Goodluck Jonathan
Jonathan at the World Economic Forum in 2013
14th President of Nigeria
In office
6 May 2010 – 29 May 2015
Acting: 9 February 2010 – 6 May 2010
Vice PresidentNamadi Sambo
Preceded byUmaru Yar'Adua
Succeeded byMuhammadu Buhari
12th Vice President of Nigeria
In office
29 May 2007 – 6 May 2010
PresidentUmaru Yar'Adua
Preceded byAtiku Abubakar
Succeeded byNamadi Sambo
Governor of Bayelsa
In office
9 December 2005 – 29 May 2007
Preceded byDiepreye Alamieyeseigha
Succeeded byTimipre Sylva
Deputy Governor of Bayelsa
In office
29 May 1999 – 9 December 2005
GovernorDiepreye Alamieyeseigha
Personal details
Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan

(1957-11-20) 20 November 1957 (age 66)
Ogbia, Eastern Region, British Nigeria (now Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria)
Political partyPeoples Democratic Party
SpousePatience Jonathan
EducationDoctor of Philosophy degree in Zoology
Alma materUniversity of Port Harcourt

Goodluck Ebele Azikiwe Jonathan GCFR GCON (born 20 November 1957)[1] is a Nigerian politician who served as the president of Nigeria from 2010 to 2015.[2] He lost the 2015 presidential election to former military head of state General Muhammadu Buhari and was the first incumbent president in Nigerian history to concede defeat in an election and therefore allow for a peaceful transition of power.[3]

Previously, Jonathan served as the vice president of Nigeria from 2007 to 2010 under the administration of Umaru Musa Yar'Adua;[4] and in oil-rich Bayelsa State as governor from 2005 to 2007, and deputy governor from 1999 to 2005.[5][2]

Early life

Goodluck Jonathan was born on 20 November 1957 in Ogbia to a Christian Ijaw family of canoe makers,[6][7] in Otuoke, Bayelsa State.[2] His father, Lawrence Ebele Jonathan, was a canoe maker and his mother, Eunice Ayi Ebele Jonathan, was a retired farmer.[8] He attended a Christian primary and secondary school.[2]


He received a bachelor's degree in zoology (second-class honours), a master's degree in hydrobiology and fisheries biology; and a doctorate in zoology from the University of Port Harcourt.[9][10][11][2] During his time in the university, he taught at Rivers State College of Education from 1983 to 1993.[2]

Pre-presidency (1998–2010)

Before entering into politics in 1998, Jonathan worked as an education inspector, a lecturer and an environmental-protection officer.[12] His political career began when he became involved with the nascent People's Democratic Party (PDP) in the late 1990s.[2] Jonathan entered into politics when General Sani Abacha, who ruled as military head of state of Nigeria from 1993 to 1998, died in office.

In the 1999 Bayelsa State gubernatorial election, Diepreye Alamieyeseigha ran for governor under the platform of the Peoples Democratic Party and chose Jonathan as his running mate. Alaimeyeseigha won the election and became the first civilian governor of Bayelsa State in May 1999. They were reelected in 2003 and Jonathan's diligence and loyalty to him earned him the recognition as Nigeria's most hardworking deputy governor.[citation needed]


On 29 May 1999, Jonathan was sworn in as deputy governor of Bayelsa alongside Diepreye Alamieyeseigha who came in as the governor of the state on the platform of PDP. Jonathan served as Deputy Governor until December 2005.[13] On 9 December 2005, Jonathan, who was the deputy governor at the time, was sworn in as the governor of Bayelsa State upon the impeachment of governor Diepreye Alamieyeseigha by the Bayelsa State Assembly after being charged with money laundering in the United Kingdom.[citation needed]

Vice-presidency (2007–2010)

As Vice President, Jonathan took a very low profile. While recognising the constitutional limits of the Vice President's office, he participated in cabinet meetings and, by statute, was a member of the National Security Council, the National Defence Council, the Federal Executive Council and chairman of the National Economic Council.

Order of succession

Jonathan was named Acting President of Nigeria on 9 February 2010, following a controversial doctrine of necessity from the Senate of Nigeria due to President Yar'Adua's trip to Saudi Arabia in November 2009 for medical treatment.[14] On 10 February 2010, his first day as acting president, Jonathan announced a minor cabinet reshuffle.[15]

In accordance with the order of succession in the Nigerian constitution, following President Yar'Adua's death on 5 May 2010, Jonathan, as Acting President, was sworn in as the substantive president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria on 6 May 2010.[16] On 18 May 2010, the National Assembly approved Jonathan's nomination of Kaduna State Governor Namadi Sambo, to replace him as Vice President.[17][18] For the general election in 2011, Jonathan and Vice President Sambo attended political events and travelled the country to campaign for the nation's highest office.[19]

A year later, on 29 May 2011, he was sworn in as the President of Nigeria and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Nigeria, becoming Nigeria's 14th Head of State.[20] He gave his inauguration address where he declared his government was to focus on a Transformation Agenda and promised to continue implementing the seven-point agenda policy framework of President Yar'Adua.[21] He cited anti-corruption, power and electoral reforms as focuses of his administration. He stated that he came to office under "very sad and unusual circumstances".[22]

