Hamina
Fredrikshamn
Town
Haminan kaupunki
Fredrikshamns stad
Clockwise from top-left: St. Mary's Church, the Reserve Officer School, the countryside of Husula neighbourhood, a view from the Sailor Pavilion towards Tervasaari and the historical Town Hall.
Clockwise from top-left: St. Mary's Church, the Reserve Officer School, the countryside of Husula neighbourhood, a view from the Sailor Pavilion towards Tervasaari and the historical Town Hall.
Flag of Hamina
Coat of arms of Hamina
Location of Hamina in Finland
Location of Hamina in Finland
Coordinates: 60°34′N 027°12′E / 60.567°N 27.200°E / 60.567; 27.200
Country Finland
RegionKymenlaakso
Sub-regionKotka-Hamina
Charter1653
Named forFrederick I of Sweden
Government
 • Town managerIlari Soosalu
Area
 (2018-01-01)[1]
 • Total1,155.14 km2 (446.00 sq mi)
 • Land609.89 km2 (235.48 sq mi)
 • Water545.66 km2 (210.68 sq mi)
 • Rank138th largest in Finland
Population
 (2023-12-31)[2]
 • Total19,529
 • Rank58th largest in Finland
 • Density32.02/km2 (82.9/sq mi)
Population by native language
 • Finnish92.7% (official)
 • Swedish0.3%
 • Others7%
Population by age
 • 0 to 1412.8%
 • 15 to 6457.2%
 • 65 or older30%
Time zoneUTC+02:00 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+03:00 (EEST)
ClimateDfb
Websitewww.hamina.fi

Hamina (Finnish pronunciation: [ˈhɑminɑ]; Swedish: Fredrikshamn, Finland Swedish: [freːdriksˈhɑmn] , Sweden Swedish: [freːdrɪksˈhamːn]) is a town and a municipality of Finland. It is located approximately 145 km (90 mi) east of the country's capital Helsinki, in the Kymenlaakso region, and formerly the province of Southern Finland. The municipality's population is 19,529 (as of 31 December 2023)[6] and covers an area of 1,155.14 square kilometres (446.00 sq mi), of which 545.66 km2 (210.68 sq mi) is water.[1] The population density is 32.02 inhabitants per square kilometre (82.9/sq mi). The population of the central town is approximately 10,000. The municipal language of Hamina is Finnish.

Highway 7 (E18) is the town's road connection to Helsinki, after it was upgraded to a continuous motorway in September 2014. Hamina is also the base of one of the most important harbors of Finland, the Port of Hamina-Kotka. The port specializes in forest products and the transit of cargo to Russia. One of Google's five European data centers is situated in Hamina.[7]

History

Vehkalahti was as a municipality first mentioned in 1336. At the proposal of Count Peter Brahe, the area surrounding the Vehkalahti church (today St. Mary's Church) received its charter in 1653 through the establishment of Vehkalahden Uusikaupunki (Veckelax Nystad in Swedish, "The New Town of Vehkalahti"). The town was later destroyed during the Great Northern War in 1712.[8]

Plan of the Fredrikshamn fortress town (1723) by Axel Löwen

As the commercially vibrant city of Vyborg was lost to Russia in 1721, Fredrikshamn (named in 1723 in the honor of King Frederick I of Sweden) was dedicated to replace it.[9] The town, hitherto a small domestic port with restricted trading privilege's, was granted extensive rights to conduct foreign trade. The Finnish speaking population soon abbreviated the name of the town to Hamina. The reconstruction of the town was completed between 1722 and 1724. The star-shaped fortress and the circular town plan, designed by Axel Löwen, were based on Central European and Italian Renaissance concepts from the 16th century.[8] Fortress towns with a circular street plan like this are quite rare; one example is Palmanova in Italy.[10]

In 1743, Hamina was surrendered to Russia, after the Russo–Swedish War, 1741–1743, and the town of Loviisa was the next Swedish candidate for an Eastern-Finnish trade center. Hamina became a Russian frontier town, for which a fortress was desirable.

The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (1809), by which Sweden ceded Finland, including parts of the province of Lappland and Åland, was signed in Hamina. Thus Sweden was split, and the eastern half was formed into the Grand Duchy of Finland, an autonomous part of the Russian Empire. In 1812, the previously conquered territories known as Old Finland (including Hamina) were joined to the Grand Duchy.

Hamina Cadet School was founded in 1819 and was in operation until 1903. In 1920 the Reserve Officer School began in the same facilities.

Because the town was founded next to the Vehkalahti Church, the municipal center had always been inside the town borders. Vehkalahti and Hamina were consolidated in 2003, and the old coat of arms was replaced with Vehkalahti's coat of arms. The old coat of arms was readopted in January 2013.[11]

Results of the 2021 Finnish municipal elections, resulted in The Finns Party being the largest group on Hamina council, in Hamina.[12]

Main sights

Churches

Twin towns

Notable people

A house called "Herran Kukkaro", the birthplace of painter Hugo Simberg.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Area of Finnish Municipalities 1.1.2018" (PDF). National Land Survey of Finland. Retrieved 30 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Immigration record high in Finland in 2023". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 25 January 2024.
  3. ^ "Demographic Structure by area as of 31 December 2022". Statistics Finland's PX-Web databases. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 6 September 2023.
  4. ^ "Population according to age (1-year) and sex by area and the regional division of each statistical reference year, 2003–2020". StatFin. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 2 May 2021.
  5. ^ a b "Luettelo kuntien ja seurakuntien tuloveroprosenteista vuonna 2023". Tax Administration of Finland. 14 November 2022. Retrieved 7 May 2023.
  6. ^ "Population by municipality as of 31 December 2008". Population Information System (in Finnish and Swedish). Population Register Center of Finland. Archived from the original on 2010-12-02. Retrieved 27 March 2010.
  7. ^ Hamina Data Center - Google Data centers
  8. ^ a b Hamina
  9. ^ Lindberg, Johan (May 26, 2016). "Finlands historia: 1700-talet". Uppslagsverket Finland (in Swedish). Retrieved November 30, 2017.
  10. ^ Kopomaa, Timo (2005). "Kriisioloihin varautunut kaupunki" (PDF). Yhdyskuntasuunnittelu (in Finnish). 43 (2). Helsinki: Yhdyskuntasuunnittelun seura ry (The Finnish Society of Housing and Planning): 6–26. Retrieved 25 January 2009.
  11. ^ Haminan vaakuna vaihtuu - Haminan kaupunki (in Finnish) Archived 2013-02-13 at archive.today
  12. ^ "Finns Party gains, NCP top as turnout dips in Finnish local elections". 13 June 2021.
  13. ^ Hamina
  14. ^ Hurmaava Hamina - The 15th century church of St Mary and church Museum Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  15. ^ Churches in Finland
  16. ^ Hurmaava Hamina - Church Of St John Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  17. ^ Hurmaava Hamina - The Orthodox Church Of St Peter and St Paul Archived 2013-02-17 at archive.today
  18. ^ Vordingborg Kommune har 17 venskabsbyer Archived 2014-07-05 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Hurmaava Hamina - Info Archived 2011-11-29 at the Wayback Machine