Haptic technology (also kinaesthetic communication or 3D touch)[1][2] is technology that can create an experience of touch by applying forces, vibrations, or motions to the user.[3] These technologies can be used to create virtual objects in a computer simulation, to control virtual objects, and to enhance remote control of machines and devices (telerobotics). Haptic devices may incorporate tactile sensors that measure forces exerted by the user on the interface. The word haptic, from the Greek: ἁπτικός (haptikos), means "tactile, pertaining to the sense of touch". Simple haptic devices are common in the form of game controllers, joysticks, and steering wheels.

Haptic technology facilitates investigation of how the human sense of touch works by allowing the creation of controlled haptic virtual objects. Most researchers distinguish three sensory systems related to sense of touch in humans: cutaneous, kinaesthetic and haptic.[4][5][6] All perceptions mediated by cutaneous and kinaesthetic sensibility are referred to as tactual perception. The sense of touch may be classified as passive and active,[7] and the term "haptic" is often associated with active touch to communicate or recognize objects.[8]


One of the earliest applications of haptic technology was in large aircraft that use servomechanism systems to operate control surfaces.[9] In lighter aircraft without servo systems, as the aircraft approached a stall, the aerodynamic buffeting (vibrations) was felt in the pilot's controls. This was a useful warning of a dangerous flight condition. Servo systems tend to be "one-way", meaning external forces applied aerodynamically to the control surfaces are not perceived at the controls, resulting in the lack of this important sensory cue. To address this, the missing normal forces are simulated with springs and weights. The angle of attack is measured, and as the critical stall point approaches a stick shaker is engaged which simulates the response of a simpler control system. Alternatively, the servo force may be measured and the signal directed to a servo system on the control, also known as force feedback. Force feedback has been implemented experimentally in some excavators and is useful when excavating mixed material such as large rocks embedded in silt or clay. It allows the operator to "feel" and work around unseen obstacles.[10]

In the 1960s, Paul Bach-y-Rita developed a vision substitution system using a 20x20 array of metal rods that could be raised and lowered, producing tactile "dots" analogous to the pixels of a screen. People sitting in a chair equipped with this device could identify pictures from the pattern of dots poked into their backs.[11]

The first US patent for a tactile telephone was granted to Thomas D. Shannon in 1973.[12] An early tactile man-machine communication system was constructed by A. Michael Noll at Bell Telephone Laboratories, Inc. in the early 1970s[13] and a patent was issued for his invention in 1975.[14]

A photo of an Aura Interactor vest
Aura Interactor vest

In 1994, the Aura Interactor vest was developed.[15] The vest is a wearable force-feedback device that monitors an audio signal and uses electromagnetic actuator technology to convert bass sound waves into vibrations that can represent such actions as a punch or kick. The vest plugs into the audio output of a stereo, TV, or VCR and the audio signal is reproduced through a speaker embedded in the vest.

An image of the Tap-in wristwatch.
Jensen's Tap-in device

In 1995, Thomas Massie developed the PHANToM (Personal HAptic iNTerface Mechanism) system. It used thimble-like receptacles at the end of computerized arms into which a person's fingers could be inserted, allowing them to "feel" an object on a computer screen.[16]

In 1995, Norwegian Geir Jensen described a wristwatch haptic device with a skin tap mechanism, termed Tap-in. The wristwatch would connect to a mobile phone via Bluetooth, and tapping-frequency patterns would enable the wearer to respond to callers with selected short messages.[17]

In 2015, the Apple Watch was launched. It uses skin tap sensing to deliver notifications and alerts from the mobile phone of the watch wearer.

