F414
Type Turbofan
National origin United States
Manufacturer GE Aerospace
First run May 20, 1993[1]
Major applications Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet
HAL Tejas Mk2
KAI KF-21 Boramae
Saab JAS 39E/F Gripen
Number built 1,600+[2]
Developed from General Electric F404

The General Electric F414 is an American afterburning turbofan engine in the 22,000-pound (98 kN) thrust class produced by GE Aerospace (formerly GE Aviation). The F414 originated from GE's widely used F404 turbofan, enlarged and improved for use in the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. The engine was developed from the F412 non-afterburning turbofan planned for the A-12 Avenger II, before it was canceled.

Design and development

Origins

GE evolved the F404 into the F412-GE-400 non-afterburning turbofan for the McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II. After the cancellation of the A-12, the research was directed toward an engine for the F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. GE successfully pitched the F414 as a low-risk derivative of the F404, rather than a riskier new engine. The F414 engine was originally envisioned as not using any materials or processes not used in the F404, and was designed to fit in the same footprint as the F404.[3]

The F414 uses the core and full-authority digital engine control (FADEC) from the F412, and the low-pressure system from the YF120 engine developed for the Advanced Tactical Fighter competition. One of the major differences between the F404 and the F414 is the fan section. The F414 fan is larger than that of the F404, but smaller than the F412 fan.[4] The larger fan increases the engine airflow by 16% and is 5 inches (13 cm) longer. To keep the F414 in the same envelope, or space occupied in the airframe, as the F404, the afterburner section was shortened by 4 in (10 cm) and the combustor shortened by 1 in (2.5 cm). Also changed from the F404 is the construction of the first three stages of the high-pressure compressor which are blisks rather than separate discs and dovetailed blades, saving 50 pounds (23 kg) in weight.[3] The F414 uses a "fueldraulic" system to control the area of the convergent-divergent nozzle in the afterburner section. The nozzle actuators use engine fuel whereas the F404 uses an engine hydraulic system. "Fueldraulic" actuators for afterburner nozzles have been used since the 1960s on the Pratt & Whitney J58[5] and Rolls-Royce Turbomeca Adour,[6] for example. They are also used to swivel the VTOL nozzle for the Rolls-Royce LiftSystem.[7]

Further development

The F414 continues to be improved, both through internal GE efforts and federally funded development programs. By 2006 GE had tested an Enhanced Durability Engine (EDE) with an advanced core. The EDE engine provided a 15% thrust increase or longer life without the thrust increase. It has a six-stage high-pressure compressor (down from 7 stages in the standard F414) and an advanced high-pressure turbine.[8] The new compressor should be about 3% more efficient. The new high-pressure turbine uses new materials and a new way of delivering cooling air to the blades. These changes should increase the turbine temperature capability by about 150 °F (83 °C).[9] The EDE is designed to have better foreign object damage resistance, and a reduced fuel burn rate.[10][11]

The EDE program continued with the testing of an advanced two stage blade-disk or "blisk" fan. The first advanced fan was produced using traditional methods, but future blisk fans will be made using translational friction welding with the goal of reducing manufacturing costs.[9] GE touts that this latest variant yields either a 20% increase in thrust or threefold increase in hot-section durability over the current F414.[8] This version is called the Enhanced Performance Engine (EPE) and was partially funded through the federal Integrated High Performance Turbine Engine Technology (or IHPTET) program.[10][12]

Other possible F414 improvements include efforts to reduce engine noise by using either mechanical or fluidic chevrons and efforts to reduce emissions with a new trapped vortex combustor.[9] Chevrons would reduce engine noise by inducing mixing between the cooler, slower bypass air and the hotter, faster core exhaust air. Mechanical chevrons would come in the form of triangular cutouts (or extensions) at the end of the nozzle, resulting in a "sharktooth" pattern. Fluidic chevrons would operate by injecting differential air flows around the exhaust to achieve the same ends as the mechanical variety. A new combustor would likely aim to reduce emissions by burning a higher percentage of the oxygen, thereby reducing the amount of oxygen available to bond with nitrogen forming the pollutant NOx.