Presidency (2010–2015)

Main article: Presidency of Goodluck Jonathan


Under Jonathan's administration, Nigeria rebased its gross domestic product for the first time in over a decade, becoming the largest economy in Africa by overtaking South Africa and Egypt.[1]

The Jonathan administration accrued over US$454 billion while in office from oil revenue.[23] Jonathan previously served as an assistant director at the Oil Mineral Producing Areas Development commission between 1993 and 1998.[2]

The Jonathan administration oversaw the construction of new railways in the country, including the Abuja-Kaduna railway and conceptualized high-speed rail projects. Construction and beautification of many federal roads in the country, including the Lagos-Benin expressway, Abuja-Lokoja expressway, Enugu-Abakiliki expressway, Onitsha-Owerri highway and most parts of the Enugu-Port Harcourt expressway.[3] Also, construction of the second Niger Bridge between Onitsha and Asaba to relieve the pressure on the old Niger Bridge which was completed in December 1965. Construction of airports across the country. The Akanu Ibiam Airport in Enugu was upgraded into an international airport, directly connecting the South-East region of the country to the outside world for the first time since independence.[citation needed]

On 2 August 2010, Jonathan launched his 'Roadmap for Power Sector Reform'.[24] Its primary goal was to achieve stable electricity supply in Nigeria. The Power Holding Company of Nigeria, which acted as the nation's electricity provider, was broken up into 15 firms, with Nigeria handing over control of state electricity assets to 15 private bidding companies.[25] The Nigerian government contracted for the services of CPCS Transcom Limited, a Canada-based consulting firm specialising in transportation and energy infrastructure projects, to act as the transaction adviser for the handover of state electricity assets.[26]

Historically, the Nigerian power sector has been plagued by blackouts. Economists estimate that power outages have cost Nigeria, Africa's biggest economy, billions of dollars in imported diesel for generators and lost output. In a study conducted by the World Bank, a lack of access to financing and electricity were cited as Nigeria's main obstacles to development, surpassing corruption.[27]


Jonathan suspended Sanusi Lamido Sanusi as governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria[28][29] after a series of public investigations and raising the alarm on the US$20 billion NNPC scandal in a leaked letter which revealed that the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation failed to account for US$48.9 billion of government oil revenue to the central bank[30][31] – the NNPC has a history of financial irregularities and oversees the corrupt petroleum industry in Nigeria. Sanusi would go on to reveal the extent of financial recklessness that Nigeria lost a billion dollars a month to diversion of public funds under the Jonathan administration, with oil minister Diezani Alison-Madueke diverting $6 billion (₦1.2 trillion) from the Nigerian treasury.

In addition, Jonathan was alleged to have personally ordered over ₦3 trillion ($15 billion) from the Central Bank of Nigeria to support his election and other self-serving projects under the guise of an intervention fund for national security. Charles Soludo, a professor of economics and former governor of the Central Bank of Nigeria, equated Jonathan's financial recklessness to that of former Ugandan president Idi Amin.[32] Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, an economist and former Finance Minister of Nigeria, pegged Jonathan's administration as the main cause of Nigeria's economic woes in a lecture at George Washington University,[33] although she later denied it.[34] However, none of the corruption allegations against Jonathan have been proven in any law court.


Main article: $2 billion arms deal

Jonathan's government has largely been described as corrupt. According to The Economist, corruption flourished under the Jonathan administration, "who let politicians and their cronies fill their pockets with impunity."[35] Large sums of money have been used improperly multiple times, with 3.98 trillion (US$20 billion) allegedly going missing[36] and ₦398 billion ($2 billion) of military funds allegedly dispersed amongst high-ranking officials.[37] In 2006, reports released by Wikileaks claimed that Jonathan's wife, Patience Jonathan, was indicted for money-laundering by Nigeria's anti-crime agency, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC).[38]

Since May 2015, the Muhammadu Buhari administration reportedly has been fighting corruption that was perpetrated under Jonathan. Some of the former political office holders and appointees that served under Jonathan, as well as party members, have been arrested on various corruption charges.[39][40] It is alleged that some, including former Finance Minister Nenadi Usman, have returned part of the money they stole.[41] None of these politicians have however been convicted of the alleged crimes.[42] It remains unclear whether or not Jonathan, who is believed to have either masterminded or condoned the corruption, will be arrested.[43]

Foreign affairs

Jonathan with US President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama in 2014

During Jonathan's administration, Nigeria's foreign policy was reviewed to reflect a "citizen-focused" approach, designed to "accord this vision of defending the dignity of humanity the highest priority" and connect foreign policy to domestic policy, while placing a greater emphasis on economic diplomacy.[44]

National issues

2010 Nigerian lead poisoning incident

In January 2013, Jonathan reportedly promised $4 million to assist in cleaning up villages that have been affected by a lead poisoning incident.[45][46] Over 400 children died and Human Rights Watch said that releasing the funds "could be lifesaving for countless children."[47]

