A greylag goose (Anser anser).
A greylag goose (Anser anser).

A goose (plural geese) is a bird of any of several waterfowl species in the family Anatidae. This group comprises the genera Anser (the grey geese and white geese) and Branta (the black geese). Some other birds, mostly related to the shelducks, have "goose" as part of their names. More distantly related members of the family Anatidae are swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller.

The term "goose" may refer to either a male or female bird, but when paired with "gander", refers specifically to a female one (the latter referring to a male). Young birds before fledging are called goslings.[1] The collective noun for a group of geese on the ground is a gaggle; when in flight, they are called a skein, a team, or a wedge; when flying close together, they are called a plump.[2]

Etymology

The word "goose" is a direct descendant of Proto-Indo-European root, ghans-. In Germanic languages, the root gave Old English gōs with the plural gēs and gandres (becoming Modern English goose, geese, gander, and gosling, respectively), Frisian goes, gies and guoske, New High German Gans, Gänse, and Ganter, and Old Norse gās.

This term also gave Lithuanian: žąsìs, Irish: (goose, from Old Irish géiss), Latin: anser, Spanish: ganso, Ancient Greek: χήν (khēn), Dutch: gans, Albanian: gatë (heron), Sanskrit haṃsa and haṃsī ("gander" and "goose", also the words for male and female swans), Finnish: hanhi, Avestan zāō, Polish: gęś, Romanian: gâscă / gânsac, Ukrainian: гуска / гусак (huska / husak), Russian: гусыня / гусь (gusyna / gus), Czech: husa, and Persian: غاز (ghāz).[1][3]

True geese and their relatives

Snow geese (Anser caerulescens) in Quebec, Canada
Snow geese (Anser caerulescens) in Quebec, Canada
Chinese geese (Anser cygnoides domesticus), the domesticated form of the swan goose (Anser cygnoides)
Chinese geese (Anser cygnoides domesticus), the domesticated form of the swan goose (Anser cygnoides)

The two living genera of true geese are: Anser, grey geese and white geese, such as the greylag goose and snow goose, and Branta, black geese, such as the Canada goose.

Two genera of geese are only tentatively placed in the Anserinae; they may belong to the shelducks or form a subfamily on their own: Cereopsis, the Cape Barren goose, and Cnemiornis, the prehistoric New Zealand goose. Either these or, more probably, the goose-like coscoroba swan is the closest living relative of the true geese.

Fossils of true geese are hard to assign to genus; all that can be said is that their fossil record, particularly in North America, is dense and comprehensively documents many different species of true geese that have been around since about 10 million years ago in the Miocene. The aptly named Anser atavus (meaning "progenitor goose") from some 12 million years ago had even more plesiomorphies in common with swans. In addition, some goose-like birds are known from subfossil remains found on the Hawaiian Islands.

Geese are monogamous, living in permanent pairs throughout the year; however, unlike most other permanently monogamous animals, they are territorial only during the short nesting season. Paired geese are more dominant and feed more, two factors that result in more young.[4][5]

Geese honk while in flight to encourage other members of the flock to maintain a 'v-formation' and to help communicate with one another.[6]

History

Geese fossils have been found ranging from 10 to 12 million years ago. Fossils found in the Gagarno region of central Italy suggest the existence of a pre-historic relative of the goose, that stood one and a half metres tall. The evidence suggests the bird was flightless unlike modern geese.[7]

Migratory patterns

Geese like the Canada goose do not always migrate. Some members of the species only move south enough to ensure a supply of food and water. When European settlers came to America, the birds were seen as easy prey and were almost wiped out of the population. The species was reintroduced across the northern U.S. range and their population has been growing ever since.[8]

Preparation

Geese typically migrate in the fall and in order to prepare for this travel they start in the summer by igniting a process called molting. A process where the birds shed their old feathers and grow new ones to prepare for the journey ahead. During the process of molting, geese are unable to fly and tend to reside in the water for protection. Baby geese that are born in the spring are typically ready for travel by the time fall comes around. Much like how animals who hibernate, geese eat more during the time they prepare for migration.[9]