Types of mechanical touch sensing

Human sensing of mechanical loading in the skin is managed by Mechanoreceptors. There are a number of types of mechanoreceptors but those present in the finger pad are typically placed into two categories. Fast acting (FA) and slow acting (SA). SA mechanoreceptors are sensitive to relatively large stresses and at low frequencies while FA mechanoreceptors are sensitive to smaller stresses at higher frequencies. The result of this is that generally SA sensors can detect textures with amplitudes greater than 200 micrometers and FA sensors can detect textures with amplitudes less than 200 micrometers down to about 1 micrometer, though some research suggests that FA can only detect textures smaller than the fingerprint wavelength.[18] FA mechanoreceptors achieve this high resolution of sensing by sensing vibrations produced by friction and an interaction of the fingerprint texture moving over fine surface texture.[19]


Haptic feedback (often shortened to just haptics) is controlled vibrations at set frequencies and intervals to provide a sensation representative of an in-game action; this includes 'bumps', 'knocks', and 'tap' of one's hand or fingers.

The majority of electronics offering haptic feedback use vibrations, and most use a type of eccentric rotating mass (ERM) actuator, consisting of an unbalanced weight attached to a motor shaft. As the shaft rotates, the spinning of this irregular mass causes the actuator and the attached device to shake. Piezoelectric actuators are also employed to produce vibrations, and offer even more precise motion than LRAs, with less noise and in a smaller platform, but require higher voltages than do ERMs and LRAs.[20]

Controller rumble

See also: DualShock and Rumble Pak

One of the most common forms of haptic feedback in video games is controller rumble. In 1976, Sega's motorbike game Moto-Cross,[21] also known as Fonz,[22] was the first game to use haptic feedback, causing the handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle.[23]

Force feedback

Force feedback devices use motors to manipulate the movement of an item held by the user.[24] A common use is in automobile driving video games and simulators, which turn the steering wheel to simulate forces experienced when cornering a real vehicle. Direct-drive wheels, introduced in 2013, are based on servomotors and are the most high-end, for strength and fidelity, type of force feedback racing wheels.

In 2007, Novint released the Falcon, the first consumer 3D touch device with high resolution three-dimensional force feedback. This allowed the haptic simulation of objects, textures, recoil, momentum, and the physical presence of objects in games.[25][26]

Air vortex rings

Air vortex rings are donut-shaped air pockets made up of concentrated gusts of air. Focused air vortices can have the force to blow out a candle or disturb papers from a few yards away. Both Microsoft Research (AirWave)[27] and Disney Research (AIREAL)[28] have used air vortices to deliver non-contact haptic feedback.[29]


Focused ultrasound beams can be used to create a localized sense of pressure on a finger without touching any physical object. The focal point that creates the sensation of pressure is generated by individually controlling the phase and intensity of each transducer in an array of ultrasound transducers. These beams can also be used to deliver sensations of vibration,[30] and to give users the ability to feel virtual 3D objects.[31] The first commercially available ultrasound device was the Stratos Explore by Ultrahaptics that consisted of 256-transducer array board and a Leap motion controller for hand tracking[32]

Another form of tactile feed back results from active touch when a human scans (runs their finger over a surface) to gain information about a surfaces texture. A significant amount of information about a surfaces texture on the micro meter scale can be gathered through this action as vibrations resulting from friction and texture activate mechanoreceptors in the human skin. Towards this goal plates can be made to vibrate at an ultrasonic frequency which reduces the friction between the plate and skin.[33][34]

Electrical stimulation

Electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) can be used to create haptic sensations in the skin or muscles. Most notable examples include haptic suits Tesla suit,[35] Owo haptic vest[36] and wearable armbands Valkyrie EIR.[37] In addition to improving immersion, e.g. by simulating bullet hits, these technologies are sought to create sensations similar to weight and resistance, and can promote muscle training.[38]




Haptic feedback is essential to perform complex tasks via telepresence. The Shadow Hand, an advanced robotic hand, has a total of 129 touch sensors embedded in every joint and finger pad that relay information to the operator. This allows tasks such as typing to be performed from a distance.[39] An early prototype can be seen in NASA's collection of humanoid robots, or robonauts.[40]


Teleoperators are remote controlled robotic tools. When the operator is given feedback on the forces involved, this is called haptic teleoperation. The first electrically actuated teleoperators were built in the 1950s at the Argonne National Laboratory by Raymond Goertz to remotely handle radioactive substances.[41] Since then, the use of force feedback has become more widespread in other kinds of teleoperators, such as remote-controlled underwater exploration devices.