As of 2009, the F414-EDE was being developed and tested, under a United States Navy contract for a reduced specific fuel consumption (SFC) demonstrator engine.[13][14] In addition, General Electric has tested F414 engines equipped with a second low-pressure turbine stage made from ceramic matrix composites (CMC). The F414 represents the first successful use of a CMC in a rotating engine part. The tests proved CMCs are strong enough to endure the heat and rotational stress inside the turbine. The advantage CMC offers is a weight one third that of metal alloy and the ability to operate without cooling air, making the engine more aerodynamically efficient and fuel efficient. The new turbine is not yet ready for a production aircraft, however, as further design changes are needed to make it more robust.[15]

As of 2023, over 1,600 F414 engines have been delivered.[2]

Variants

F/A-18 Super Hornets, powered by the F414-GE-400
F414-GE-400
Version used for the Boeing F/A-18E/F Super Hornet. Also proposed for the unbuilt naval F-117N variant of the F-117 Nighthawk.[16]
F414-EDE
"Enhanced Durability Engine" or "EDE", includes an improved high-pressure turbine (HPT) and high-pressure compressor (HPC). The HPT is redesigned to withstand slightly higher temperatures and includes aerodynamic changes. The HPC has been redesigned to 6 stages, down from 7. These changes aimed at reducing SFC by 2% and component durability three times higher.[17]
F414-EPE
"Enhanced Performance Engine" or "EPE", includes a new core and a redesigned fan and compressor. Offers up to a 20 percent thrust boost, increasing it to 26,400 lbf (117 kN), giving an almost 11:1 thrust/weight ratio.[18]
F414M
Used by the EADS Mako/HEAT. Derated thrust to 12,500 lbf (55.6 kN) dry and 16,850 lbf (75 kN) wet.[19] Proposed for international versions of the Korean T-50 series of trainers and fighter aircraft, but later superseded by a new offer with a standard F414.[8][20]
F414-G
Produced for the Saab JAS 39 Gripen Demonstrator. Slightly modified for use in a single engine Gripen, instead of a twin-engine aircraft like the F/A-18. With it, the Gripen Demonstrator reached Mach 1.2 in supercruise (without afterburner).[21]
F414BJ
Proposed version for the Dassault Falcon SSBJ. Would produce around 12,000 lbf (53 kN) of thrust without use of afterburner.[22][23]
F414-GE-INS6
India's Aeronautical Development Agency (ADA) selected the F414-GE-INS6 to power HAL Tejas Mark 2 of the Indian Air Force (IAF). India ordered 99 engines in October 2010. It produces more thrust than previous versions, and features a Full Authority Digital Electronics Control (FADEC) system.[24] The engines are to be delivered by 2013.[25] On 18 November 2023, Dr. Samir V. Kamat of Defence Research and Development Organisation announced that the United States has provided the necessary permits, opening the door for GE Aerospace and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited to jointly produce the General Electric F414 engine in India for HAL Tejas Mark 2 and HAL AMCA.[26]
F414-GE-39E (GE RM16)
New version of the F414G for the Saab JAS-39E/F Gripen.[27][28][29]
F414-GE-400K
Variant of the F414-GE-400 co-developed by General Electric and Hanwha Aerospace for the South Korean KAI KF-21 Boramae, to be manufactured jointly and assembled locally in South Korea by Hanwha Aerospace.[30][31]
F414-GE-100
A version custom made to drive NASA's X-59 Quiet SuperSonic Technology X-plane. Derived from the F414-GE-39E modifications include different control software, fuel piping and lack of mounting rails. Two units were made.[32]

Applications

Specifications

F414-GE-400

Data from GE Aviation,[33] Deagal.com,[34] and MTU Aero Engines[35]