2012 Occupy Nigeria protests

Main article: Occupy Nigeria

On 1 January 2012, the Jonathan administration announced the start of a controversial plan to end fuel subsidies.[48] Following the Nigeria Labour Congress' warning that the country faces many strikes, the country unions followed up with strikes that were matched with civil protests from 9–13 January 2012.[49][50] Protesters and groups called for Jonathan to resign over the removal of fuel subsidies.[51][52] After five days of national protests and strikes, on 16 January, Jonathan announced that the pump price of petroleum would be 97 naira per litre compared to a post-subsidy level of 147 naira.[53]

In 2012, upon the partial removal of petrol subsidies, the Jonathan administration instituted a subsidy re-investment programme designed to spend the money saved from partial petrol price deregulation on physical infrastructure such as roads, bridges, etc., across the country. The Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Program (SURE-P) was also intended to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality.

The government followed the advice of international experts that claimed the fuel subsidy ($8 billion per year, or 25% of the government annual budget)[54] was not sustainable. Brookings Institution, a think tank, praised the government's move, arguing that the subsidy crowds out other development spending, like education, and that it discourages investment in the country's economic lifeblood, the oil sector.[55] In his book, "My Transition Hours", Goodluck Jonathan said that subsidy was consuming too much of our revenues and the public believed that the sector was highly corrupt. He mentioned that the Minister of Finance Ngozi Okonjo Iweala briefed him about the corrupt practices that a technical committee she had put together discovered. He said that he was alarmed that billions of naira was being lost by the nation through the subsidy regime.[56]

Many prominent Nigerians spoke out against the removal of the subsidy. Former Petroleum Minister Professor Tam David-West spoke out and expressed concern that the planned removal of the fuel subsidy will squeeze the economy, increase inflation, and hurt both businesses and the public.[57] A former military Head of State and a former Minister for Petroleum & Natural Resources, General Muhammadu Buhari, urged Jonathan not to remove the fuel subsidy and to tackle corruption.[58] Yakubu Gowon, another former military Head of State, warned the government that the country's infrastructure should be revived before fuel subsidy removal steps were taken.[59] Former military president Gen. Ibrahim Babangida, joined millions of Nigerians protesting against the removal of the fuel subsidy by the Jonathan administration, saying that the action is ill-timed.[60]

2014 National Conference

Further information: 2014 National Conference, Nigeria

In March 2014, President Jonathan inaugurated the 2014 National Conference. The conference was the first of its kind since the 2005 political reform conference,[61] it had 492 delegates that debated on key socio-political national issues impeding national development.[62]

2014 Ebola outbreak

Further information: Ebola in Nigeria

On 20 July 2014, Patrick Sawyer, a Liberian-American, flew from Monrovia to Murtala Muhammed International Airport in Lagos, with a stopover at Lomé, Togo.[63][64][65] He was subsequently described as having appeared to be "terribly ill" when he left Monrovia. Sawyer became violently ill upon arriving at the airport and died five days later. In response, the Nigerian government observed all of Sawyer's contacts for signs of infection and increased surveillance at all entry points to the country.[66]

On 6 August 2014, the Nigerian health minister told reporters: "Yesterday, the first known Nigerian to die of Ebola was recorded.[67][68] This was one of the nurses that attended to the Liberian. The other five newly confirmed cases are being treated at an isolation ward." The doctor who treated Sawyer, Ameyo Adadevoh, subsequently also died of Ebola. On 22 September 2014, the Nigeria ministry of health announced: "As of today, there is no case of Ebola in Nigeria. All listed contacts who were under surveillance have been followed up for 21 days.[69][70] "According to the WHO, 20 cases and 8 deaths had been confirmed, along with the imported case, who also died. Four of the dead were health care workers who had cared for Sawyer. In all, 529 contacts had been followed and of that date they had all completed a 21-day mandatory period of surveillance.[71][72]

2014 Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act

In January 2014, Jonathan signed into law the Same Sex Marriage Prohibition Act after it was passed by the Senate and House of Representatives.[citation needed] The law prohibits gay relationships, membership and other involvement in gay societies and organisations and gay marriages. The bill came after international polls showed that 98% of Nigerians did not think homosexuality should be accepted by society, the highest percentage of any country surveyed.[73] Penalties can be up to 14 years in prison for gay marriages and up to 10 years for other violations of the law.[74] Within a short period, the federal police department compiled a list of 168 gay people who would subsequently be jailed. Within days 38 lesbian and gay people had been jailed, with arrests beginning during Christmas. The anti-LGBT bill stipulates that those who withhold the details of LGBT individuals face prison terms of up to five years.[75] His decision and the law itself have been described as controversial,[76] but according to a poll, 92% of Nigerians supported the ban.[73]

Security issues

Jonathan's administration was heavily criticized for its failure to tackle insecurity. The first major challenge was the October 2010 Independence Day bombing. Okah told the court that President Jonathan and his aides organised the attacks in Abuja in a desperate political strategy to demonise political opponents, including former military head of state General Ibrahim Babangida, and to win popular sympathy ahead of the elections.[77]