Devices such as medical simulators and flight simulators ideally provide the force feedback that would be felt in real life. Simulated forces are generated using haptic operator controls, allowing data representing touch sensations to be saved or played back.[42]

Medicine and dentistry

Haptic interfaces for medical simulation are being developed for training in minimally invasive procedures such as laparoscopy and interventional radiology,[43][44] and for training dental students.[45] A Virtual Haptic Back (VHB) was successfully integrated in the curriculum at the Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine.[46] Haptic technology has enabled the development of telepresence surgery, allowing expert surgeons to operate on patients from a distance.[47] As the surgeon makes an incision, they feel tactile and resistance feedback as if working directly on the patient.[48]


With the introduction of large touchscreen control panels in vehicle dashboards, haptic feedback technology is used to provide confirmation of touch commands without needing the driver to take their eyes off the road.[49] Additional contact surfaces, for example the steering wheel or seat, can also provide haptic information to the driver, for example, a warning vibration pattern when close to other vehicles.[50]


Force-feedback can be used to increase adherence to a safe flight envelope and thus reduce the risk of pilots entering dangerous states of flights outside the operational borders while maintaining the pilots' final authority and increasing their situation awareness.[51]

Electronic devices

Video games

Rumble packs for controllers, such as this Dreamcast Jump Pack, provide haptic feedback through users' hands.

Haptic feedback is commonly used in arcade games, especially racing video games. In 1976, Sega's motorbike game Moto-Cross,[21] also known as Fonz,[22] was the first game to use haptic feedback, causing the handlebars to vibrate during a collision with another vehicle.[23] Tatsumi's TX-1 introduced force feedback to car driving games in 1983.[52] The game Earthshaker! added haptic feedback to a pinball machine in 1989.

Simple haptic devices are common in the form of game controllers, joysticks, and steering wheels. Early implementations were provided through optional components, such as the Nintendo 64 controller's Rumble Pak in 1997. In the same year, the Microsoft SideWinder Force Feedback Pro with built-in feedback was released by Immersion Corporation.[53] Many console controllers and joysticks feature built-in feedback devices, which are motors with unbalanced weights that spin, causing it to vibrate, including Sony's DualShock technology and Microsoft's Impulse Trigger technology. Some automobile steering wheel controllers, for example, are programmed to provide a "feel" of the road. As the user makes a turn or accelerates, the steering wheel responds by resisting turns or slipping out of control.

Notable introductions include:

Mobile devices

Vibramotor of LG Optimus L7 II

Tactile haptic feedback is common in cellular devices. In most cases, this takes the form of vibration response to touch. Alpine Electronics uses a haptic feedback technology named PulseTouch on many of their touch-screen car navigation and stereo units.[65] The Nexus One features haptic feedback, according to their specifications.[66] Samsung first launched a phone with haptics in 2007.[67]

Surface haptics refers to the production of variable forces on a user's finger as it interacts with a surface such as a touchscreen.

Notable introductions include:

Virtual reality

Haptics are gaining widespread acceptance as a key part of virtual reality systems, adding the sense of touch to previously visual-only interfaces.[74] Systems are being developed to use haptic interfaces for 3D modeling and design, including systems that allow holograms to be both seen and felt.[75][76][77] Several companies are making full-body or torso haptic vests or haptic suits for use in immersive virtual reality to allow users to feel explosions and bullet impacts.[78]

Personal computers

In 2015, Apple Inc.'s MacBook and MacBook Pro started incorporating a "Tactile Touchpad" design with button functionality and haptic feedback incorporated into the tracking surface.[79]

