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House of Bourbon-Parma
Parent houseBourbon-Anjou (agnatic)
Farnese (enatic)
Country Italy
 Luxembourg
 Netherlands
Founded18 October 1748
FounderPhilip, Duke of Parma
Current headPrince Carlos
Final rulerGuastalla: Ferdinand I (1765–1802)
Etruria: Louis II (1803–1807)
Lucca: Charles I (1824–1847)
Parma: Robert I (1854–1859)
TitlesCurrent:

Former:

Deposition
Websitewww.borboneparma.it
Lesser Arms of Bourbon-Parma

The House of Bourbon-Parma (Italian: Casa di Borbone di Parma) is a cadet branch of the Spanish royal family, whose members once ruled as King of Etruria and as Duke of Parma and Piacenza, Guastalla, and Lucca. The House descended from the French Capetian dynasty in male line. Its name of Bourbon-Parma comes from the main name (Bourbon) and the other (Parma) from the title of Duke of Parma. The title was held by the Spanish Bourbons, as the founder Philip, Duke of Parma was the great-grandson of Ranuccio II Farnese, Duke of Parma.[2][3] The House of Bourbon-Parma is today the Sovereign House of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (agnatically) and all members of the Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg are members of the House of Bourbon-Parma with the title of "Princes/Princesses" and the predicate of Royal Highness.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Duchy of Parma

The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, as a fief for Pope Paul III's illegitimate son, Pier Luigi Farnese, centered on the city of Parma. In 1556, the second Duke, Ottavio Farnese, was given the city of Piacenza, becoming thus also Duke of Piacenza, and so the state was thereafter properly known as the Duchies of Parma and Piacenza.

The House of Farnese continued to rule the duchies until 1731 and the death of the last male-line duke, Antonio. Upon his death the duchy passed to Charles of Bourbon, the heir to the duchy through his mother, Elisabeth Farnese. However by the terms of the Treaty of Vienna (1738) Charles had to give up the duchy to Austria.

House of Bourbon-Parma in the 18th and 19th centuries

Temporary Habsburg rule

The Habsburgs only ruled until the conclusion of the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748, when it was ceded back to the Bourbons in the person of Philip of Spain, Charles's younger brother. As Duke Philip, he became the founder of the House of Bourbon-Parma.

In 1796, the duchy was occupied by French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte and absorbed into the Cisalpine Republic and Kingdom of Italy.

In 1814, the duchies were restored under Napoleon's Habsburg wife, Marie Louise, who was to rule them for her lifetime. The duchy was renamed the Duchy of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla.

Return to the Bourbons

After Marie Louise's death in 1847, the duchy was restored to the Bourbon-Parma line, which had been ruling the tiny Duchy of Lucca. As part of the return, the Duchy of Guastalla was transferred to the Duchy of Modena. The Bourbons ruled until 1859, when they were driven out by a revolution following the Franco-Sardinian victory in their war against Austria.

The duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla and the Duchy of Lucca joined with the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the Duchy of Modena to form the United Provinces of Central Italy in December 1859, and were annexed to the Kingdom of Sardinia in March 1860. The House of Bourbon continues to claim the title of Duke of Parma to this day. Carlos-Hugo (Carlist pretender to the Spanish throne in the 1970s) held the title from 1977 to his death. His son now claims the title.

List of dukes

House of Bourbon-Parma (1731–1735)

See also: Bourbon family tree

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles, Duke of Parma
1731–1735
Charles 20 January 1716
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Maria Amalia of Saxony
1738
13 children
14 December 1788
Madrid
aged 72

House of Bourbon-Parma (1748–1802)

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Philip, Duke of Parma
1748–1765
15 March 1720
Madrid
son of Philip V of Spain and Elizabeth of Parma
Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
25 October 1739
3 children
18 July 1765
Alessandria
aged 45
Ferdinand I, Duke of Parma
1765–1802
20 January 1751
Parma
son of Philip, Duke of Parma and Louise-Elisabeth de Bourbon
Archduchess Maria Amalia of Austria
19 July 1769
9 children
9 October 1802
Fontevivo
aged 51

During the French ownership of the Duchy of Parma, the title of Duke of Parma was used as an honorary form and style. From 1808, the title was used by Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès. He kept the style of Duke of Parma until 1814. Only in 1847 was the actual title restored to the Bourbons, after a period of being held by Marie Louise of Austria, who was a Habsburg and the second wife of Napoleon I.

