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Hospitals in Thailand are operated by both the public and private sector, to provide medical services for prevention, cure and rehabilitation of patients with medical and health-related conditions. The majority are operated by the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). Private hospitals are regulated by the Medical Registration Division under the MOPH's Department of Health Service Support following the Sanatorium Act, B.E. 2541. Other government units and public organisations also operate hospitals, including the military, universities, local governments and the Red Cross. The full listing of hospitals can be accessed at List of hospitals in Thailand.

Public hospitals

Most public (i.e., state-owned) hospitals fall under the authority of the Ministry of Public Health. The majority of these are provincial hospitals under the aegis of the Office of the Permanent Secretary of the MOPH. Others are operated by the Department of Medical Services, Department of Mental Health, Department of Health, and Department of Disease Control. Certain non-MOPH state agencies also operate hospitals.

Office of the Permanent Secretary

As of March 2022, there are a total of 901 hospitals under the Office of the Permanent Secretary are classified as follows:[1][2]

Regional hospitals

Regional hospitals (Thai: โรงพยาบาลศูนย์) are found in provincial centres, have a capacity of at least 500 beds and have a comprehensive set of specialists on staff. These hospitals are capable of tertiary care and are under the category A (advanced) service level in the MOPH's service plan.[3] As of 2018, there are a total of 34 regional hospitals in Thailand.[1]

General hospitals

Kamphaeng Phet Hospital, a general hospital in Kamphaeng Phet Province

General hospitals (Thai: โรงพยาบาลทั่วไป) are located in province capitals or major districts and have a capacity of 200 to 500 beds. These hospitals are capable of secondary care and are under the category S and M1 service level.[3] As of 2022, there are total of 92 general hospitals in Thailand.[1]

Community hospitals

Community hospitals (Thai: โรงพยาบาลชุมชน) are located in the district level and are usually limited to providing primary care treatment and are under the category M2, F1, F2 and F3 service level.[3] These will refer patients in need of more advanced or specialised care to general or regional hospitals. As of 2022, there are a total of 775 community hospitals in Thailand.[1] Some community hospitals are capable of secondary care. They are further classified by size listed below:

Crown Prince Hospitals (Somdet Phra Yuppharat Hospitals)

Crown Prince hospitals (Thai: โรงพยาบาลสมเด็จพระยุพราช) are community hospitals (except Sa Kaeo, Sawang Daen Din and Det Udom which are general hospitals) with a capacity of 30 to 200 beds, all with capabilities of primary care and some providing secondary care. These hospitals are operated by the Crown Prince Hospital Foundation. Construction of 20 Crown Prince hospitals was initiated in 1977, during the prime ministership of Thanin Kraivichien, to provide medical services at distant locations throughout the country and as a present for King Vajiralongkorn's (then Crown Prince) royal marriage on 3 January 1977. There are 21 Crown Prince hospitals in Thailand.

Sub-district Health Promoting Hospitals

Sub-district Health Promoting Hospitals (Thai: โรงพยาบาลส่งเสริมสุขภาพตำบล) are hospitals that are operated by either the MOPH or Department of Local Administration and were initially called "health stations" (Thai: สถานีอนามัย). These hospitals only have primary care capabilities and often serve villages within districts. Almost all of these hospitals do not accept inpatients and usually have no doctor on duty for the entire time. Such hospitals therefore will have medical staff entering irregularly from the community hospital within that district. In 2009, Abhisit Vejjajiva's cabinet approved a policy to improve the quality of healthcare services provided at health stations throughout Thailand and funding was allocated into the Thai Khem Khaeng programme to upgrade existing health stations to sub-district health promoting hospitals and improve quality of care.

Other departments

The Department of Medical Services (DMS) operates several public central hospitals in Bangkok, including Rajavithi Hospital and Lerdsin Hospital.[4] It is also responsible for all specialised hospitals, both inside and outside Bangkok, such as the National Cancer Institute, Prasat Neurological Institute, the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. This is with some exceptions of public specialised hospitals in the field of psychiatry where all hospitals are under the responsibility of the Department of Mental Health (DMH), such as the Somdet Chaopraya Institute of Psychiatry and Srithanya Hospital. Some hospitals are also managed by the Department of Disease Control (DDC), the main hospital being the Bamrasnaradura Infectious Disease Institute.[5]