Sensory substitution

Main article: Sensory substitution

Sound substitution

In December 2015 David Eagleman demonstrated a wearable vest that "translates" speech and other audio signals into series of vibrations,[80] this allowed hearing-impaired people to "feel" sounds on their body, it has since been made commercially as a wristband.[81]

Tactile electronic displays

See also: Braille terminal and Braille e-book

A tactile electronic display is a display device that delivers text and graphical information using the sense of touch. Devices of this kind have been developed to assist blind or deaf users by providing an alternative to visual or auditory sensation.[82][83]


Haptic feedback is used within teledildonics, or "sex-technology", in order to remotely connect sex toys and allow users to engage in virtual sex or allow a remote server to control their sex toy. The term was first coined by Ted Nelson in 1975, when discussing the future of love, intimacy and technology.[citation needed] In recent years, teledildonics and sex-technology have expanded to include toys with a two-way connection that allow virtual sex through the communication of vibrations, pressures and sensations. Many "smart" vibrators allow for a one-way connection either between the user, or a remote partner, to allow control of the toy.

Neurorehabilitation and balance

For individuals with upper limb motor dysfunction, robotic devices utilizing haptic feedback could be used for neurorehabilitation. Robotic devices, such as end-effectors, and both grounded and ungrounded exoskeletons have been designed to assist in restoring control over several muscle groups. Haptic feedback applied by these robotic devices helps in the recovery of sensory function due to its more immersive nature.[84]

Haptic technology can also provide sensory feedback to ameliorate age-related impairments in balance control[85] and prevent falls in the elderly and balance-impaired.[86] Haptic Cow and Horse are used in veterinary training.[87]


Haptic puzzles have been devised in order to investigate goal-oriented haptic exploration, search, learning and memory in complex 3D environments.[88][89] The goal is to both enable multi-fingered robots with a sense of touch, and gain more insights into human meta-learning.


Haptic technologies have been explored in virtual arts, such as sound synthesis or graphic design, that make some loose vision and animation.[90] Haptic technology was used to enhance existing art pieces in the Tate Sensorium exhibit in 2015.[91] In music creation, Swedish synthesizer manufacturer Teenage Engineering introduced a haptic subwoofer module for their OP-Z synthesizer allowing musicians to feel the bass frequencies directly on their instrument.[92]


The use of haptic technologies may be useful in space exploration, including visits to the planet Mars, according to news reports.[93]

