  13. ^ "Alien Invasion on the Gold Coast". Park World Magazine: 13. October 2012.
  14. ^ "Gobbler Getaway". Sally Corporation. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  15. ^ "Etnaland". www.etnaland.eu.
  16. ^ "European Star Award 2013". Gosetto. 20 September 2013. Retrieved 12 October 2013.
  17. ^ "The School - Etnaland Themepark". www.etnaland.eu.
  18. ^ Niles, Robert (9 August 2013). "The Imagineers behind Hong Kong Disneyland's Mystic Manor talk about their award-winning attraction, at Disney's D23". Theme Park Insider. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  19. ^ Baker, Carissa (2023-05-01). "The prevalence of storyworlds and thematic landscapes in global theme parks". Annals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights. 4 (1): 100080. doi:10.1016/j.annale.2022.100080. ISSN 2666-9579.
  20. ^ Iwerks, Leslie (2019). "The Imagineering Story". Disney+. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |url= (help)
  21. ^ ""This really sucks!" What's inside a robot vacuum cleaner?". Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  22. ^ "The Tech of the Tower of Terror". Hollywood Studios Insider. 2011-04-18. Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  23. ^ a b Mine, Mark (2003-05-22). "Towards virtual reality for the masses: 10 years of research at Disney's VR studio". Proceedings of the workshop on Virtual environments 2003. EGVE '03. New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery: 11–17. doi:10.1145/769953.769955. ISBN 978-1-58113-686-9.
  24. ^ a b "Redirecting..." heinonline.org. Retrieved 2023-11-27. ((cite web)): Cite uses generic title (help)
  25. ^ Whelan, Robbie; Passy, Jacob (2022-11-19). "Disney Parks' Ride Stoppages and Wait Times Grow as Ticket Prices Rise". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  26. ^ Mumpower, David (2023-01-31). "Which Disney Attractions Broke Down the Most in 2022?". MickeyBlog.com. Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  27. ^ "Want to Avoid Lines at Disney? New Data Reveals How to Get the Most Out of Your Next Trip to the Parks". FinanceBuzz. 2022-07-01. Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  28. ^ Mani, Mohan (13 July 2014). "Chocoholics, ahoy! Swiss Chocolate Adventure in Luzern". Newly Swissed. Archived from the original on 21 January 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2015.