This article is missing information about overall flowgraph (input division into original stimuli, low-pass adaptation, low-pass luminance adaptation, and low-pass surround information). Please expand the article to include this information. Further details may exist on the talk page. (February 2021)

iCAM, short for image color appearance model, is developed by Mark D. Fairchild and Garrett M. Johnson and initially published in 2002 at the IS&T/SID 10th Color Imaging Conference in Scottsdale, Arizona.[1] As of May 2019, the latest version appears to be iCAM06, a 2006 revision that expanded tone mapping capacities for HDR.[2]


It has been recognized that there are significant aspects of color appearance phenomena that are not described well, if at all, by models such as CIECAM97s or CIECAM02.[3] The requirements for such a model include:[3]

As of 2013, iCAM06 is capable of reaching all of the goals above. Temporal effects have been noted as a future direction of development according to Fairchild's lecture slides.[4]

Characteristics of iCAM

iCAM can accurately predict the results of an observation under different conditions.[5] It can describe the aspects of color appearance phenomena and metrics of color differences, and it is used to obtain color gamut mapping calculations based on the perception of the human eye.[5] iCAM uses image's spatial aspects of vision and adapts stimulus to become a low-passing image.[5]


  1. ^ "iCAM: An Image Appearance Model". Munsell Color Science Laboratory. 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-06-11.
  2. ^ Kuang, Jiangtao; Johnson, Garrett M.; Fairchild, Mark D. (October 2007). "iCAM06: A refined image appearance model for HDR image rendering" (PDF). Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation. 18 (5): 406–414. doi:10.1016/j.jvcir.2007.06.003.
  3. ^ a b Mark D. Fairchild, Garrett M. Johnson (2002). "Meet iCAM: A Next-Generation Color Appearance Model". ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  4. ^ Fairchild, Mark D. "Color Appearance Models: CIECAM02 and Beyond" (PDF). IS&T/SID 12th Color Imaging Conference.
  5. ^ a b c Liu, Zhen; Lu, Liang; Tsai, Sengyan (2009-06-01). "The research on mechanism of color management system based on iCAM color appearance model". Computers & Mathematics with Applications. Proceedings of the International Conference. 57 (11): 1829–1834. doi:10.1016/j.camwa.2008.10.033. ISSN 0898-1221.