Geranyl pyrophosphate
Skeletal formula
Ball-and-stick model
Preferred IUPAC name
(2E)-3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-yl trihydrogen diphosphate
3D model (JSmol)
MeSH Geranyl+pyrophosphate
  • InChI=1S/C10H20O7P2/c1-9(2)5-4-6-10(3)7-8-16-19(14,15)17-18(11,12)13/h5,7H,4,6,8H2,1-3H3,(H,14,15)(H2,11,12,13)/b10-7+ checkY
  • InChI=1/C10H20O7P2/c1-9(2)5-4-6-10(3)7-8-16-19(14,15)17-18(11,12)13/h5,7H,4,6,8H2,1-3H3,(H,14,15)(H2,11,12,13)/b10-7+
  • O=P(O)(O)OP(=O)(OC/C=C(/CC\C=C(/C)C)C)O
Molar mass 311,19
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP), also known as geranyl diphosphate (GDP), is the pyrophosphate ester of the terpenoid geraniol. Its salts are colorless. It is a precursor to many natural products.


GPP is an intermediate in the isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway that produces longer prenyl chains such as farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate as well as many terpenes.[1] It can be prepared in the laboratory from geraniol.[2]

Isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP) are condensed by geranyl pyrophosphate synthase (dimethylallyltranstransferase) to produce geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and pyrophosphate. The carbon skeletons of DMAPP and IPP have been colored to indicate their location in GPP.

Microbial toxicity

Intracellularly produced GPP has been shown to be toxic to the bacteria E. coli at moderate doses.[3]

Related compounds

See also


  1. ^ Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney (2000). "Cyclization Enzymes in the Biosynthesis of Monoterpenes, Sesquiterpenes, and Diterpenes". Topics in Current Chemistry. 209: 53–95. doi:10.1007/3-540-48146-X_2. ISBN 978-3-540-66573-1.
  2. ^ Andrew B. Woodside, Zheng Huang, C. Dale Poulter (1988). "Trisammonium Geranyl Diphosphate". Organic Syntheses. 66: 211. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.066.0211.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Sarria, Stephen; Wong, Betty; Martín, Hector García; Keasling, Jay D.; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela (18 July 2014). "Microbial Synthesis of Pinene". ACS Synthetic Biology. American Chemical Society. 3 (7): 466–475. doi:10.1021/sb4001382. Retrieved 3 April 2023.

Further reading