The districts of Turkmenistan (Turkmen: etraplar, sing. etrap) are territorial entities below the provinces of Turkmenistan (Turkmen: welaýatlar, sing. welaýat). They may be counties, cities, or boroughs of cities. The heads of the districts (Turkmen: häkim, translated as "governor" for districts of a welaýat and "mayor" for cities or boroughs of a city) are appointed by the President of Turkmenistan (Constitution of Turkmenistan, Articles 80-81).
Regarding cities "with district status" (Turkmen: etrap hukukly), by Turkmen law, "...such cities must have population over 30,000 and be the administrative center of a province (welaýat); headed by a presidentially appointed häkim." Though this officially limits the possible number of such cities to five (the number of provinces), in reality other cities are periodically accorded the status of a district. As of 5 January 2018, 11 cities in Turkmenistan enjoyed the status of districts, including four of the five provincial (welaýat) centers. One city, the capital city of Ashgabat, enjoys the status of a province.
Two cities in Turkmenistan feature subordinate districts headed by mayors. Such districts are best rendered into English as "boroughs" to distinguish them from municipal districts without their own governments, which are also called etraplar in Turkmen (but are called микрорайоны in Russian). Ashgabat has four boroughs and Turkmenbashy has two.
See also Map of the Boroughs of Ashgabat
As of January 5, 2018, Ashgabat includes four boroughs (uly etraplar):
This number is a reduction from the previous number of boroughs.
See also Map of Districts (Etraplar) of Dashoguz Province
See also: List of cities in Turkmenistan
Under Turkmen law, some cities are granted "district status" (Turkmen: etrap hukukly), meaning they are headed by a presidentially appointed mayor (Turkmen: häkim) and control their own budgets. Cities without this status (cities "in a district", Turkmen: etrapdaky) are headed by a council (Turkmen: geňeş) chaired by an arçyn rather than a mayor. Cities in Turkmenistan with district status are:
These districts no longer exist.