See also


  1. ^ "Augmented Reality" (PDF). Zums.ac.ir. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 March 2019. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
  2. ^ Biswas, S.; Visell, Y. (2019). "Emerging Material Technologies for Haptics". Advanced Materials Technologies. 4 (4): 1900042. doi:10.1002/admt.201900042. S2CID 116269522.
  3. ^ Gabriel Robles-De-La-Torre. "International Society for Haptics: Haptic technology, an animated explanation". Isfh.org. Archived from the original on 2010-03-07. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
  4. ^ Biswas, S.; Visell, Y. (2021). "Haptic Perception, Mechanics, and Material Technologies for Virtual Reality". Advanced Functional Materials. 31 (39): 2008186. doi:10.1002/adfm.202008186. S2CID 233893051.
  5. ^ Srinivasan, M.A.; LaMotte, R.H. (1995). "Tactual discrimination of softness". Journal of Neurophysiology. 73 (1): 88–101. doi:10.1152/jn.1995.73.1.88. PMID 7714593.
  6. ^ Freyberger, F.K.B. & Färber, B. (2006). “Compliance discrimination of deformable objects by squeezing with one and two fingers”. Proceedings of EuroHaptics (pp. 271–76).
  7. ^ Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L. (2009a). "Cues for haptic perception of compliance" (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Haptics. 2 (4): 189–99. doi:10.1109/toh.2009.16. hdl:1874/40079. PMID 27788104. S2CID 5718866.
  8. ^ Tiest, W.M. (2010). "Tactual perception of material properties". Vision Res. 50 (24): 2775–82. doi:10.1016/j.visres.2010.10.005. hdl:1874/204059. PMID 20937297. S2CID 781594.
  9. ^ Loftin, Lawrence K Jr. (1985). "Quest for Performance: The Evolution of Modern Aircraft" (PDF). NASA Scientific and Technical Information Branch. pp. Chapter 10. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  10. ^ Morosi, Federico; Rossoni, Marco; Caruso, Giandomenico (2019). "Coordinated control paradigm for hydraulic excavator with haptic device". Automation in Construction. 105: 102848. doi:10.1016/j.autcon.2019.102848. hdl:11311/1096219. S2CID 191138728.
  11. ^ Bach-Y-Rita, Paul; Collins, Carter C.; Saunders, Frank A.; White, Benjamin; Scadden, Lawrence (1969). "Vision Substitution by Tactile Image Projection". Nature. 221 (5184): 963–964. Bibcode:1969Natur.221..963B. doi:10.1038/221963a0. ISSN 1476-4687. PMID 5818337. S2CID 4179427.
  12. ^ "Patent US3780225 – Tactile communication attachment". USPTO. 18 December 1973. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  13. ^ "Man-Machine Tactile Communication," SID Journal, Vol. 1, No. 2, (July/August 1972), pp. 5–11.
  14. ^ "US Patent 3919691 – Tactile man-machine communication system". USPTO. 11 November 1975. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
  15. ^ Chen, Howard Henry (27 August 1994). "Electronic vest adds a chest full of thrills to video games". baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  16. ^ 5587937, Massie, Thomas H. & Salisbury, Jr, "United States Patent: 5587937 - Force reflecting haptic interface", issued December 24, 1996 
  17. ^ "Apple-klokka ble egentlig designet i Norge for 20 år siden". Teknisk Ukeblad digi.no. (Norwegian language). 30 March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 March 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2015.
  18. ^ Fagiani, R., & Barbieri, M. (2016). A contact mechanics interpretation of the duplex theory of tactile texture perception. Tribology International, 101, 49-58.
  19. ^ Scheibert, J., Leurent, S., Prevost, A., & Debrégeas, G. (2009). The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor. Science, 323(5920), 1503-1506.
  20. ^ Texas Instruments (2017). "Hear and feel the difference: TI's low-power audio and activators" (PDF). Texas Instruments. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2019-07-19. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  21. ^ a b Moto-Cross at the Killer List of Videogames
  22. ^ a b Fonz at the Killer List of Videogames
  23. ^ a b Mark J.P. Wolf (2008), The video game explosion: a history from PONG to PlayStation and beyond, p. 39, ABC-CLIO, ISBN 0-313-33868-X