Non-MOPH agencies

BMA General Hospital, operated by Bangkok Metropolitan Administration

Other organisations also operate public hospitals in Thailand and citizens of Thailand can use their medical services under the Universal Coverage Scheme at no additional cost. These organisations include:

Police General Hospital, operated by the Royal Thai Police

University-affiliated hospitals

This type of hospital is affiliated with faculties of medicine at universities and colleges in Thailand. Most of these hospitals are under the responsibility of the Ministry of Higher Education, Science, Research and Innovation and provide medical services at the "super tertiary care" level. These hospitals are equipped with the best resources in Thailand considering they are medical schools for teaching and research. However, in the table below, some hospitals are under the authority of the affiliated university, but are not used for medical student training, but rather only for research purposes or to provide specialised treatment; and some although used for teaching, are not operated by the affiliated university.

Main university-affiliated hospitals for medical training in Thailand
Hospital name Affiliated university Affiliated institution (if present) Province
Siriraj Hospital Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Bangkok
Ramathibodi Hospital Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University

HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science

Bangkok
Chakri Naruebodindra Medical Institute Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University Samut Prakan
King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University Thai Red Cross Society Bangkok
Maharaj Nakorn Chiang Mai Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Chiang Mai
Phramongkutklao Hospital Phramongkutklao College of Medicine Army Medical Department, The Royal Thai Army Bangkok
Vajira Hospital Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University Bangkok
Taksin Hospital Faculty of Medicine Vajira Hospital, Navamindradhiraj University Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Rajavithi Hospital College of Medicine, Rangsit University Department of Medical Services, MOPH Bangkok
Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health College of Medicine, Rangsit University Department of Medical Services, MOPH Bangkok
Lerdsin Hospital College of Medicine, Rangsit University Department of Medical Services, MOPH Bangkok
Nopparat Rajathanee Hospital College of Medicine, Rangsit University Department of Medical Services, MOPH Bangkok
Srinagarind Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen
Galyanivadhanakarun Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Princess of Naradhiwas University Narathiwat
Thammasat University Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University

Chulabhorn International College of Medicine (CICM), Thammasat University

Office of the Rector of Thammasat University Pathum Thani
HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn Medical Center Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University Nakhon Nayok
Panyananthaphikkhu Chonprathan Medical Center Faculty of Medicine, Srinakharinwirot University Nonthaburi
Naresuan University Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Phitsanulok
Songklanagarind Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University Songkhla
Suranaree University of Technology Hospital Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology Nakhon Ratchasima
Suddhavej Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University Maha Sarakham
Ubon Ratchathani University Hospital College of Medicine and Public Health, Ubon Ratchathani University Ubon Ratchathani
Burapha University Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University Chonburi
Walailak University Hospital School of Medicine, Walailak University Nakhon Si Thammarat
University of Phayao Medical Center and Hospital School of Medicine, University of Phayao Phayao
Phra Nang Klao Hospital School of Medicine, Siam University Nonthaburi
Mae Fah Luang University Medical Center Hospital School of Medicine, Mae Fah Luang University Chiang Rai
Bangkok Metropolitan Administration General Hospital School of Medicine, Mae Fah Luang University Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital School of Medicine, Mae Fah Luang University Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Chulabhorn Hospital (Bangkok) HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science Bangkok
Police General Hospital HRH Princess Chulabhorn College of Medical Science Office of the Surgeon General, Royal Thai Police Bangkok
Sirindhorn Hospital Faculty of Medicine, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Lat Krabang Hospital Faculty of Medicine, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Ratchaphiphat Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Bangkokthonburi University Medical Services Department, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration Bangkok
Kamphaeng Phet Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Western University Kamphaeng Phet
Siriraj Hospital, a university hospital
Non-teaching University-affiliated Hospitals in Thailand
Hospital Name Affiliated University Province
Siriraj Piyamaharajkarun Hospital Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Bangkok
Golden Jubilee Medical Center Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University Nakhon Pathom
Hospital for Tropical Diseases Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University Bangkok
Queen Sirikit Heart Center of the Northeast Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen
King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, a university hospital

CPIRD Medical Education Centers

CPIRD Medical Education Center, Somdejphrajaotaksin Maharaj Hospital, Tak Province

