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There are dozens of cultivars of the onion (Allium cepa), one of the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium, But there are also other species cultivated as 'onions'. Many are named after the first person to breed them, or the locality they came from. Different localities often use their own common names for cultivars that are genetically almost identical. Sometimes different cultivars are known by the same common name (for example the name 'Chinese chives' could be referring to Allium odorum or Allium tuberosum). This list is based on the USDAs accepted classification.[1]

Cultivar names

Common name Scientific name Image Notes
Abrams' onion Allium abramsii
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Allegheny onion Allium allegheniense
Aspen onion Allium bisceptrum
S. Watson var. palmeri (S. Watson) Cronquist
Allium Bisceptrum.jpg
Autumn onion Allium stellatum
Fraser ex Ker Gawl.
Allium stellatum TN.jpg
Bear garlic, Ramsons, Wild Garlic Allium ursinum
Allium ursinum0.jpg
Beegum onion Allium hoffmanii
Bigelow's onion Allium bigelovii
S. Watson
Black garlic Allium nigrum
Allium nigrum (Allium magicum) Bot. Mag. 29. 1148. 1809.jpg
Blue Mountain onion Allium dictuon
H. St. John
Bolander's onion Allium bolanderi
S. Watson and vars. bolanderi, mirabile, stenanthum
Brandegee's onion Allium brandegeei
S. Watson
Broadleaf wild leek Allium ampeloprasum
A.ampeloprasum 1.jpg
Broadleaf wild leek Allium atroviolaceum
Broadstemmed onion Allium platycaule
S. Watson
Bulbil onion Allium geyeri
S. Watson var. tenerum M.E. Jones
Allium geyeri.jpg
Burlew's onion Allium burlewii
Cascade onion Allium cratericola
Allium cratericola.jpg
Chinese chives Allium odorum
Chinese chives Allium tuberosum
Rottler ex Spreng.
Allium tuberosum2.jpg
Clokey's onion Allium howellii
Eastw. var. clokeyi Ownbey & Aase
Coastal onion Allium dichlamydeum
Allium dichlamydeum.jpg
Columbian onion Allium columbianum
(Ownbey & Mingrone) P. Peterson, Annable & Rieseberg
Compact onion Allium vineale
L. ssp. compactum (Thuill.) Coss. & Germ.
Congdon's onion Allium sanbornii
Alph. Wood var. congdonii Jeps.
Allium sanbornii congdonii.jpg
Crinkled onion Allium crispum
Allium crispum 3.jpg
Cuddy Mountain onion Allium fibrillum
M.E. Jones
Cultivated garlic Allium sativum
Allium sativum Woodwill 1793.jpg
Darkred onion Allium atrorubens
S. Watson and vars. atrorubens, cristatum
Dotted onion Allium punctum
L.F. Hend.
Douglas' onion Allium douglasii
Drummond's onion Allium drummondii
Allium drummondii drawing.png
Dusky onion Allium campanulatum
S. Watson
Early onion Allium praecox
Egyptian onion Allium proliferum
(hybrid of A. cepa and A. fistulosum)
Allium fistulosum bulbifera0.jpg
Elmendorf's onion Allium elmendorfii
M.E. Jones ex Ownbey
Field garlic Allium oleraceum
Allium oleraceum - rohulauk Keilas2.jpg
Fragile onion Allium scilloides
Douglas ex S. Watson
Fraser meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. var. fraseri Ownbey
Allium canadense.jpg
Fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson and var. fimbriatum
Allium fimbriatum.jpeg
Garden leek Allium porrum
Garden onion Allium cepa
Mixed onions.jpg
  • Allium cepa var. aggregatum G. Don
  • Allium cepa var. anglicum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. argenteum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. bifolium Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. bulbiferum Regel
  • Allium cepa var. crinides Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. flandricum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. globosum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. hispanicum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. jamesii Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. lisboanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. luteum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. multiplicans L.H. Bailey
  • Allium cepa var. portanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. praecox Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. proliferum (Moench) Regel
  • Allium cepa var. rosum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. sanguineum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. solaninum Alef
  • Allium cepa var. sylvestre Regel
  • Allium cepa var. tripolitanum Alef.