On 29 May 2011, a few hours after Goodluck Jonathan was sworn in as president, several bombings purportedly by Boko Haram killed 15 and injured 55.[citation needed] On 16 June 2011, Boko Haram claimed to have conducted the Abuja police headquarters bombing, the first known suicide attack in Nigeria.[citation needed] Two months later the United Nations building in Abuja was bombed, signifying the first time that Boko Haram attacked an international organisation.[78] In December 2011, it carried out attacks in Damaturu killing over a hundred people, subsequently clashing with security forces in December, resulting in at least 68 deaths.[citation needed] Two days later on Christmas Day, Boko Haram attacked several Christian churches with bomb blasts and shootings.[79]


Following the January 2012 Northern Nigeria attacks, which left over hundreds of casualties, Abubakar Shekau, a former deputy of Mohammed Yusuf, appeared in a video posted on YouTube.[citation needed] According to Reuters, Shekau took control of the group after the death of Yusuf in 2009.[80][81][82] Authorities had previously believed that Shekau died during the violence in 2009.[citation needed] By early 2012, the group was responsible for over 900 deaths. On 8 March 2012, a small Special Boat Service team and the Nigerian Army attempted to rescue two hostages, Chris McManus and Franco Lamolinara, being held in Nigeria by members of the Boko Haram terrorist organisation loyal to al-Qaeda.[citation needed] The two hostages were killed before or during the rescue attempt. All the hostage takers were reportedly killed.[83][84]


On 18 March, a bus station was bombed in Kano, with several casualties.[citation needed] In May 2013, Nigerian government forces launched an offensive in the Borno region in an attempt to dislodge Boko Haram fighters after a state of emergency was called on 14 May 2013.[citation needed] The state of emergency, applied to the states of Borno, Yobe, and Adamawa in northeastern Nigeria.[85] The offensive had initial success, but the Boko Haram rebels were able to regain their strength. Although initially offering amnesty, by June 2013 he ordered a 20-year jail term for anyone found to be in support of Boko Haram.[86] In July 2013, Boko Haram massacred 42 students in Yobe, bringing the school year to an early end in the state.[citation needed] On 5 August 2013, Boko Haram launched dual attacks on Bama and Malam Fatori, leaving 35 dead.[87]


On 16 January 2014, it was reported that Jonathan had sacked his military high command in response to their inability to end the Islamist-led insurgency in Northern Nigeria.[88] On 14 April, over 200 schoolgirls in Chibok were kidnapped.[citation needed] A few weeks later in May, a terrorist offensive was launched against the military in Chibok. Many demonstrations called for the government to be more responsive; Jonathan asked that demonstrators focus on blaming Boko Haram itself for the abductions.[89] Jonathan initially denied that there had been any abduction at all, but then later signaled his government would do a prisoner release in exchange for the kidnapped girls. Discussions then took place in Paris with foreign ministers from France, Britain, the United States and Israel, where he agreed no deals should be struck with terrorists. He then called off the exchange at the last minute on 24 May 2014.[citation needed] This reportedly enraged Boko Haram leaders.[90]

In May 2014, two bombs exploded in Jos, resulting in the deaths of at least 118 people and the injury or over 56 others.[citation needed] During the June 2014 Northern Nigeria attacks, a plaza in the capital city was bombed and hundreds of villagers attacked in a two-day killing spree in Kaduna.[citation needed] In November, Boko Haram bombed the city of Kano, attempting to assassinate the Emir Muhammadu Sanusi II.[citation needed] Starting in late 2014, Boko Haram militants attacked several Nigerian towns in the North and captured them.[citation needed] This prompted the Nigerian government to launch an offensive, and with the help of Chad, Niger, and Cameroon, they have recaptured many areas that were formerly under the control of Boko Haram. In late 2014, Boko Haram seized control of Bama, according to the town's residents.[citation needed] In December 2014, it was reported that "people too elderly to flee Gwoza Local Government Area were being rounded up and taken to two schools where the militants opened fire on them.[citation needed]" Over 50 elderly people in Bama were killed. A "gory" video was released of insurgents shooting over a hundred civilians in a school dormitory in the town of Bama.[91]


Between 3 and 7 January 2015, Boko Haram attacked the town of Baga and killed up to 2,000 people, perhaps the largest massacre by Boko Haram.[citation needed] On 10 January 2015, a bomb attack took place at the Monday Market in Maiduguri, killing 19 people.[citation needed] The city is considered to be at the heart of the Boko Haram insurgency. In the early hours of 25 January 2015, Boko Haram launched a major assault on the city.[citation needed] On 26 January 2015 CNN reported that the attack on Maiduguri by "hundreds of gunmen" had been repelled, but the nearby town of Monguno was captured by Boko Haram.[citation needed] The Nigerian Army claimed to have successfully repelled another attack on Maiduguri on 31 January 2015.[citation needed] Starting in late January 2015, a coalition of military forces from Nigeria, Chad, Cameroon, and Niger began a counter-insurgency campaign against Boko Haram.[citation needed] On 4 February 2015, the Chad Army killed over 200 Boko Haram militants.[citation needed] Soon afterwards, Boko Haram launched an attack on the Cameroonian town of Fotokol, killing 81 civilians, 13 Chadian soldiers and 6 Cameroonian soldiers.[citation needed]

