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There are dozens of cultivars of the onion (Allium cepa), one of the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium, But there are also other species cultivated as 'onions'. Many are named after the first person to breed them, or the locality they came from. Different localities often use their own common names for cultivars that are genetically almost identical. Sometimes different cultivars are known by the same common name (for example the name 'Chinese chives' could be referring to Allium odorum or Allium tuberosum). This list is based on the USDAs accepted classification.[1]

Cultivar names

Common name Scientific name Image Notes
Abrams' onion Allium abramsii
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Allegheny onion Allium allegheniense
Aspen onion Allium bisceptrum
S. Watson var. palmeri (S. Watson) Cronquist
Autumn onion Allium stellatum
Fraser ex Ker Gawl.
Bear garlic, Ramsons, Wild Garlic Allium ursinum
Beegum onion Allium hoffmanii
Bigelow's onion Allium bigelovii
S. Watson
Black garlic Allium nigrum
Blue Mountain onion Allium dictuon
H. St. John
Bolander's onion Allium bolanderi
S. Watson and vars. bolanderi, mirabile, stenanthum
Brandegee's onion Allium brandegeei
S. Watson
Broadleaf wild leek Allium ampeloprasum
Broadleaf wild leek Allium atroviolaceum
Broadstemmed onion Allium platycaule
S. Watson
Bulbil onion Allium geyeri
S. Watson var. tenerum M.E. Jones
Burlew's onion Allium burlewii
Cascade onion Allium cratericola
Chinese chives Allium odorum
Chinese chives Allium tuberosum
Rottler ex Spreng.
Clokey's onion Allium howellii
Eastw. var. clokeyi Ownbey & Aase
Coastal onion Allium dichlamydeum
Columbian onion Allium columbianum
(Ownbey & Mingrone) P. Peterson, Annable & Rieseberg
Compact onion Allium vineale
L. ssp. compactum (Thuill.) Coss. & Germ.
Congdon's onion Allium sanbornii
Alph. Wood var. congdonii Jeps.
Crinkled onion Allium crispum
Cuddy Mountain onion Allium fibrillum
M.E. Jones
Cultivated garlic Allium sativum
Darkred onion Allium atrorubens
S. Watson and vars. atrorubens, cristatum
Dotted onion Allium punctum
L.F. Hend.
Douglas' onion Allium douglasii
Drummond's onion Allium drummondii
Dusky onion Allium campanulatum
S. Watson
Early onion Allium praecox
Egyptian onion Allium proliferum
(hybrid of A. cepa and A. fistulosum)
Elmendorf's onion Allium elmendorfii
M.E. Jones ex Ownbey
Field garlic Allium oleraceum
Fragile onion Allium scilloides
Douglas ex S. Watson
Fraser meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. var. fraseri Ownbey
Fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson and var. fimbriatum
Garden leek Allium porrum
Garden onion Allium cepa
  • Allium cepa var. aggregatum G. Don
  • Allium cepa var. anglicum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. argenteum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. bifolium Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. bulbiferum Regel
  • Allium cepa var. crinides Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. flandricum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. globosum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. hispanicum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. jamesii Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. lisboanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. luteum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. multiplicans L.H. Bailey
  • Allium cepa var. portanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. praecox Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. proliferum (Moench) Regel
  • Allium cepa var. rosum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. sanguineum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. solaninum Alef
  • Allium cepa var. sylvestre Regel
  • Allium cepa var. tripolitanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. viviparum (Metz) Mansf.
  • Allium cepaeum St.-Lag.
  • Allium commune Noronha
  • Allium cumaria Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
  • Allium esculentum Salisb.
  • Allium napus Pall. ex Kunth
  • Allium nigritanum A.Chev. [Invalid]
  • Allium pauciflorum Willd. ex Ledeb.
  • Allium salota Dostál
  • Ascalonicum sativum P.Renault
  • Cepa alba P.Renault
  • Cepa esculenta Gray
  • Cepa pallens P.Renault
  • Cepa rubra P.Renault
  • Cepa vulgaris (L.) Garsault [invalid]
  • Kepa esculenta (L.) Raf.
  • Porrum cepa (L.) Rchb.
  • [2][3][4]
Geyer's onion Allium geyeri
S. Watson and vars. chatterleyi, geyeri
Gland onion Allium glandulosum
Link & Otto
Glassy onion Allium hyalinum
Goodding's onion Allium gooddingii
Grand Coulee onion Allium constrictum
(Ownbey & Mingrone) P. Peterson, Annable & Rieseberg
Hickman's onion Allium hickmanii
Howell's onion Allium howellii