  • Allium cepa var. viviparum (Metz) Mansf.
  • Allium cepaeum St.-Lag.
  • Allium commune Noronha
  • Allium cumaria Buch.-Ham. ex Wall.
  • Allium esculentum Salisb.
  • Allium napus Pall. ex Kunth
  • Allium nigritanum A.Chev. [Invalid]
  • Allium pauciflorum Willd. ex Ledeb.
  • Allium salota Dostál
  • Ascalonicum sativum P.Renault
  • Cepa alba P.Renault
  • Cepa esculenta Gray
  • Cepa pallens P.Renault
  • Cepa rubra P.Renault
  • Cepa vulgaris (L.) Garsault [invalid]
  • Kepa esculenta (L.) Raf.
  • Porrum cepa (L.) Rchb.
  • [2][3][4]
Geyer's onion Allium geyeri
S. Watson and vars. chatterleyi, geyeri
Allium geyeri.jpg
Gland onion Allium glandulosum
Link & Otto
Glassy onion Allium hyalinum
Goodding's onion Allium gooddingii
Grand Coulee onion Allium constrictum
(Ownbey & Mingrone) P. Peterson, Annable & Rieseberg
Hickman's onion Allium hickmanii
Howell's onion Allium howellii
Eastw. and var. howellii
Hyacinth meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. var. hyacinthoides (Bush) Ownbey & Aase
Allium canadense.jpg
Jepson's onion Allium jepsonii
(Ownbey & Aase) S. Denison & McNeal
Jeweled onion Allium serra
McNeal & Ownbey
Allium serra.jpg
Kern's pitted onion Allium lacunosum
S. Watson var. kernense McNeal & Ownbey
Kunth's onion Allium kunthii
G. Don
Largeflower onion Allium macropetalum
Lemmon's onion Allium lemmonii
S. Watson
Lillydale onion Allium oxyphilum
Little River Canyon onion Allium speculae
Ownbey & Aase
Allium speculae.jpg
Manyflower onion Allium pleianthum
S. Watson
Onion (3508877673).jpg
Meadow garlic Allium canadense
L. and vars. canadense, ecristatum, lavandulare, mobilense
Mediterranean onion Allium paniculatum
Allium paniculatum Enfoque 2011-6-11 CampodeCalatrava.jpg
Mexicali onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene
Mojave fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson var. mohavense (Tidestr.) Jeps.
Allium fimbriatum.jpeg
Munz's onion Allium munzii
(Ownbey ex Traub) McNeal
Allium munzii.jpg
Narrowleaf onion Allium amplectens
Allium amplectens 0061.JPG
Narrowleaf wild leek Allium burdickii
(Hanes) A.G. Jones
Nevada onion Allium nevadense
S. Watson
Allium nevadense 6.jpg
Nevius' garlic Allium nevii
S. Watson
New Mexican nodding onion Allium cernuum
Roth var. neomexicanum (Rydb.) J.F. Macbr.
Allium cernuum-IMG 4315.jpg
Nodding onion Allium cernuum
Roth and vars. cernuum, obtusum
Allium cernuum 2853.JPG
Olympic onion Allium crenulatum
Allium crenulatum 5231.JPG
One-leaf onion Allium unifolium
Allium unifolium.jpg
Pacific onion Allium validum
S. Watson
Allium validum flower.jpg
Papery onion Allium membranaceum
Parish's onion Allium parishii
S. Watson
Allium parishii.jpg
Parry's fringed onion Allium parryi
S. Watson
Passey's onion Allium passeyi
N.H. Holmgren & A.H. Holmgren
Peninsula onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene var. peninsulare
Many references give the common name "Penisula Onion", this may be a perpetuated typo, but EOL[5] uses "Peninsula onion"
Pitted onion Allium lacunosum
S. Watson and vars. davisiae, lacunosum, lacunosum, micranthum
Plains onion Allium perdulce
S.V. Fraser and var.perdulce
Purdy's fringed onion Allium fimbriatum
S. Watson var. purdyi (Eastw.) Ownbey & Aase
Rakkyo Allium chinense
G. Don
Allium chinense1.jpg
Ramp Allium tricoccum
Wild Leeks.jpeg
Rawhide Hill onion Allium tuolumnense
(Ownbey & Aase) S. Denison & McNeal
Allium tuolumnense 2.jpg
Red Sierra onion Allium obtusum
Lemmon and vars. conspicuum, obtusum
Redskin onion Allium haematochiton
S. Watson
Allium haematochiton 8042.JPG
Robinson's onion Allium robinsonii
L.F. Hend.