House of Bourbon-Parma (1847–1859)

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Charles II, Duke of Parma
1847–1848
22 December 1799
Madrid
son of Louis of Etruria and Maria Louisa, Duchess of Lucca
Maria Teresa of Savoy
5 September 1820
2 children
16 April 1883
Nice
aged 84
Charles III, Duke of Parma
1848–1854
14 January 1823
Lucca
son of Charles II, Duke of Parma and Princess Maria Teresa of Savoy
Princess Louise Marie Thérèse of France
10 November 1845
4 children
27 March 1854
Parma
aged 31
Robert I, Duke of Parma
1854–1859
9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 59

Titular Dukes of Parma (since 1859)

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Robert, Duke of Parma
1859–1907
titular
9 July 1848
Florence
son of Charles III, Duke of Parma and Louise Marie Thérèse of Artois
Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
5 April 1869
12 children

Maria Antonia of Portugal
15 October 1884
12 children
16 November 1907
Viareggio
aged 59
Henry, Duke of Parma
1907–1939
titular
13 June 1873
Wartegg
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 16 November 1939
Pianore
aged 66
Joseph, Duke of Parma
1939–1950
titular
30 June 1875
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
never married 7 January 1950
Pianore
aged 75
Elias, Duke of Parma
1950–1959
titular
23 July 1880
Biarritz
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Pia of the Two Sicilies
Maria Anna of Austria
25 May 1903
Vienna
8 children
27 June 1959
Friedberg
aged 79
Robert II, Duke of Parma
1959–1974
titular
7 August 1909
Weilburg
son of Elias, Duke of Parma and Maria Anna of Austria
never married 25 November 1974
Vienna
aged 65
Xavier, Duke of Parma
1974–1977
titular
25 May 1889
Viareggio
son of Robert I, Duke of Parma and Maria Antonia of Portugal
Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
12 November 1927
Lignières
6 children
7 May 1977
Zizers
aged 87
Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma
1977–2010
titular
8 April 1930
Paris
son of Xavier, Duke of Parma and Madeleine de Bourbon-Busset
Princess Irene of the Netherlands
29 April 1964
Rome
4 children
18 August 2010
Barcelona
aged 80
Carlos, Duke of Parma
since 2010
titular
27 January 1970
Nijmegen
son of Carlos Hugo, Duke of Parma and Princess Irene of the Netherlands
Annemarie Gualthérie van Weezel
20 November 2010
Brussels
3 children
incumbent

See also

References

  1. ^ According to the Convention of Fontainebleau.
  2. ^ French Royal Families. General Books. 2013. ISBN 9781230480824.
  3. ^ House of Farnese. General Books. 2013. ISBN 9781230551890.
  4. ^ Marco Matteucci (30 April 2011). La real casa Borbone-Parma dal ducato ad oggi. 150 anni di vicende familiari (in Italian). CLD Libri. ISBN 978-8873991779.
  5. ^ Gli ultimi Asburgo e gli ultimi Borbone in Italia (in Italian). 1971. p. 140.
    "All members of the Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg, descendants of Grand Duchess Charlotte and Prince Felix, were incorporated into the Bourbon-Parma Family, by grant to Prince Felix from his nephew, Duke Roberto Ugo, in 1964. All members of The Grand Ducal family of Luxembourg have since then been Princes and Princesses of Parma and Piacenza, or of Bourbon-Parma, with the treatment of Royal Highness. The title can be revoked from a descendant of Prince Felix only under the order of the Duke of Parma and Piacenza..."
  6. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. Prince Félix". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  7. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. Prince Louis". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  8. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. Prince Sébastien". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  9. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. the Crown Prince". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  10. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. Princess Alexandra". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  11. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. the Grand Duke". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  12. ^ "Biography of H.R.H. Grand Duke Jean". Cour Grand-Ducale (Official website of the Grand-Ducal Family of Luxembourg).
  13. ^ "Le solenni esequie di Jean di Lussemburgo". Borboneparma.it (official website of the Parmesan Royal Family) (in Italian).