  24. ^ Abeer Bayousuf, Hend S. Al-Khalifa, Abdulmalik Al-Salman (2017) Haptics-Based Systems Characteristics, Classification, and Applications, p.4658, in Khosrow-Pour, D.B.A., Mehdi (Eds., 2017) Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, Fourth Edition, Chapter 404, pages 4652-4665
  25. ^ Wood, Tina (2007-04-05). "Introducing the Novint Falcon". On10.net. Archived from the original on 2010-06-20. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
  26. ^ "Devices". HapticDevices. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2013.
  27. ^ Gupta, Sidhant; Morris, Dan; Patel, Shwetak N.; Tan, Desney (2013-01-01). "AirWave". Proceedings of the 2013 ACM international joint conference on Pervasive and ubiquitous computing. UbiComp '13. New York: ACM. pp. 419–28. doi:10.1145/2493432.2493463. ISBN 978-1-4503-1770-2. S2CID 1749365.
  28. ^ Sodhi, Rajinder; Poupyrev, Ivan; Glisson, Matthew; Israr, Ali (2013-07-01). "AIREAL: Interactive Tactile Experiences in Free Air". ACM Trans. Graph. 32 (4): 134:1–10. doi:10.1145/2461912.2462007. ISSN 0730-0301. S2CID 5798443.
  29. ^ Shtarbanov, Ali; Bove Jr., V. Michael (2018). "Free-Space Haptic Feedback for 3D Displays via Air-Vortex Rings". Extended Abstracts of the 2018 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (PDF). Montreal QC, Canada: ACM Press. pp. 1–6. doi:10.1145/3170427.3188622. ISBN 9781450356213. S2CID 5049106.
  30. ^ Culbertson, Heather; Schorr, Samuel B.; Okamura, Allison M. (2018). "Haptics: The Present and Future of Artificial Touch Sensation". Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems. 1 (1): 385–409. doi:10.1146/annurev-control-060117-105043. S2CID 64963235.
  31. ^ Long, Benjamin (Nov 19, 2014). "Rendering volumetric haptic shapes in mid-air using ultrasound: Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Asia 2014". ACM Transactions on Graphics. 33: 6. doi:10.1145/2661229.2661257. hdl:1983/ab22e930-bd9d-4480-a85a-83a33bd9b096. S2CID 3467880.
  32. ^ Junkie, Gadget (2020-09-28). "STRATOS Explore Mid-Air Haptic Feedback Device". Gadgetify. Retrieved 2023-10-22.
  33. ^ Basdogan, C.; Giraud, F.; Levesque, V.; Choi, S. A Review of Surface Haptics: Enabling Tactile Effects on Touch Surfaces. IEEE Transactions on Haptics. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers July 1, 2020, pp 450–470.
  34. ^ Scheibert, J., Leurent, S., Prevost, A., & Debrégeas, G. (2009). The role of fingerprints in the coding of tactile information probed with a biomimetic sensor. Science, 323(5920), 1503-1506.
  35. ^ "Teslasuit". Teslasuit.
  36. ^ Stanton, Rich (14 July 2023). "Assassin's Creed Mirage has a tie-in haptic vest that can beat you up, stab you, axe you, dart you, and combo into a 'severe abdominal wound'". PC Gamer.
  37. ^ "Get Swole With These VR Muscle Stimulators". VR Scout. 18 October 2022.
  38. ^ Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Minetto, Marco A.; Farina, Dario; Bottinelli, Roberto (2011). "Electrical stimulation for neuromuscular testing and training: State-of-the-art and unresolved issues". European Journal of Applied Physiology. 111 (10): 2391–2397. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-2133-7. PMID 21866361.
  39. ^ Dormehl, Luke (2019-04-27). "The holy grail of robotics: Inside the quest to build a mechanical human hand". Digital Trends. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  40. ^ "Robonaut". Robonaut.jsc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
  41. ^ Goertz, R.C. (1952-11-01). "Fundamentals of general purpose remote manipulators". Nucleonics. 10: 36–42.
  42. ^ Feyzabadi, S.; Straube, S.; Folgheraiter, M.; Kirchner, E.A.; Su Kyoung Kim; Albiez, J.C., "Human Force Discrimination during Active Arm Motion for Force Feedback Design," IEEE Transactions on Haptics, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 309, 319, July–Sept. 2013
  43. ^ Jacobus, C., et al., Method and system for simulating medical procedures including virtual reality and control method and system, US Patent 5,769,640