On 17 February 2015 the Nigerian military retook Monguno in a coordinated air and ground assault.[citation needed] On 7 March 2015, Boko Haram's leader Abubakar Shekau pledged allegiance to the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) via an audio message posted on the organisation's Twitter account.[citation needed] Nigerian army spokesperson Sami Usman Kukasheka said the pledge was a sign of weakness and that Shekau was like a "drowning man". That same day, five suicide bomb blasts left 54 dead and 143 wounded. On 12 March 2015, ISIL's spokesman Abu Mohammad al-Adnani released an audiotape in which he welcomed the pledge of allegiance, and described it as an expansion of the group's caliphate to West Africa.[citation needed] Following its declaration of loyalty to ISIL, Boko Haram was designated as the group's "West Africa Province" (Islamic State West Africa Province, or ISWAP) while Shekau was appointed as its first vali (governor). Furthermore, ISIL started to support Boko Haram, but also began to interfere in its internal matters. For example, ISIL's central leadership attempted to reduce Boko Haram's brutality toward civilians and internal critics, as Shekau's ideology was "too extreme even for the Islamic State".[citation needed]

On 24 March 2015, residents of Damasak, Nigeria said that Boko Haram had taken more than 400 women and children from the town as they fled from coalition forces.[citation needed] On 27 March 2015, the Nigerian army captured Gwoza, which was believed to be the location of Boko Haram headquarters.[citation needed] On election day, 28 March 2015, Boko Haram extremists killed 41 people, including a legislator, to discourage hundreds from voting.[citation needed] Niger Army soldiers during counter-insurgency operations against Boko Haram in March 2015. In March 2015, Boko Haram lost control of the Northern Nigerian towns of Bama and Gwoza (believed to be their headquarters) to the Nigerian Army.[citation needed] The Nigerian authorities said that they had taken back 11 of the 14 districts previously controlled by Boko Haram.[citation needed] In April 2016, four Boko Haram camps in the Sambisa Forest were overrun by the Nigerian military who freed nearly 300 females.[citation needed] Boko Haram forces were believed to have retreated to the Mandara Mountains, along the Cameroon–Nigeria border. On 16 March 2015, the Nigerian army said that it had recaptured Bama.[citation needed] On 27 March 2015, the day before the Nigerian presidential election, the Nigerian Army announced that it had recaptured the town of Gwoza from Boko Haram.[citation needed]

By April 2015, the Nigerian military was reported to have retaken most of the areas previously controlled by Boko Haram in Northeastern Nigeria, except for the Sambisa Forest. In May 2015, the Nigerian military announced that they had released about 700 women from camps in Sambisa Forest.[citation needed]

2015 election

Outgoing President Jonathan in handshake with newly sworn in President Muhammadu Buhari at Eagle Square in Abuja, Nigeria, on 29 May 2015

Main article: 2015 Nigerian presidential election

Jonathan believed the APC's popularity was inflated, having made his view clear in an interview with The Cable, Nigeria's Independent Online Newspaper in 2015—just two days to the general elections. Jonathan said "I don't think Nigerians will make the mistake of voting for Buhari. Gen. Buhari, with due respect, is not the right option for Nigeria at this time. It is a gamble that is not worth taking. I may not be perfect as nobody is perfect. But I believe that come Saturday, the majority of Nigerian voters will choose me as the best candidate to lead the nation forward."[92]

On 31 March 2015, Jonathan conceded the election to challenger Muhammadu Buhari, who was sworn in to succeed him on 29 May 2015.[93] Jonathan said in a statement he issued on 31 March 2015 that "Nobody's ambition is worth the blood of any Nigerian."[94]

Post-presidency (2015–present)

Since leaving office, Jonathan has continued to defend his administration. In 2019, he was appointed as the honorary special advisor to the Bayelsa Education Trust Fund board.[95] In June 2019, Goodluck Jonathan was named chairperson of the newly inaugurated International Summit Council for Peace.[96] In July 2020, Jonathan was appointed special envoy of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)[97] to lead mediation talks during the 2020 Malian protests.[98]

2023 election

It was alleged that Jonathan had expressed interest to stand for the 2023 Nigerian presidential election under the All Progressives Congress (APC). To achieve this, the APC primary nomination form was picked up for him by his supporters, which was debunked by his media aide Ikechukwu Eze.[99]

2023 Zimbabwean general election

In 2023, Jonathan was appointed head of delegation for the African Union and COMESA in the 2023 Zimbabwean general election. On Friday, 25 August 2023, he addressed a press briefing giving Zimbabwe's electoral authority poor ratings.[100] This was in harmony with similar findings by the SADC, SEAM delivered earlier in the same press briefing.