Navigation

Migratory geese, unlike other migratory birds, wait until their environment is no longer supplementing them with resources before they decide to travel. In order to travel, geese remember landmarks as well as use the sun and the moon, and past experience to navigate their journey. For orientation, geese use earth's magnetic field. Different flocks in the same area typically travel along the same path. They do not travel nonstop, they take breaks at common landmarks for other flocks to gain fat that was lost during flying. Geese have to adjust and accommodate their migration habits for changes in environment, they must remain flexible.[9] In just 24 hours the most commonly seen migratory goose, the Canada goose, can travel 1,500 miles.[8]

Formation

Geese, like other birds, fly in a V formation. During flight, communication between each bird is important and the V formation can make that easier. They use this technique for two reasons, to slow down energy loss and to keep track of every bird in the formation.[10] The birds in the back of the formation use pockets of air from the movement of the birds in front to help keep them aloft. Each bird takes a turn in the front of the formation to ensure longer flights with fewer stops. Taking turns allows the birds at the front of the formation to take rests. Typically it is older birds in the front of the formation and younger birds in the back. Placement of the birds and their movements during flying are very important in how this formation works.[11]

Other birds called "geese"

Some mainly Southern Hemisphere birds are called "geese", most of which belong to the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae. These are:

Others:

In popular culture

Well-known sayings about geese include:[citation needed]

"Gray Goose Laws" in Iceland

The oldest collection of Medieval Icelandic laws is known as "Grágás"; i.e., the Gray Goose Laws.

Various etymologies were offered for that name:

Gallery

See also

Three flying geese in the coat of arms of Polvijärvi
Three flying geese in the coat of arms of Polvijärvi

References

  1. ^ a b Partridge, Eric (1983). Origins: a Short Etymological Dictionary of Modern English. New York: Greenwich House. pp. 245–246. ISBN 0-517-414252.
  2. ^ "AskOxford: G". Collective Terms for Groups of Animals. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 20 October 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2011.
  3. ^ Crystal, David (1998). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language. ISBN 0-521-55967-7.
  4. ^ Lamprecht, Jürg (1987). "Female reproductive strategies in bar-headed geese (Anser indicus): Why are geese monogamous?". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Springer. 21 (5): 297–305. doi:10.1007/BF00299967. S2CID 34973918.
  5. ^ "Canada Goose". National Geographic. 10 May 2011. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  6. ^ "Interesting facts about geese". justfunfacts.com. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  7. ^ "Fossils from ancient extinct giant flightless goose suggests it was a fighter". phys.org. Retrieved 21 November 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Do Canada geese still fly south for winter? Yes, but it's complicated". Animals. 2020-12-16. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  9. ^ a b Langen, Tom. "How do geese know how to fly south for the winter?". The Conversation. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  10. ^ "Why do geese fly in a V?". Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. 20540 USA. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  11. ^ "Birds That Fly in a V Formation Use An Amazing Trick". Science. 2014-01-15. Retrieved 2021-12-08.
  12. ^ Howard, Hildegarde (1955). "New Records and a New Species of Chendytes, an Extinct Genus of Diving Geese". The Condor. 57 (3): 135–143. doi:10.2307/1364861. JSTOR 1364861.
  13. ^ Roland, James. "What’s Causing This Bump on My Forehead, and Should I Be Concerned?" HealthLine, 2 August 2018. Retrieved 24 March 2020. https://www.healthline.com/health/bump-on-forehead
  14. ^ Boulhosa, Patricia Press. “The Law of Óláfr inn Helgi.” In Icelanders and the Kings of Norway: Mediaeval Sagas and Legal Texts. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill, 2005.
  15. ^ Byock, Jesse L., Medieval Iceland: Society, Sagas, and Power, Berkeley: University of California, 1990
  16. ^ Byock, Jesse L. "Grágás: The 'Grey Goose' Law in Viking Age Iceland London: Penguin, 2001.

Further reading