  44. ^ Pinzon D, Byrns S, Zheng B. “Prevailing Trends in Haptic Feedback Simulation for Minimally Invasive Surgery”. Surgical Innovation. 2016 Feb.
  45. ^ Martin, Nicolas; Maddock, Stephen; Stokes, Christopher; Field, James; Towers, Ashley (2019). "A scoping review of the use and application of virtual reality in pre-clinical dental education" (PDF). British Dental Journal. 226 (5): 358–366. doi:10.1038/s41415-019-0041-0. ISSN 1476-5373. PMID 30850794. S2CID 71716319.
  46. ^ "Honors And Awards". Ent. ohiou.edu. Archived from the original on April 2, 2008. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
  47. ^ Kapoor, Shalini; Arora, Pallak; Kapoor, Vikas; Jayachandran, Mahesh; Tiwari, Manish (2017-05-17). "Haptics – Touchfeedback Technology Widening the Horizon of Medicine". Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 8 (3): 294–99. doi:10.7860/JCDR/2014/7814.4191. ISSN 2249-782X. PMC 4003673. PMID 24783164.
  48. ^ Russ, Zajtchuk (2008-09-15). "Telepresence Surgery". Archived from the original on 2008-09-15. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  49. ^ Breitschaft, Stefan Josef; Clarke, Stella; Carbon, Claus-Christian (26 July 2019). "A Theoretical Framework of Haptic Processing in Automotive User Interfaces and Its Implications on Design and Engineering". Frontiers in Psychology. 10: 1470. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01470. PMC 6676796. PMID 31402879.
  50. ^ Kern, Dagmar; Pfleging, Bastian. "Supporting Interaction Through Haptic Feedback in Automotive User Interfaces" (PDF). Department for Informatics, University of Munich. Retrieved 25 October 2019.
  51. ^ Florian J. J. Schmidt-Skipiol & Peter Hecker (2015). "Tactile Feedback and Situation Awareness-Improving Adherence to an Envelope in Sidestick-Controlled Fly-by-Wire Aircrafts [sic]". 15th AIAA Aviation Technology, Integration, and Operations Conference: 2905. doi:10.2514/6.2015-2905.
  52. ^ TX-1 at the Killer List of Videogames
  53. ^ "Microsoft and Immersion Continue Joint Efforts To Advance Future Development of Force Feedback Technology". Stories. 3 February 1998.
  54. ^ Y. J., Cho. "Haptic Cushion: Automatic Generation of Vibro-tactile Feedback Based on Audio Signal for Immersive Interaction with Multimedia". ResearchGate. LG Electronics.
  55. ^ Webster, Andrew (September 27, 2013). "Valve unveils the Steam Controller". The Verge. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  56. ^ Neal, Dave (2013-09-30). "Valve shows off the Steam controller with haptic feedback". The Inquirer. Archived from the original on September 30, 2013. Retrieved 2019-07-20.((cite web)): CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  57. ^ "Nintendo's HD Rumble will be the best unused Switch feature of 2017". Engadget. 13 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  58. ^ Porter, Jon (7 February 2017). "Meet the minds behind Nintendo Switch's HD Rumble tech". TechRadar. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  59. ^ Hall, Charlie (5 April 2017). "Japanese site estimates Nintendo spends $257 to make one Switch". Polygon. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  60. ^ Andreadis, Kosta (2019-06-21). "Razer Nari Ultimate Wireless Gaming Headset Review - AusGamers.com". Ausgamers. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  61. ^ Summers, Nick (26 September 2019). "Razer brings its vibrating Nari Ultimate headset to Xbox One". Engadget. Retrieved 15 November 2019.
  62. ^ "What's under the hood of the DualSense?". www.actronika.com.
  63. ^ Rubin, Peter. "Exclusive: A Deeper Look at the PlayStation 5—Haptics, UI Facelift, and More". Wired. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  64. ^ "SuperTuxKart". SuperTuxKart. 3 September 2022.
  65. ^ "Alpine Electronics Ships New IVA-W205 Double-DIN Audio/Vide + Navigation Head Unit". Torrance, CA. May 8, 2007. Archived from the original on November 17, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-15.
  66. ^ "What's With Tech? –Technology Guide For Dummies". whatswithtech.com. Archived from the original on 2015-04-02. Retrieved 2017-05-17.