Personal life


Jonathan is known for sporting his trademark fedora that is commonly worn by inhabitants of the Niger Delta.[101]


Jonathan and his wife, Dame Patience Jonathan, have two children, Ariwera (son) and Aruabai (daughter).[102][103]


In 2007, Jonathan declared his assets worth a total of 295,304,420 (then equivalent to US$8,569,662).[38]


National honours

Foreign honours

Other honours

See also


  1. ^ a b Heyford, Lawson (11 December 2006). "Jonathan: A Colossus at 49". The Source. Vol. 20, no. 10. Lagos: Summit Publications Ltd. Archived from the original on 15 January 2009. Retrieved 16 May 2023.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Goodluck Jonathan". Retrieved 3 June 2023.
  3. ^ a b Max Siollun (1 April 2015). "How Goodluck Jonathan lost the Nigerian election". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 11 December 2016.
  4. ^ "Goodluck Jonathan: from poor boy to accidental president". the Guardian. 18 January 2015. Retrieved 18 March 2022.
  5. ^ "Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan, profile of a defeated president". BBC News. 31 March 2015. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  6. ^ Lawson Heyford, "Jonathan: A Colossus at 49" Archived 15 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Source (Lagos), 11 December 2006.
  7. ^ Profile: Goodluck Jonathan Archived 18 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine. Al
  8. ^ "Biography".
  9. ^ "Former Nigeria President, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo Says Even President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan Didn't Complete His PHD". Daily Mail (Nigeria). 22 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015.
  10. ^ "Jonathan Did Not Finish his PhD Course -Obasanjo Speaks on Buhari's Certificate Saga". GetInformedNaija. 22 January 2015. Archived from the original on 23 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  11. ^ Jasmine Buari (22 January 2015). "Obasanjo Speaks On Buhari's Certificate Saga". Archived from the original on 22 January 2015. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
  12. ^ "Profile: Goodluck Jonathan". BBC News. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 6 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
  13. ^ "The man Goodluck Ebele Jonathan". Archived from the original on 13 May 2013.
  14. ^ "Nigeria's Goodluck Jonathan 'is acting president'". BBC News. 25 February 2010. Archived from the original on 26 February 2010. Retrieved 25 February 2010.
  15. ^ Iyobosa Uwugiaren and Golu Timothy (10 February 2010). "Jonathan Redeploys Aondoakaa". AllAfrica.
  16. ^ President,Commander-In-Chief.aspx News Agency of Nigeria story on newly sworn President Jonathan[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "NASS confirms Sambo as vice president". Punch Newspaper
  18. ^ "National Assembly confirms Sambo as Vice President" Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Liberty News
  19. ^ Ajani Jide; Benson Dayo (2010). "Nigeria: Sambo, Anenih to Head Jonathan's Campaign".
  20. ^ "Goodluck Jonathan Inaugurated as Nigerian President English". Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  21. ^ "Seven-point agenda alive – Jonathan". Archived from the original on 11 April 2013.
  22. ^ "Nigeria swears in new president". Al Jazeera. 6 May 2010. Archived from the original on 9 May 2010. Retrieved 6 May 2010.
  23. ^ "Buhari earns $58bn in 27 months to Jonathan's $454bn in 6 years". The Sun Nigeria. 15 August 2017. Retrieved 16 February 2020.
  24. ^ Roadmap for Power Sector Reform Archived 25 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF).
  25. ^ Nigeria takes next step in power privatization Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters.
  26. ^ (PHCN) Archived 17 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Nigeria Electricity Privatisation.
  27. ^ "Reforming Nigeria". Foreign Affairs. March–April 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  28. ^ Nossiter, Adam (20 February 2014). "Governor of Nigeria's Central Bank Is Fired After Warning of Missing Oil Revenue". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 5 August 2020.
  29. ^ "Sanusi's suspension legal or illegal?".
  30. ^ "Nigeria's NNPC accused of withholding oil revenue". Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  31. ^ "Special Report: Anatomy of Nigeria's $20 billion "leak"". Reuters. 6 February 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  32. ^ "Jonathan ran CBN like Idi-Amin – Soludo" Archived 2 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine Premium Times, 17 January 2016.
  33. ^ Nomso Obiajuru, "No political will to save under Jonathan - Okonjo-Iweala" Archived 23 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine,
  34. ^ "Low Savings: I Didn't Indict Jonathan Administration, Says Okonjo-Iweala". Nigeria News Flight. Archived from the original on 23 June 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  35. ^ "Nigeria's economy". The Economist. 30 January 2016. Archived from the original on 30 January 2016. Retrieved 31 January 2016.
  36. ^ "Nigeria: Missing U.S.$20 Billion - Sanusi Faults Alison-Madueke, Says Audit Report Proves At Least U.S.$18.5 Billion Lost" Archived 26 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Premium Times., 14 May 2015,
  37. ^ "$2.1 billion DasukiGate: Key questions Jonathan must answer – SERAP" Archived 2 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Premium Times, 10 January 2016.
  38. ^ a b "Profiles". Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2013.
