|Literal meaning||winter's extreme|
(i.e. winter solstice)
|Vietnamese alphabet||đông chí|
The traditional Chinese calendar divides a year into 24 solar terms. Dōngzhì, Tōji, Dongji, Tunji (in Okinawan), or Đông chí (in Vietnamese) is the 22nd solar term, and marks the winter solstice. It begins when the Sun reaches the celestial longitude of 270° and ends when it reaches the longitude of 285°[disputed ]. It more often refers in particular to the day when the Sun is exactly at the celestial longitude of 270°. In the Gregorian calendar, it usually begins around 21 December (22 December East Asia time) and ends around 5 January.
Along with equinoxes, solstices (traditional Chinese: 至點; simplified Chinese: 至日; "extreme day") mark the middle of Traditional Chinese calendar seasons. Thus, in "冬至", the Chinese character "至" means "extreme", which implies "solstices", and therefore the term for the winter solstice directly signifies the summit of winter, as "midwinter" is used in English.
See also: Dongzhi Festival
In China, Dongzhi was originally celebrated as an end-of-harvest festival. Today, it is observed with a family reunion over the long night, when pink and white tangyuan are eaten in southern China in sweet broth to symbolise family unity and prosperity. Whereas in Northern China, the traditional Dongzhi food would be the jiaozi.
In Korea, the winter solstice is also called the "Small Seol," and there is a custom of celebrating the day. People make porridge with red beans known as patjuk (팥죽) and round rice cakes (새알심 saealsim) with sticky rice. In the past, red bean porridge soup was sprayed on walls or doors because it was said to ward off bad ghosts. In addition, there was a custom in the early days of the Goryeo and Joseon Period in which people in financial difficulty settled all their debts and enjoyed the day.
In Japan, Tōji is also one of the 24 solar terms. On this day, it is customary to drink grapefruit hot water and eat pumpkin in certain places. The とうじ‐カボチャ【冬至カボチャ】.The habit of eating pumpkin during the winter solstice is because it makes sense to provide products for the festival during the winter when vegetables are lacking. とうじ‐ばい【冬至梅】is a variety of plum. White flowers begin to bloom around the winter solstice. とうじ It is still a surname in Japan and has a long history.
|辛巳||2001-12-21 19:21||2002-01-05 12:43|
|壬午||2002-12-22 01:14||2003-01-05 18:27|
|癸未||2003-12-22 07:03||2004-01-06 00:18|
|甲申||2004-12-21 12:41||2005-01-05 06:03|
|乙酉||2005-12-21 18:34||2006-01-05 11:46|
|丙戌||2006-12-22 00:22||2007-01-05 17:40|
|丁亥||2007-12-22 06:07||2008-01-05 23:24|
|戊子||2008-12-21 12:03||2009-01-05 05:14|
|己丑||2009-12-21 17:46||2010-01-05 11:08|
|庚寅||2010-12-21 23:38||2011-01-05 16:54|
|辛卯||2011-12-22 05:30||2012-01-05 22:43|
|壬辰||2012-12-21 11:11||2013-01-05 04:33|
|癸巳||2013-12-21 17:11||2014-01-05 10:24|
|甲午||2014-12-21 23:03||2015-01-05 16:20|
|乙未||2015-12-22 04:45||2016-01-05 22:09|
|丙申||2016-12-21 10:43||2017-01-05 03:54|
|丁酉||2017-12-21 16:29||2018-01-05 09:47|
|戊戌||2018-12-21 22:23||2019-01-05 15:41|
|己亥||2019-12-22 04:17||2020-01-05 21:31|
|庚子||2020-12-21 10:01||2021-01-05 03:22|
|Source: JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System|