This glossary of botanical terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to botany and plants in general. Terms of plant morphology are included here as well as at the more specific Glossary of plant morphology and Glossary of leaf morphology. For other related terms, see Glossary of phytopathology, Glossary of lichen terms, and List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.
A bundle or structure of stamens forming one unit in an adelphous flower; for example, the stamen tube around the pistil of Hibiscus.
The tip; the point furthest from the point of attachment.
Imperfect or irregular leaf endings commonly found on ferns and fossils of ferns from the Carboniferous Period.
A type of asexual reproduction whereby viable seeds or spores are produced asexually, without fertilization, such that the genetic material they contain is a clone of the parent's genetic material. A plant produced in this way is called an apomict.
A taxonomically arranged collection of trees.
Width of one lumen of a pollen grain reticulum and half of the width of the surrounding muri (walls), hence heterobrochate and homobrochate, where the lumina are of different or similar sizes, respectively.
1. A protruding mass of tissue
Collective term for the sepals of one flower; the outer whorl of a flower, usually green. Compare corolla.
The stem of a plant, especially a woody one; also used to mean a rootstock, or particularly a basal stem structure or storage organ from which new growth arises. Compare lignotuber.
Having flowers or fruits growing directly from a tree's branches or trunk.
Very small hairs or hair-like protrusions more or less confined to the margins of an organ, as with eyelashes; in motile cells, minute, hair-like protrusions which aid motility.
A continuous morphological variation in form within a species or sometimes between two species.
A fleshy, swollen stem base, usually underground and functioning in the storage of food reserves, with buds naked or covered by very thin scales; a type of rootstock.
A region of tissue located between the surface cells and the vascular cylinder.
An inflorescence with branches arising at different points but reaching about the same height, giving the flower cluster a flat-topped appearance.
An inflorescence of unisexual flowers surrounded by involucral bracts, especially the flowers of Euphorbia.
A type of inflorescence in which the main axis and all lateral branches end in a flower (each lateral may be repeatedly branched).
A flowering plant whose embryo has two or more cotyledons (seed leaves). Contrast monocotyledon.
A plate or ring of structures derived from the receptacle, and occurring between whorls of floral parts. In some groups, especially Sapindales, the nectary is in the form of a prominent disk. In daisies, the central part of the capitulum is a disk, hence flowers borne there are called disk flowers or florets.
Any hollow structure formed by a plant that is inhabited by animals such as ants or mites.
Planar, shaped like a flattened circle, symmetrical about both the long and the short axis, tapering equally both to the tip and the base; oval.
A cluster of flowers, leaves, needles, vascular tissue, etc., e.g. a tuft of leaves all arising from the same node.
Slender, hair-like projection; fringe.
A group of one or more species with features or ancestry (or both) in common. Genus is the principal category of taxa intermediate in rank between family and species in the standard nomenclatural hierarchy.
Roughly spherical. See also subglobose.
A collection of preserved, usually pressed and dried, plant material used for identification and comparison; also a building in which such collections are stored.
Of gardens, an author citation used in two ways:
A prominent longitudinal ridge like the keel of a boat, e.g. the structure of the corolla formed by the fusion of the lower edge of the two abaxial anterior petals of flowers in the Fabaceae.
Thin, plate-like layer.
Composed of an assemblage of many layers.
The central and usually most prominent vein of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
A sharp, short point, generally at the tip of a leaf or the tip of the midrib of a compound leaf.
One of several types of symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant.
A plant that obtains most or all of its carbon, water, and nutrients by associating with a fungus.
A specialized gland that secretes nectar.
A sheath formed from two stipules encircling the node in members of the Polygonaceae.
Having an odd number of leaflets in a compound pinnate leaf, such that there is only one terminal leaflet.
Listed after the botanical name of a plant, or the name of a publication, this indicates that a publication is listed in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants as a suppressed work. Botanical names of the specified rank in the publication are considered not validly published (article 34).
1. The upper of two bracts enclosing a grass flower, major contributors to chaff in harvested grain.
A compound raceme; an indeterminate inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these.
A small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an extension of one epidermal cell.
An anomalous secondary outgrowth of the perianthal meristem with ramifying vasculature. See also perigonium, perianth, and corona.
Spreading; standing at 45–50° to the axis. See also erecto-patent.
The stalk of a flower; may also be applied to the stalk of a capitulum in the Asteraceae.
The stalk of an inflorescence.
With pinnately arranged veins.
1. The scales covering a leaf or flower bud, or a reduced scale-like leaf surrounding the bud. Buds lacking perulae are referred to as "naked".
A leaf with the blade much reduced or absent, and in which the petiole and or rachis perform the functions of the whole leaf, e.g. many acacias. Compare cladode.
A black, inert, organic material that forms a crust-like covering of some seeds, commonly found in Asparagales, Asteraceae, etc.
A primary segment of a compound leaf.