  67. ^ "Mobile Phones to Get Tactile Touch Screens". TechHive. 26 June 2006. Archived from the original on 2016-08-16. Retrieved 2015-10-07.
  68. ^ Rediscover Touch. Tanvas, Inc. website. retrieved 2016-06-05
  69. ^ "Finger on Electrostatic Touchscreen in Slow Motion." YouTube video retrieved 2016-06-05
  70. ^ "TPaD Tablet Project website." retrieved 2016-06-05
  71. ^ Pance, Alioshin & Bilbrey, Aleksandar & Paul, Brett (February 19, 2013). "United States Patent: 8378797 – Method and apparatus for localization of haptic feedback". Retrieved 2017-05-17.((cite web)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  72. ^ Campbell, Mikey (2013-02-19). "Apple awarded patent for more accurate haptic feedback system". Apple Insider. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  73. ^ Ye, Shen (2015-04-08). "The science behind Force Touch and the Taptic Engine". iMore. Retrieved 2019-07-19.
  74. ^ Moren, Dan (2015-04-27). "Haptic Gloves Use Air Pressure To Simulate The Feel Of Virtual Objects". Popular Science. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  75. ^ Jeffrey, Colin (2014-12-02). "New ultrasound research creates holographic objects that can be seen and felt". New Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  76. ^ "Touchable Hologram Becomes Reality (w/ Video)". Physorg.com. 2009-08-06. Retrieved 2010-02-26.
  77. ^ Mary-Ann Russon (2016). Holograms you can reach out and touch developed by Japanese scientists. IBTimes
  78. ^ Moss, Richard (2015-01-15). "Haptic technology: The next frontier in video games, wearables, virtual reality, and mobile electronics". New Atlas. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  79. ^ "Force Touch". businessinsider.com.
  80. ^ "This vibrating vest is giving deaf people a sixth sense". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Retrieved 2021-08-24.
  81. ^ "Feeling Sound as Vibration: A Review of the Neosensory Buzz". Hearing Health & Technology Matters. 2020-09-04. Retrieved 2021-08-24.
  82. ^ Chouvardas, V.G.; Miliou, A.N.; Hatalis, M.K. (2008). "Tactile displays: Overview and recent advances" (PDF). Displays. 29 (3): 185–194. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/j.displa.2007.07.003. S2CID 16783458.
  83. ^ "Here's What the Future of Haptic Technology Looks (Or Rather, Feels) Like". Smithsonian. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  84. ^ Piggott, Leah, Samantha Wagner, and Mounia Ziat. "Haptic neurorehabilitation and virtual reality for upper limb paralysis: A review." Critical Reviews™ in Biomedical Engineering 44.1-2 (2016).
  85. ^ Attila A Priplata, James B Niemi, Jason D Harry, Lewis A Lipsitz, James J Collins. "Vibrating insoles and balance control in elderly people" Archived 2012-06-10 at the Wayback Machine The Lancet, Vol 362, October 4, 2003.
  86. ^ Gardner, Julie (2014-12-10). "Vibrating Insoles May Improve Balance in Seniors". CBS Boston. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  87. ^ "Arizona Vet School Installs Haptic Cow, Horse". Veterinary Practice News. 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2022-01-13.
  88. ^ "Haptic Puzzles with Modular Haptic Stimulus Board (MHSB)".
  89. ^ "Search Procedures during Haptic Search in an Unstructured 3D Display, A. Moringen, R. Haschke, H. Ritter". April 2016: 192–197. doi:10.1109/HAPTICS.2016.7463176. S2CID 4135569. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  90. ^ Sommerer, Christa; Mignonneau, Laurent (1999-06-01). "Art as a Living System: Interactive Computer Artworks". Leonardo. 32 (3): 165–173. doi:10.1162/002409499553190. ISSN 0024-094X. S2CID 57569436.
  91. ^ Davis, Nicola (2015-08-22). "Don't just look – smell, feel, and hear art. Tate's new way of experiencing paintings". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2019-07-20.
  92. ^ Inglis, Sam. "SynthFest UK — Teenage Engineering OP-Z Rumble Pack". www.soundonsound.com. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
  93. ^ Von Drehle, David (15 December 2020). "Humans don't have to set foot on Mars to visit it". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 December 2020.

Further reading