  39. ^ Jaafar Jaafar, "Ex-President Jonathan’s top aide, Waripamowei Dudafa, arrested at Lagos airport" Archived 21 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Premium Times, 18 April 2016.
  40. ^ "EFCC arrests PDP spokesperson, Olisa Metuh, over alleged corruption" Archived 5 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Premium Times, Nigeria, 5 January 2016.
  41. ^ Adelani Adepegba and Eniola Akinkuotu, "Campaign funds: Jonathan’s minister returns N23m to FG" Archived 24 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Punch Newspapers, 24 April 2016.
  42. ^ "Naija247news – Corruption: Why EFCC should arrest Jonathan – CD". 24 April 2016. Archived from the original on 25 April 2016. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
  43. ^ Anike Nwodo, "EFCC Boss Explains Why GEJ Hasn't Been Arrested" Archived 13 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine,
  44. ^ Reuben Abati (31 July 2011). "President Jonathan on Review of Nigeria's Foreign Policy". Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 29 March 2013.
  45. ^ Oladipo, Tomi (12 April 2013). "Cleaning up Nigeria's toxic playgrounds". BBC News. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  46. ^ Gbenro, Oluwatobi. "tributary to Fmr. Pres. Goodluck Jonathan".
  47. ^ McNeil, Donald Jr. (29 January 2013). "Nigeria: Money Promised to Clean Up Lead That Killed Hundreds of Children". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 7 February 2013.
  48. ^ "Nigeria fuel subsidy end raises protest fears". BBC News. 1 January 2012. Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
  49. ^ "Nigerians Protest Removal of Fuel Subsidy, 2012". Global Nonviolent Action Database. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  50. ^ Lakemfa, Owei. "Parliament of the Streets" (PDF).
  51. ^ "Protests in Lagos, Ibadan Over Removal of Subsidy". Archived from the original on 30 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  52. ^ Shuaib Shuaib (14 December 2011). "Subsidy Removal: CNPP Calls for Jonathan's Resignation". AllAfrica. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  53. ^ "Nigeria Cuts Fuel Prices After Strike, Protests". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
  54. ^ "FAQ: The fuel subsidy protests in Nigeria". One. 8 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  55. ^ "Removal of Fuel Subsidies in Nigeria: An Economic Necessity and a Political Dilemma". Brookings. 10 January 2012. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  56. ^ Jonathan, Goodluck (2018). My Transition Hours. Ezekiel Books. p. 20. ISBN 9781732492264.
  57. ^ "Subsidy removal will choke economy, says David-West". Archived from the original on 27 November 2011.
  58. ^ Abbas Jimoh (14 December 2011). "Buhari to Jonathan – Leave Subsidy, Tackle Graft". AllAfrica.
  59. ^ "Gowon to Jonathan: don't remove subsidy now". Archived from the original on 11 October 2013.
  60. ^ "IBB: Deregulation Ill-timed". Archived from the original on 9 January 2012.
  61. ^ Owete, Festus (16 February 2014). "Between Jonathan's National Conference and Obasanjo's National Political Reform Conference: What You Need To Know". Premium Times Nigeria. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  62. ^ "What did Nigeria's National Conference achieve?". BBC News. 26 August 2014. Retrieved 24 June 2020.
  63. ^ Oduyemi, Rachael O.; Ayegboyin, Matthew; Salami, Kabiru K. (2016). "Perceptions of Ebola virus disease in Nigeria: Understanding the influence of imagination on health orientation". International Journal of Nursing Practice. 22 (3): 291–299. doi:10.1111/ijn.12425. ISSN 1440-172X. PMID 27080239.
  64. ^ Ibekwe, Nicholas (13 August 2014). "Ebola: Why Patrick Sawyer travelled to Nigeria – Wife". Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  65. ^ "Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak – Nigeria, July–September 2014". Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  66. ^ Wilson, Jacque (29 July 2014). "Ebola outbreak kills an American". CNN. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  67. ^ "Ebola outbreak: nurse who treated first victim in Nigeria dies". the Guardian. 6 August 2014. Retrieved 31 May 2020.
  68. ^ "My encounter with Patrick Sawyer— Adadevoh". Vanguard News. 23 August 2014. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  69. ^ Otu, Akaninyene; Ameh, Soter; Osifo-Dawodu, Egbe; Alade, Enoma; Ekuri, Susan; Idris, Jide (10 July 2017). "An account of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Nigeria: implications and lessons learnt". BMC Public Health. 18 (1): 3. doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4535-x. ISSN 1471-2458. PMC 5504668. PMID 28693453.
  70. ^ "Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak – Nigeria, July–September 2014". Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  71. ^ Shuaib, Faisal; Gunnala, Rajni; Musa, Emmanuel O.; Mahoney, Frank J.; Oguntimehin, Olukayode; Nguku, Patrick M.; Nyanti, Sara Beysolow; Knight, Nancy; Gwarzo, Nasir Sani; Idigbe, Oni; Nasidi, Abdulsalam (3 October 2014). "Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak – Nigeria, July–September 2014". MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 63 (39): 867–872. ISSN 0149-2195. PMC 4584877. PMID 25275332.
  72. ^ World Health Organisation (2014). "WHO: EBOLA RESPONSE ROADMAP UPDATE". WHO.
  73. ^ a b "The simple reason Nigeria just banned gay marriage and gay meetings". Business Insider. 14 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015.
