Turkey breeds are reported to the DAD-IS breed database of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations by more than sixty countries.[1] The breeds reported include commercial/industrial strains, local types and recognised breeds in many countries.

United States

Twenty breeds are reported to DAD-IS by the United States.[2] Eight of them are recognised by the American Poultry Association in its breed standard, the American Standard of Perfection, where however they are classified as "varieties" rather than as breeds.[citation needed] This may be because the original genotype for domestic turkeys was for Bronze, and all other color varieties are due to mutations from it.[citation needed]

APA varieties

Variety Year admitted
by APA[3]
Type Comments images
Beltsville Small White 1951 heritage turkey Created by the USDA at Beltsville Agricultural Research Center in Beltsville Maryland,
Once very popular, it is now rare.[4]
Black turkey 1874 heritage turkey Alternatively called Spanish Black or Norfolk Black or American Black.
Bourbon Red 1909 heritage turkey
Bronze 1874 heritage turkey The Broad Breasted Bronze, like the Broad Breasted White,
are nonstandardized commercial strains that do not qualify as a variety.
Narragansett 1874 heritage turkey
Royal Palm 1977 heritage turkey Largely ornamental, mostly white with distinctive black banding.
Slate 1874 heritage turkey Alternatively known as Blue Slate or Lavender.
White Holland 1874


Twelve breeds are recognized by the Entente Européenne d'Aviculture et de Cuniculture.[5] Others with breed standards of European national associations are accepted.

EE breeds

Variety (by National Standards) Variety (colour) country of origin Comments
American Blue (Slate Turkey) gray/blue USA
American Bronze Brown/Black base color with white near some of the turkey's feather tips. USA
American Black USA Pink legs and horn-colored beak. Spanish Black and Norfolk Black have black pigmented legs and beak.
Beltsville Small White white USA
Dindon du Bourbonnais black F
Cambridge Bronze GB
Deutsche Pute D with EE-Standard of Perfection
Deutsche Pute blue D
Bourbon Red D
Bronze D
Cröllwitzer D ≈Royal Palm (USA)
Buff D
Bronce D
narragansett coloured D
Red D
Red Winged D
Black D
Black Winged Bronze D
British white D
French turkey (Dindon) porcelan coloured F
Dindon du Gers schwarz F
Tacchino castano d'Italia I
Tacchino nero d'Italia black I
Pavo oscense black SP
Narragansett USA
Norfolk Black Turkey GB
Dindon de Ronquières fauve B
à épaulettes jaunes B Tricoloré du Colorado (F), ≈Sweetgrass (USA)
jaspé B ≈Royal Palm (USA), ≈Cröllwitzer (EE)
perdrix B Krefelder Pute (D)
White (blanc) B
Royal Palm black and white GB
Dindon rouge des Ardennes B/F a French breed, supposedly brought to Flanders in the 16th century from Mexico by the Spanish.
Dindon de Sologne black F
Czech turkey (Česká krůta) Czech Wild White-braided Turkey (Divocezbarvené bíle lemované) CZ
šedědivocezbarvene bíle lemované CZ
White Holland USA
English Turkey buff E

Other varieties not recognized by the APA or EE include the following:

See also


  1. ^ Breed data sheet: Turkey. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed December 2019.
  2. ^ Breed data sheet: United States of America, Turkey. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed December 2019.
  3. ^ "APA Recognized Breeds and Varieties" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-01-24. Retrieved 2012-11-30.
  4. ^ Ekarius, Carol (2007). Storey's Illustrated Guide to Poultry Breeds. Storey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-58017-667-5.
  5. ^ "Listing Breed and Colour in the EE Standard". Archived from the original on 2013-06-16. Retrieved 2013-06-11.