Huitzilihuitl
2nd Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan
Reign1396–1417
CoronationFive Snake / 22 January
PredecessorAcamapichtli
SuccessorChimalpopoca
Bornc.1379
Mexico Tenochtitlan
Died1417
Wives
IssueChimalpopoca
Tlacaelel I
Moctezuma I
Huehue Zaca
Citlalcoatl
Aztacoatl
Axicyotzin
Quauhtzitzimitzin
Xiconoc
Teotlatlauhqui
Cuitlahuatzin
Miccayaocihuatl
Matlalchihuatzin
FatherEmperor Acamapichtli
MotherEmpress Tezcatlan Miyahuatzin

Huitzilihuitl Nahuatl pronunciation: [wit͡siˈliwit͡ɬ] (About this soundlisten) or Huitzilihuitzin (Nahuatl language; English: Hummingbird Feather) (1370s – ca. 1417)[1] was the second Tlatoani or king of Tenochtitlan, governing from 1396 to 1417,[2] (or 1390 to 1410 according to other sources).[3]

Biography

Family and childhood

Huitzilíhuitl was born in Tenochtitlan, and was the son of Acamapichtli, first tlatoani of the Mexica, and Queen Tezcatlan Miyahuatzin, and had a half-brother Itzcoatl. His maternal grandfather was Acacitli. Only 16 years old when his father died, Huitzilihuitl was elected by the principal chiefs, warriors and priests of the city to replace him. At that time, the Mexica were tributaries of the Tepanec city-state of Azcapotzalco.[4]

Reign

Huitzilíhuitl, a good politician, continued the policies of his father, seeking alliances with his neighbors. He founded the Royal Council or Tlatocan and established four permanent electors to advise the new king, in his inexperience, at the beginning of each reign.[2]

Huitzilihuitl as depicted in the Tovar Codex.
Huitzilihuitl as depicted in the Tovar Codex.

He married Ayauhcihuatl, daughter of Tezozómoc, the powerful tlatoani of Azcapotzalco,[2] and obtained a reduction of tribute payments to the symbolic level. Their son Chimalpopoca would succeed his father as tlatoani. After the death of Ayaucíhuatl, Huitzilíhuitl married a second time, to Miahuaxihuitl. She bore him Moctezuma I, who also succeeded to the throne as the fifth Huey Tlatoani of Aztecs.[2][5]

During his reign, the weaving industry grew. It provided cotton cloth not only for Tenochtitlan, but also for Azcapotzalco and Cuauhnāhuac. The Mexicas no longer had to dress in coarse ayates" of maguey fibers, but were able to change to soft, dyed cotton.[2][6]

Huitzilíhuitl also wanted to introduce potable water into the city, bringing it to the island from the mainland over the brackish water of the lake. But the nobles not approving the cost, he was unable to put his plan into operation. He constructed a fort on a rock on the island.[6]

In 1409, the ruler of Texcoco, Techotlala, died and the throne passed to Ixtlilxóchitl I. In the following years, relations between Ixtlilxóchitl and Tezozómoc of Azcapotzalco deteriorated, breaking into open hostilities c. 1416.

In spite of having given his daughter Matlalchihuatzin in marriage to Ixtlilxóchitl, Huitzilíhuitl joined his father-in-law in making war on Texcoco.[7] He assisted in the conquest and sacking of the cities of Tultitlan, Cuauhtitlan, Chalco, Tollantzingo, Xaltocan, Otompa and Acolman. Huitzilíhuitl profited from the booty of these conquests and also from the traffic of the canoes on the lakes surrounding Tenochtitlan.

Death

Huitzilíhuitl died, probably in 1417, before the end of the war between Azcapotzalco and Texcoco. His successor, his son Chimalpopoca, continued to support Tezozómoc and Azcapotzalco.

Personal life

Among his wives were Queen Ayauhcihuatl, Queen Cacamacihuatl, Queen Miahuaxihuitl, and Queen Miyahuaxochtzin.[citation needed]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Huitzilíhuitl, "Pluma de colibrí" (1396-1417)" [Huitzilíhuitl, “Hummingbird Feather” (1396-1417)]. Archeologia Mexicana (in Spanish). Retrieved June 3, 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e García Purón (1984, p.31)
  3. ^ Orozco Linares (2005, p.20).
  4. ^ Álvarez (1987, entry "Huitzilopochtli"; Enciclopedia de México).
  5. ^ García Purón (1984, pp.35)
  6. ^ a b García Purón (1984, p.32)
  7. ^ There is a problem with the chronology at this point. Huitzilíhuitl was 16 when he ascended to the throne. Under the more likely dating of his reign, that means he was born in 1379 or 1380. It is unlikely he was married to a close relative of Tezozómoc, a more powerful lord, before he became tlatoani, because until then his prospects were uncertain. So in all likelihood his first child was born no earlier than late 1396, probably no earlier than 1397. Matlalcihuatzin's son Nezahualcóyotl was born in 1402. If she was Huitzilíhuitl's daughter, she would have been only 5 years old (give or take 1 year) when her son was born, perhaps younger. Even under the less likely dating of Huitzilíhuitl's reign, she would have been only 11 (or younger), give or take a year. And Huitzilíhuitl himself would have been 22±1 or 28±1, quite young to be a grandfather. Since the 1402 birth of Nezahualcóyotl seems well established, this casts doubt on the dates of Huitzilíhuitl's reign, or the age at which he took power, or his relationship to Matlalcihuatzin. If she were a sister or other relative rather than a daughter, that could resolve the conflict. Enciclopedia de México says sister, but many other sources say daughter.

References

Regnal titles Preceded byAcamapichtli Tlatoani of Tenochtitlan1396–1417 Succeeded byChimalpopoca