  74. ^ Associated Press (13 January 2014) Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships Archived 24 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine The Guardian. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  75. ^ "Nigeria's president signs law imposing up to 14 years' jail for gay relationships". The Guardian. 13 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 February 2014. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  76. ^ Fredrick Nzwili (16 January 2014). "Nigeria's religious leaders welcome controversial anti-gay law". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2017.
  77. ^ "'Jonathan Begged Me To Blame North For October 1 Blasts', Henry Okah Claims". The Street Journal. 2 May 2012. Archived from the original on 6 May 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  78. ^ "Two Nigerian cities under attack". BBC News. 1 December 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  79. ^ "Timeline of Boko Haram attacks and related violence – Nigeria". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  80. ^ "Profile: Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau". BBC News. 9 May 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  81. ^ "Boko Haram attacks – timeline". The Guardian. 25 September 2012. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  82. ^ Abubakar, Tasiu (2014). "The Boko Haram Sparks" (PDF). Journal of African Media Studies: 97–110 – via
  83. ^ Winnett, Robert (8 March 2012). "British hostage killed in failed SBS rescue bid". Daily Telegraph. ISSN 0307-1235. Archived from the original on 12 January 2022. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  84. ^ "Boko Haram Declares War On Elderly People, Slaughter Over 50 In Borno". BizWatchNigeria.Ng. 22 December 2014. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  85. ^ Greg Botelho, "Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan declares emergency in 3 states" Archived 17 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, CNN, 14 May 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
  86. ^ "Nigeria orders 20-year jail term for Boko Haram support" Archived 25 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Reuters, 5 June 2013.
  87. ^ "Military-insurgents clashes kill 35 in Nigeria". DAWN.COM. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2020.
  88. ^ "Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan sacks military chiefs" Archived 2 December 2018 at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, 16 January 2014.
  89. ^ Blame Boko Haram for the abduction of Chibok girls - Jonathan Archived 25 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 May 2014
  90. ^ "Nigerian government 'called off deal' to free kidnapped girls". Nigeria Sun. Archived from the original on 28 May 2014. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  91. ^ Muyiwa, Afolabi. "AFRICAN INSURGENCY the challenges of peace and security".
  92. ^ "EXCLUSIVE INTERVIEW: You will soon see that APC is grossly overrated, says Jonathan – TheCable". TheCable. 26 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 April 2018. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  93. ^ "Cabinet minister: Nigerian president concedes to Buhari". MSN News. 31 March 2015. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  94. ^ Wakili, Isiaka (20 May 2015). "Jonathan to PDP: Don't mourn my loss". Daily Trust. Archived from the original on 20 May 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  95. ^ "Goodluck Jonathan gets new appointment". P.M. News. 24 May 2019. Archived from the original on 26 May 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  96. ^ Yusuf, Omotayo (7 June 2019). "Goodluck Jonathan emerges chairperson of International Summit Council for Peace". Archived from the original on 7 June 2019. Retrieved 7 September 2019.
  97. ^ "ECOWAS names ex-president Jonathan special envoy for Mali". The Guardian. 15 July 2020.
  98. ^ "Ex-Nigerian president Goodluck Jonathan in Mali to mediate crisis". Africanews. 16 July 2020.
  99. ^ "2023 PRESIDENCY: Jonathan makes U-turn on APC ticket". Vanguard News. 11 May 2022. Retrieved 12 May 2022.
  100. ^ "Final AU, COMESA, EOM preliminary statement on 2023 harmonised elections" (PDF). African Union. Retrieved 26 August 2023.
  101. ^ "Luck runs out for president Goodluck Jonathan as Nigerian opposition wins landmark election". South China Morning Post. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  102. ^ Ibenegbu, George (20 November 2018). "Top facts from the biography of the former President Goodluck Jonathan". Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  103. ^ Photos: Jonathan, kids patronise Nigerian restaurant in London on May Day - Vanguard News
  104. ^ @renoomokri (22 March 2014). "President Jonathan being decorated as Grand Commander of Order of the Most Ancient Welwitschia Mirabilis, 1st Class" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  105. ^ "Jonathan, Wife Conferred With Chieftaincy Titles". Information NG. Nigeria. 1 November 2013. Retrieved 29 February 2020.

Further reading

Political offices Preceded byDiepreye Alamieyeseigha Governor of Bayelsa State 2005–2007 Succeeded byTimipre Sylva Preceded byAtiku Abubakar Vice President of Nigeria 2007–2010 Succeeded byNamadi Sambo Preceded byUmaru Yar'Adua President of Nigeria 2010–2015 Succeeded byMuhammadu Buhari Diplomatic posts Preceded byUmaru Yar'Adua Chairperson of theEconomic Community of West African States 2010–12 Succeeded byAlassane Ouattara Party political offices Preceded byUmaru Yar'Adua People's Democratic Partynominee for President of Nigeria 2011, 2015 Succeeded byAtiku Abubakar