Allium robinsonii 1934.JPG
Rock onion Allium macrum
S. Watson
Allium macrum 1206085.jpg
Runyon's onion Allium runyonii
San Benito onion Allium howellii
Eastw. var. sanbenitense (Traub) Ownbey & Aase
San Bernardino Mountain onion Allium monticola
San Francisco onion Allium peninsulare
Lemmon ex Greene var. franciscanum McNeal & Ownbey
Sanborn's onion Allium sanbornii
Alph. Wood and var. sanbornii
Allium sanbornii congdonii.jpg
Sand leek Allium scorodoprasum
L. and ssp. rotundum
Illustration Allium scorodoprasum and Allium porrum0.jpg
Scytheleaf onion Allium falcifolium
Hook. & Arn.
Allium falcifolium 4584.JPG
Serpentine onion Allium diabolense
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Sevendevils onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson var. persimile Ownbey
Sharsmith's onion Allium sharsmithiae
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Shortstyle onion Allium brevistylum
S. Watson
Simil onion Allium simillimum
L.F. Hend.
Siskiyou onion Allium siskiyouense
Allium siskiyouense.jpeg
Small onion Allium parvum
Table Rock Allium Parvum.jpg
South Idaho onion Allium aaseae
Spanish Needle onion Allium shevockii
Sperry's onion Allium perdulce
S.V. Fraser var. sperryi Ownbey
Striped garlic Allium cuthbertii
Swamp onion Allium madidum
S. Watson
Tanners Canyon onion Allium plummerae
S. Watson
Tapertip onion Allium acuminatum
Textile onion Allium textile
A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr.
Threebract onion Allium tribracteatum
Threecorner leek Allium triquetrum
Allium triquetrum01.jpg
Tolmie's onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson and var. tolmiei
Toothed onion Allium denticulatum
(Ownbey & Aase) McNeal
Triploid onion Allium cornutum
Twincrest onion Allium bisceptrum
S. Watson and var. bisceptrum
Allium Bisceptrum.jpg
Twinleaf onion Allium anceps
Twinleaf onion NV 2.jpg
Victory onion Allium victorialis
Allium victorialis 090705a.jpg
Wakegi onion Allium wakegi
(hybrid between A. cepa and A. fistulosum)
Wallowa onion Allium tolmiei
(Hook.) Baker ex S. Watson var. platyphyllum (Tidestr.) Ownbey
Welsh onion Allium fistulosum
White garlic Allium neapolitanum
Wild chives Allium schoenoprasum
L. and vars. schoenoprasum, sibiricum
Illustration Allium schoenoprasum and Allium cepa0 clean.jpg
Wild garlic Allium vineale
L. and ssp. vineale
Wild onion Allium ascalonicum
Allium ascalonicum flower Brisbane.jpg
Yellowflower onion Allium coryi
M.E. Jones
Yosemite onion Allium yosemitense
JEPS190307 Allium yosemitense (5521048438).jpg


  1. ^ "Classification USDA PLANTS". 2014-03-15.
  2. ^ "The Plant List, Allium cepa". Retrieved 17 October 2018.
  3. ^ "Allium cepa: Garden onion". The PLANTS Database. USDA: NRCS. 2013. Retrieved 2013-03-31.
  4. ^ "Allium cepa L." ITIS. 2013-03-08. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
  5. ^ "Mexicali Onion - Allium peninsulare - Common names - Encyclopedia of Life". Encyclopedia of Life. Retrieved 17 October 2018.