General characteristics

Components

Performance

See also

Related development

Comparable engines

Related lists

References

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  2. ^ a b Waldron, Greg (23 June 2023). "HAL to build F414 engines in India after GE Aerospace pact". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 23 June 2023.
  3. ^ a b "Confident GE heads to F414 CDR next month" (1994). Aerospace Daily. Vol 169, No. 34; p. 270.
  4. ^ "GE wins F-18E/F study" (1991). Flight International. 4 September 1991.
  5. ^ "SR-71 Online - SR-71 Flight Manual: Section 1, Page 1-12".
  6. ^ Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1975-1976, Edited by John W.R.Taylor, ISBN 0 531 03250 7, p.707
  7. ^ Kandebo, Stanley (1992). "GE Component Test Program to Reduce Risk in F414 Engine Development". Aviation Week and Space Technology. Vol. 136, No. 26; p. 64.
  8. ^ a b c "GE F110 and F404/F414 Fighter Engines Expand Capability and Global Presence" Archived 2009-02-02 at the Wayback Machine. GE Aviation, July 17, 2006
  9. ^ a b c Kandebo, Stanley W. "Enhanced F414 Readies for Tests" (2004). Aviation Week and Space Technology. Vol. 160, No. 1; p. 58.
  10. ^ a b Norris, Guy. "GE Eyes More Powerful Engine For Super Hornets, Growlers". Aviation Week, 14 May 2009.
  11. ^ Trimble, Stephen. "Boeing's Super Hornet seeks export sale to launch 20% thrust upgrade". Flight International, 12 May 2009.
  12. ^ "F414 Growth Demonstrator Engine Completes Testing" (press release). GE. 12 December 2006. Retrieved 13 Aug 2009.
  13. ^ "New Orders, Tech Insertions Mark Increased GE Fighter Engine Presence". GE Press Release. June 15, 2009. Retrieved 13 Aug 2009.
  14. ^ "Recovery: Specific Fuel Consumption Reduction Demonstration". Federal Business Opportunities. 2009. Solicitation Number: N00019-09-G-0009. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  15. ^ Norris, Guy. "CMCs advance", Aviation Week & Space Technology, February 2–15, 2015, p. 28.
  16. ^ Morrocco, John (1994). "Lockheed returns to Navy with new F-117N design". Aviation Week and Space Technology. Vol. 140, No. 10; p. 26.
  17. ^ "GE bids for enhanced F414 EDE funding by 2003". Flight International. 8–14 May 2001, p. 26.
  18. ^ Sweetman, Bill. "GE Brings Good Things To Hornet, Gripen". Aviation Week Ares Blog, 21 April 2011.
  19. ^ "Military training: Phase III". Flight International. 15 July 2003. p. 40.
  20. ^ "Lockheed ponders T-50 re-engining for T-X programme". Flight global. May 24, 2011.
  21. ^ Hoyle, Craig (22 January 2009). "Saab celebrates 'supercruise' test success for Gripen Demo". Flight global. Flight International..
  22. ^ "Dassault officials say three-engine SST would have a 4 000-mile range" (1998). The Weekly of Business Aviation. Vol. 66, No. 22; p. 239.
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  25. ^ "Tejas, India's Light Combat Aircraft, History". tejas.gov.in. Archived from the original on 2014-09-25.
  26. ^ "All US clearances received: HAL, GE to produce jet engines for LCA Mark2, AMCA fighter jets in India". The Economic Times. 2023-11-18. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 2023-11-18.
  27. ^ "Military engines, The F414 Engine". GE aviation.
  28. ^ "GKN Aerospace selected by FMV to support Gripen E RM16 aero-engine" (Press release). 2020-02-25. Archived from the original on 2021-10-09.
  29. ^ RM12 Engine: Supporting Gripen For More Than 300,000 Flying Hours
  30. ^ "Hanwha Techwin Signs Agreement with GE to Locally Manufacture F414 Engines for KF-X Aircrafts [sic]". Hanwha. 12 July 2016. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  31. ^ Jung, Min-hee (24 July 2016). "Hanwha Techwin, GE Team Up to Develop KF-X Engine Parts". Business Korea. Seoul, South Korea. Archived from the original on 26 January 2018. Retrieved 26 January 2018.
  32. ^ Banke, Jim (2020-08-20). "NASA Takes Delivery of GE Jet Engine for X-59". Nasa.gov. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
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  34. ^ "Fighter aircraft engines, F414 GE 400". Dégel.
  35. ^ "F414". MTU Aero Engines (mtu.de). Retrieved 2019-07-24.