This glossary of botanical terms is a list of definitions of terms and concepts relevant to botany and plants in general. Terms of plant morphology are included here as well as at the more specific Glossary of plant morphology and Glossary of leaf morphology. For other related terms, see Glossary of phytopathology and List of Latin and Greek words commonly used in systematic names.
The tip; the point furthest from the point of attachment.
Imperfect or irregular leaf endings commonly found on ferns and fossils of ferns from the Carboniferous Period.
A type of asexual reproduction whereby viable or are produced asexually, without fertilization, such that the genetic material they contain is a clone of the parent's genetic material. A plant produced in this way is called an apomict.
A taxonomically arranged collection of .
Width of one lumen of a grain reticulum and half of the width of the surrounding muri (walls), hence heterobrochate and homobrochate, where the lumina are of different or similar sizes, respectively.
1. A protruding mass of tissue
A collective term for the of one flower; the outer of a flower, usually green. Compare .
The of a plant, especially a one; also used to mean a , or particularly a stem structure or storage organ from which new growth arises. Compare .
Having flowers or fruits growing directly from a tree's branches or trunk.
Very small hairs or hair-like protrusions more or less confined to the of an organ, as with eyelashes; in motile cells, minute, hair-like protrusions which aid motility.
A continuous morphological variation in form within a species or sometimes between two species.
A fleshy, swollen base, usually underground and functioning in the storage of food reserves, with naked or covered by very thin scales; a type of .
In lichens, the "skin" or outer layer of tissue that covers the . lichens have one cortex encircling the branches, even flattened, leaf-like forms; lichens have different upper and lower cortices; , , and lichens have an upper cortex but no lower cortex; and lichens lack any cortex.
An with branches arising at different points but reaching about the same height, giving the flower cluster a flat-topped appearance.
An of flowers surrounded by , especially the flowers of Euphorbia.
A type of in which the main axis and all lateral branches end in a (each lateral may be repeatedly branched).
A flowering plant whose embryo has two or more (seed leaves). Contrast .
A plate or ring of structures derived from the , and occurring between of floral parts. In some groups, especially Sapindales, the is in the form of a prominent disk. In daisies, the central part of the is a disk, hence flowers borne there are called .
Any hollow structure formed by a plant that is inhabited by animals such as ants or mites.
Planar, shaped like a flattened circle, symmetrical about both the long and the short axis, tapering equally both to the tip and the base; .
(of lichens) Having the growing within rather than upon the of trees.: 159 Compare and (growing on the surface of wood or bark) and (growing within rock).
A cluster, e.g. a tuft of leaves all arising from the same node.
A group of one or more with features or ancestry (or both) in common. Genus is the principal category of taxa intermediate in rank between and species in the standard nomenclatural hierarchy.
Roughly spherical. See also .
A collection of preserved, usually pressed and dried, plant material used for identification and comparison; also a building in which such collections are stored.
1. as a name misapplied by gardeners
A warty of club-like structure in some lichens that breaks off and forms new lichens without sexual reproduction. Isidia are dispersed by mechanical means, compared to soredia, which are dispersed by wind.
A prominent longitudinal ridge like the keel of a boat, e.g. the structure of the formed by the fusion of the lower edge of the two abaxial anterior petals of flowers in the Fabaceae.
The central and usually most prominent of a leaf or leaf-like organ.
A sharp, short point, generally at the tip of a leaf or the tip of the midrib of a compound leaf.
One of several types of symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a plant.
A plant that obtains most or all of its carbon, water, and nutrients by associating with a fungus.
A specialized gland that secretes .
A formed from two encircling the in members of the Polygonaceae.
Having an odd number of in a pinnate leaf, such that there is only one terminal leaflet.
Listed after the botanical name of a plant, or the name of a publication, this indicates that a publication is listed in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants as a suppressed work. Botanical names of the specified rank in the publication are considered not validly published (article 34).
1. The upper of two enclosing a grass flower, major contributors to chaff in harvested grain.
A ; an inflorescence in which the flowers are borne on branches of the main axis or on further branches of these.
A small, elongated protuberance on the surface of an organ, usually an extension of one cell.
An anomalous secondary outgrowth of the perianthal with ramifying vasculature. See also , , and .
Spreading; standing at 45–50° to the axis. See also .
The stalk of a ; may also be applied to the stalk of a in the Asteraceae.
The stalk of an .
With arranged .
1. The scales covering a leaf or flower bud, or a reduced scale-like leaf surrounding the bud. Buds lacking perulae are referred to as "naked".
A leaf with the blade much reduced or absent, and in which the petiole and or perform the functions of the whole leaf, e.g. many acacias. Compare .
A black, inert, organic material that forms a crust-like covering of some seeds, commonly found in Asparagales, Asteraceae, etc.