Eastw. and var. howellii
Hyacinth meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush) Ownbey & Aase
Jepson's onion Allium jepsonii
(Ownbey & Aase) S. Denison & McNeal
Jeweled onion Allium serra
McNeal & Ownbey
Kern's pitted onion Allium lacunosum
S. Watson var. kernense McNeal & Ownbey
Kunth's onion Allium kunthii
G. Don
Largeflower onion Allium macropetalum
Lemmon's onion Allium lemmonii
S. Watson
Lillydale onion Allium oxyphilum
Little River Canyon onion Allium speculae
Ownbey & Aase
Manyflower onion Allium pleianthum
S. Watson
Meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. and vars. canadense, ecristatum, lavandulare, mobilense
Mediterranean onion Allium paniculatum
Mexicali onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene
Mojave fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson var. mohavense (Tidestr.) Jeps.
Munz's onion Allium munzii
(Ownbey ex Traub) McNeal
Narrowleaf onion Allium amplectens
Narrowleaf wild leek Allium burdickii
(Hanes) A.G. Jones
Nevada onion Allium nevadense
S. Watson
Nevius' garlic Allium nevii
S. Watson
New Mexican nodding onion Allium cernuum
Roth var. neomexicanum (Rydb.) J.F. Macbr.
Nodding onion Allium cernuum
Roth and vars. cernuum, obtusum
Olympic onion Allium crenulatum
One-leaf onion Allium unifolium
Pacific onion Allium validum
S. Watson
Papery onion Allium membranaceum
Parish's onion Allium parishii
S. Watson
Parry's fringed onion Allium parryi
S. Watson
Passey's onion Allium passeyi
N.H. Holmgren & A.H. Holmgren
Peninsula onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene var. peninsulare
Many references give the common name "Peninsula Onion", this may be a perpetuated typo, but EOL[5] uses "Peninsula onion"
Pitted onion Allium lacunosum
S. Watson and vars. davisiae, lacunosum, lacunosum, micranthum
Plains onion Allium perdulce
S.V. Fraser and var.perdulce
Purdy's fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson var. purdyi (Eastw.) Ownbey & Aase
Rakkyo Allium chinense
G. Don
Ramp Allium tricoccum
Rawhide Hill onion Allium tuolumnense
(Ownbey & Aase) S. Denison & McNeal
Red Sierra onion Allium obtusum
Lemmon and vars. conspicuum, obtusum
Redskin onion Allium haematochiton
S. Watson
Robinson's onion Allium robinsonii
L.F. Hend.
Rock onion Allium macrum
S. Watson
Runyon's onion Allium runyonii
San Benito onion Allium howellii
Eastw. var. sanbenitense (Traub) Ownbey & Aase
San Bernardino Mountain onion Allium monticola
San Francisco onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene var. franciscanum McNeal & Ownbey
Sanborn's onion Allium sanbornii
Alph. Wood and var. sanbornii
Sand leek Allium scorodoprasum
L. and ssp. rotundum
Scytheleaf onion Allium falcifolium
Hook. & Arn.
Serpentine onion Allium diabolense
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Sevendevils onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson var. persimile Ownbey
Sharsmith's onion Allium sharsmithiae
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Shortstyle onion Allium brevistylum
S. Watson
Simil onion Allium simillimum
L.F. Hend.
Siskiyou onion Allium siskiyouense
Small onion Allium parvum
South Idaho onion Allium aaseae
Spanish Needle onion Allium shevockii
Sperry's onion Allium perdulce
S.V. Fraser var. sperryi Ownbey
Striped garlic Allium cuthbertii
Swamp onion Allium madidum
S. Watson
Tanners Canyon onion Allium plummerae
S. Watson
Tapertip onion Allium acuminatum
Textile onion Allium textile
A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.
Threebract onion Allium tribracteatum
Threecorner leek Allium triquetrum
Tolmie's onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson and var. tolmiei
Toothed onion Allium denticulatum
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Triploid onion Allium cornutum
Twincrest onion Allium bisceptrum
S. Watson and var. bisceptrum
Twinleaf onion Allium anceps
Victory onion Allium victorialis
Wakegi onion Allium wakegi
(hybrid between A. cepa and A. fistulosum)
Wallowa onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson var. platyphyllum (Tidestr.) Ownbey
Welsh onion Allium fistulosum
White garlic Allium neapolitanum
Wild chives Allium schoenoprasum
L. and vars. schoenoprasum, sibiricum
Wild garlic Allium vineale
L. and ssp. vineale
Wild onion Allium ascalonicum
Yellowflower onion Allium coryi
M.E. Jones
Yosemite onion Allium yosemitense


  1. ^ "Classification USDA PLANTS". 2014-03-15.
  2. ^ "The Plant List, Allium cepa". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Allium cepa: Garden onion". The PLANTS Database. USDA: NRCS. 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
  4. ^ "Allium cepa L." ITIS. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
  5. ^ "Mexicali Onion - Allium peninsulare - Common names - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 17 October 2018.