In 1994, the cabinet approved of a cooperation between the MOPH and Thai universities to organise a program known as the 'Collaborative Project to Increase Production of Rural Doctors (CPIRD)' in order to increase the number of medical personnel in rural areas of Thailand. To reach these goals, the cabinet set up the CPIRD Office in 1997 to oversee the project's activities. In terms of education, the preclinic level of study (years 1–3) will take place at the student's university or college. At the clinical level of study (years 4–6), study will take place at hospitals all around the country under the guidance of the MOPH. 'Medical Education Centers' (Thai: ศูนย์แพทยศาสตรศึกษา ชั้นคลินิก) have been established for medical students in the CPIRD program at these hospitals. There are currently 45 CPIRD Medical Education Centers in Thailand.[6]

Hospitals with CPIRD Medical Education Centers in Thailand
Hospital name Affiliated university Affiliated institution (if present) Province
Khon Kaen Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen
Sunpasitthiprasong Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University

College of Medicine and Public Health, Ubon Ratchathani University

Ubon Ratchathani
Maha Sarakham Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University Maha Sarakham
Udon Thani Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University Udon Thani
Prapokklao Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University Chanthaburi
Chonburi Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University Chonburi
Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University Directorate of Medical Services, The Royal Thai Air Force Bangkok
Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Chiang Rai
Lampang Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University Lampang
Saraburi Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Saraburi
Chumphon Khet Udomsak Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Chumphon
Surat Thani Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Surat Thani
Buddhasothorn Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University Chachoengsao
Naradhiwas Rajanagarindra Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Princess of Naradhiwas University Narathiwat
Songkhla Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Princess of Naradhiwas University Songkhla
Phichit Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Phichit
Buddhachinaraj Phitsanulok Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Phitsanulok
Phrae Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Phrae
Somdejphrajaotaksin Maharaj Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Tak
Uttaradit Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Naresuan University Uttaradit
Chaophraya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University Prachinburi
Rayong Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University Rayong
Queen Sirikit Naval Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University Naval Medical Department, The Royal Thai Navy Chonburi
Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University Thai Red Cross Society Chonburi
Nakornping Hospital School of Medicine, University of Phayao Chiang Mai
Phayao Hospital School of Medicine, University of Phayao Phayao
Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital MOPH-Mahidol CPIRD Program Nakhon Ratchasima
Maharaj Nakhon Si Thammarat Hospital MOPH-Mahidol CPIRD Program Nakhon Si Thammarat
Sawanpracharak Hospital MOPH-Mahidol CPIRD Program Nakhon Sawan
Ratchaburi Hospital MOPH-Mahidol CPIRD Program Ratchaburi
Kalasin Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University Kalasin
Roi Et Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University Roi Et
Srisangworn Sukhothai Hospital School of Medicine, Mae Fah Luang University Sukhothai
Sukhothai Hospital School of Medicine, Mae Fah Luang University Sukhothai
Vachira Phuket Hospital School of Medicine, Walailak University Phuket
Trang Hospital School of Medicine, Walailak University

Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University

Trang
Hatyai Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University Songkhla
Yala Hospital Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University Yala
Surin Hospital Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology Surin
Buriram Hospital Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology Buriram
Chaiyaphum Hospital Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology Chaiyaphum
Sisaket Hospital College of Medicine and Public Health, Ubon Ratchathani University Sisaket

Private hospitals

Some hospitals in Thailand are operated by the private sector by either a private limited company or a public limited company. Specialised private hospitals in the fields of ophthalmology and dentistry are common.

Bumrungrad International Hospital, a private hospital

The term "general hospital", when referring to private hospitals, refer to hospitals which provide non-specialised care. Private hospitals with fewer than 30 beds are officially termed "health centres". Both accept patient admissions.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d "ข้อมูลพืนฐานโรงพยาบาลในังกัดสำนักงานปลัดกระทรวงสาธารณสุข ณ สงหาคม 2561" (PDF).
  2. ^ "ข้อมูลทั่วไปเกี่ยวกับสถานบริการ". Bureau of Policy and Strategy website (in Thai). Bureau of Policy and Strategy, Office of the Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Public Health. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2011.
  3. ^ a b c "เล่มแผนพัฒนาระบบบริการสุขภาพ (Service Plan) พ.ศ. 2561-2565".
  4. ^ "กรมการแพทย์ กระทรวงสาธารณสุข".
  5. ^ "กรมสุขภาพจิค กระทรวงสาธารณสุข".
  6. ^ "CPIRD".